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CLEMSON / Biology / BIOL 1040 / What do you mean by stimulus?

What do you mean by stimulus?

What do you mean by stimulus?

Description

School: Clemson University
Department: Biology
Course: General Biology II
Professor: William surver
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Bio, BIOL, BIO 1040, BIOL 1040, and Biology
Cost: Free
Name: BIO 1040 Week 2 notes
Description: These notes will be on Exam 1
Uploaded: 01/23/2016
11 Pages 204 Views 0 Unlocks
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Resting PotentialIf you want to learn more check out What is prescription?

Outside neuron: more positive charges

Action Potential

  • A stimulus is any factor that causes a nerve signal to be generated
  • A stimulus:
  • Alters the permeability of a portion of the neuron membrane
  • Allows ions to pass through
  • Changes the membranes voltage
  • A nerve signal, action potential is:
  • A change in the membrane voltage from the resting potential to a maximum level and back to the resting potential

Lecture 8aWe also discuss several other topics like How can we determine if five month old infants understand math?

Neuron - functional cell in nervous system

        Don't forget about the age old question of How much energy for temp?
If you want to learn more check out Why did people migrate to the Americas during the pre-colombian societies?

Structures of the Nervous system

  • Glial cells support neurons and maintain their environment
  • Glial cells of the central nervous system include:
  • Oligodendrocytes = form myelin sheath around axons
  • Astrocytes = provides nutrients to neurons, maintain their extracellular environment, and provide structural support
  • Microglial cells - scavenge pathogens and dead cells
  • Ependymal cells - produce cerebrospinal fluid that cushions the neurons
  • Glial cells of the peripheral nervous system include:
  • Schwann cells - form myelin sheath
  • Satellite cells - provide nutrients and structural support to neurons
  • Simple reflex arc = demonstrate relationship between neurons and nervous system structure and function

We also discuss several other topics like What refers to the amount of a good that buyers are willing and able to purchase?

Neuron Function

  • Resting potential = not conducting an impulse, in cell membrane is relatively negative compared to the outside charge
  • Action Potential = a momentary change in electrical potential on the surface of a neuron or muscle cell
  • Threshold: the point of depolarization at which the neuron fires, transmitting information to another neuron
  • Depolarization: sudden change in the cell, during which the cell undergoes a dramatic electrical change, sodium ion channels open
  • Repolarization: sodium ion channels close, potassium channels open; resting potential is achieved again
  • Hyperpolar action: when resting potential is exceeded and the new cell potential becomes more negative than the resting potential; reestablished by the closing of all ion channels and activity of sodium potassium pump
  • Propagated (to travel through something) to synapse which is the gap between the neuron to another where info is being transmitted
  • Nervous Systems have to main anatomical divisions
  • The central nervous system (CNS)
  • Brain and spinal cord (vertebrae)
  • The peripheral nervous system (PNS)
  • Located outside CNS
  • Consists of:
  • Nerves (bundles of neurons wrapped in connective tissue)
  • Ganglia clusters of cell bodies
  • The nervous system
  • Obtains sensory information (sensory input)
  • Processes sensory information (integration)
  • Sends commands to effector cells (muscles and glands) that carry out appropriate responses (motor output)

  • Sensory Neurons = convey signals from sensory receptors to CNS
  • Interneurons = located CNS, integrate information and send it to the motor neurons
  • Motor Neurons (convey signals to effector cells)

  1. Resting state = voltage - gated Na+ and K+ channels are closed; resting potential is maintained by ungated channels
  2. A stimulus opens some Na+ channels; if threshold is reached, on action potential is triggered
  3. Additional Na+ channels open, K+ channels are closed; interior of cell becomes more positive
  4. Na+ channels close and inactivate; K+ channels open and K+ rushes out; interior of cell is more negative than outside
  5. The K+ channels close relatively slowly, causing a brief undershoot, (refractory period and cannot fire)
  6. Return to resting state

Don't forget about the age old question of What are the differences of the Feminist and Political Theory?

Note : in order for a neutron to be stimulated it must be at resting potential. When stimulus is received, it becomes depolarized and action potential occurs. Once action potential is divided it is propagated down the neuron,

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