Exam 1 Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sami Schultz on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to exp3604c at Florida State University taught by Dr Jong-Sung Yoon in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 172 views.
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Date Created: 01/23/16
Objectives: Chapter 1 1. What is Cognitive Psychology? What is Cognition and Cognitive approach? Cognitive Psychology study of cognition (acquisition, storage, transformation and use of knowledge) o Investigates mental processes that give rise to our perception and interpretation of the world around us Cognitive approach a theoretical orientation that emphasizes people’s thoughts and their knowledge CognitionAcquisition, storage, transformation, and a use of knowledge 2. Why should learn about cognition (cognitive psychology)? Cognition occupies a major portion of human psychology. Cognitive psychology provides an "owner's manual" for your mind. Understanding cognition is to understand the abiities that provide you with a rich internal mental life (better understanding of how your mind works) 3. How Cognitive Psychology can be applied to study of other psychological area (e.g. Clinical Psychology) Clinical and Counseling Psychology o Research & treatment of behavioral disorders o e.g., studying behavioral or pharmacological interventions for depression, ADHD, anorexia, etc 4. What are the origins of cognitive psychology? Structuralism & functionalism then behaviorism and finally the cognitive revolution in the fifties 4.1 Know structuralism and functionalism. How do they differ from each other? Who were key figures in each movement? Know introspection and its limitation? Structuralism (asks what) o Founded by Edward Titchener o Titchener aimed to discover the structural elements of the mind o Engaged people in selfreflective introspection Introspection looking inward to report elements of their experience Functionalism (asks why) o Founded by William James o James strove to understand the adaptive purposes, or functions, of psychological characteristics, such as thoughts, feelings, and behaviors o Functionalism focused on “how our mental and behavioral processes function—how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish 4.2 Know why the behaviorists sought to change the focus of psychological research. Psychology should be the science of behavior not of the mind Science should be rooted in observation Rejected the cognitive revolution 4.3Know what the cognitive revolution (beginning around the 1950s – 1960s) reintroduced to psychology. Mental processes 4.4Know some important figures and what they did Jean Piaget: Children’s thought process Noam Chomsky: Linguistics Ulric Neisser: the first person to use the term Cognitive Psychology Watson, Skinner (The Skinner Box) 5. How does cognitive psychology differ from other areas of psychology? Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes including memory, perception, language, learning and thinking Developmental psych studies lifespan changes in behavior Neuroscience studies how the brain and body enable emotions, memories and sensory functions, Social psych is the study of individuals in groups and social phenomenon Personality psych studies individuality and prediction of behavior Clinical and counseling psych is the research and treatment of behavioral disorders Objectives: Chapter 2 6. Know sensation and perception, and be able to differentiate between the two. Sensation is the detection of physical energy by sense organs o Detecting and encoding of sensory information Perception is the interpretation of raw sensory inputs o 1.1 Know Sensory Memory too. Particularly, Iconic memory and Echoic memory Sensory memory extremely brief sensory activation o Iconic memory visual o Echoic memory auditory 1.2 Where’s the primary visual cortex? The back of the occipital lobe of the brain 7. Know Gestalt Psychology (Principles) in Visual Perception Our brains do more than register information about the world, we perceive objects as wholes, within their overall context Illusory ContoursOur brains often provide missing information Figure ground we filter how we attend to sensory information o The organization of the visual field into objects that stand out from their surroundings o You either see wolverine or two batmen 8. Know theories of objects recognition: Template, Featureanalysis, Recognition by components Template theory our visual system compares a stimulus with a set of templated or specific patterns stored in your memory o Example: different font of the word “cognitive psychology” Featureanalysis theory a visual stimulus composed of a small number of a distinctive feature o Example the letter R has a curved component, vertical line and a diagonal line o Limitations complex shapes in nature, context and distortion of features with movement Context effect a given stimulus may trigger different perceptions based on context Recognition by components theory o Irving Biederman A visual object can be represented as an arrangement of simple 3D shapes (geons) 9. Know bottomup and topdown processing in visual perception and differences between them Bottomup processes o Sensory detection and encoding; construction of whole from parts o Environment analyzed into visual features, build up into objects o Begins with sensory detection and encoding Top down processes o Conceptually driven organization and interpretation of information o Experiences and expectations o Knowledge guides perception o Begins with organization and interpretation 41 What’s the wordsuperiority effect? We can identify a single letter more rapidly and accurately when it appears in a meaningful word than when it appears in meaningless context; ex: pnla vs plan 10.Know inattentional and change blindness, and differences between them Inattentional blindness o Failure to notice that a new object has appeared because attention if focused elsewhere (ex; gorilla video from class) o Top down factors: goals and intentions Primary task difficulty Features of attended vs. ignored objects o Bottom up: stimulus properties Unique of distinct objects/events Change blindness o Failure to notice something has changed from the way it was before 11.Know McGurk effect When visual information influences auditory perception Principle that one sensory system may affect another Objectives: Chapter 3 1. Know attention and how attention can be explained by topdown and bottomup processing Attention o A concentration of mental activity using several cognitive processes o Allows you to process selective aspects of your sensory world o Spotlight metaphor o Top down: attention can be directed to relevant objects and locations o Bottom up: unique or distinct objects or events can capture our attention 2. Know divided attention and selective attention, and be able to differentiate between the two. Divided attention o Trying to multitask and attend to more than two stimuli Selective attention o Try to attend to certain info and ignore the other information 3. Know dichotic listening task and the cocktail party effect. Dichotic listening hearing a different message in each ear, but only attending to one o (Unattended message: don’t notice language change, do notice speaker gender change, do notice their name 2/3 of time) Cocktail party effect when you are attending to a conversation, but you notice your name being mentioned in a nearby conversation 4. Know Stroop effect and why it is associated with selective attention. And how automatic vs. controlled process framework can explain Stroop effect? Stroop effect reading a color when the font is a different color than the word (RED) Word reading is automatic process Color naming is a controlled process 5. Know the featurepresent and the featureabsent effect. Be able to differentiate them (Try to understand them by thinking some examples) The feature present effect: the item captures your attention automatically Feature absent effect: search time increases as irrelevant items increases examines every item, one at a time until you find target 6. Know Bottleneck theory of attention and its limitation Narrow passageways limits amount of information we can attend to While one information is flowing through the bottleneck, the other info is left behind 7. Know the isolatedfeature effect & the combinedfeature effect Isolated figure effect: automatic, easy, like finding the green circle in a group of yellow circles Combined feature effect: two features are combined, finding a green circle among the green squares 8. Know Feature Integration theory and how it explains the isolatedfeature effect and the combinedfeature effect FeatureIntegration Theory Developed by Anne Treisman (1980). States that our attention can fall between focused and distributed attention. o Distributed Attn Registers features automatically, using parallel processing. o Focused Attn Requires serial processing
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