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Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Sami Schultz

Exam 1 Study Guide exp3604c

Marketplace > Florida State University > exp3604c > Exam 1 Study Guide
Sami Schultz
GPA 3.3

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About this Document

This study guide covers all of the learning objectives for the three chapters on exam 1
Cognitive psychology
Dr Jong-Sung Yoon
Study Guide
cognitive psychology; perception; cognition
50 ?




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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sami Schultz on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to exp3604c at Florida State University taught by Dr Jong-Sung Yoon in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 172 views.


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Date Created: 01/23/16
Objectives: Chapter 1 1. What is Cognitive Psychology? What is Cognition and Cognitive approach?  Cognitive Psychology­ study of cognition (acquisition, storage, transformation  and use of knowledge)  o Investigates mental processes that give rise to our perception and  interpretation of the world around us  Cognitive approach­ a theoretical orientation that emphasizes people’s thoughts  and their knowledge   Cognition­Acquisition, storage, transformation, and a use of knowledge 2. Why should learn about cognition (cognitive psychology)?  Cognition occupies a major portion of human psychology.  Cognitive psychology provides an "owner's manual" for your mind.  Understanding cognition is to understand the abiities that provide  you with a rich internal mental life (better understanding of how your  mind works) 3. How Cognitive Psychology can be applied to study of other psychological area  (e.g. Clinical Psychology)  Clinical and Counseling Psychology o Research & treatment of behavioral disorders o e.g., studying behavioral or pharmacological interventions for  depression, ADHD, anorexia, etc  4. What are the origins of cognitive psychology? Structuralism & functionalism  then behaviorism and finally the cognitive revolution in the fifties  4.1 Know structuralism and functionalism. How do they differ from each other?  Who were key figures in each movement? Know introspection and its limitation?  Structuralism (asks what) o Founded by Edward Titchener o Titchener aimed to discover the structural elements of  the mind o Engaged people in self­reflective introspection  Introspection­ looking inward to report elements  of their experience   Functionalism (asks why) o Founded by William James o James strove to understand the adaptive purposes, or  functions, of psychological characteristics, such as  thoughts, feelings, and behaviors  o Functionalism focused on “how our mental and  behavioral processes function—how they enable us to  adapt, survive, and flourish  4.2 Know why the behaviorists sought to change the focus of psychological  research.   Psychology should be the science of behavior not of the mind  Science should be rooted in observation   Rejected the cognitive revolution 4.3Know what the cognitive revolution (beginning around the 1950s – 1960s)  reintroduced to psychology.   Mental processes  4.4Know some important figures and what they did  Jean Piaget: Children’s thought process  Noam Chomsky: Linguistics   Ulric Neisser: the first person to use the term Cognitive  Psychology  Watson, Skinner (The Skinner Box)   5. How does cognitive psychology differ from other areas of psychology?  Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes including memory,  perception, language, learning and thinking  Developmental psych studies lifespan changes in behavior  Neuroscience studies how the brain and body enable emotions, memories  and sensory functions,  Social psych is the study of individuals in groups and social phenomenon   Personality psych studies individuality and prediction of behavior  Clinical and counseling psych is the research and treatment of behavioral  disorders Objectives: Chapter 2 6. Know sensation and perception, and be able to differentiate between the two.  Sensation is the detection of physical energy by sense organs o Detecting and encoding of sensory information  Perception is the interpretation of raw sensory inputs  o 1.1 Know Sensory Memory too. Particularly, Iconic memory and Echoic memory  Sensory memory­ extremely brief sensory activation o Iconic memory­ visual o    Echoic memory­ auditory 1.2 Where’s the primary visual cortex?  The back of the occipital lobe of the brain 7. Know Gestalt Psychology (Principles) in Visual Perception  Our brains do more than register information about the world, we  perceive objects as wholes, within their overall context  Illusory Contours­Our brains often provide missing information  Figure ground­ we filter how we attend to sensory information o The organization of the visual field into objects that stand out  from their surroundings  o You either see wolverine or two batmen 8. Know theories of objects recognition: Template, Feature­analysis, Recognition by components  Template theory­ our visual system compares a stimulus with a set  of templated or specific patterns stored in your memory o Example: different font of the word “cognitive psychology”  Feature­analysis theory­ a visual stimulus composed of a small  number of a distinctive feature  o Example the letter R­ has a curved component, vertical line  and a diagonal line  o Limitations­ complex shapes in nature, context and distortion  of features with movement   Context effect­ a given stimulus may trigger different perceptions  based on context  Recognition by components theory o Irving Biederman  A visual object can be represented as an arrangement of simple 3­D shapes (geons)  9. Know bottom­up and top­down processing in visual perception and differences  between them  Bottom­up processes­  o Sensory detection and encoding; construction of whole from  parts o Environment analyzed into visual features, build up into  objects o Begins with sensory detection and encoding  Top down processes­  o Conceptually­ driven organization and interpretation of  information o Experiences and expectations  o Knowledge guides perception  o Begins with organization and interpretation  4­1 What’s the word­superiority effect? We can identify a single letter more  rapidly and accurately when it appears in a meaningful word than when it  appears in meaningless context; ex: pnla vs plan 10.Know inattentional and change blindness, and differences between them  Inattentional blindness o Failure to notice that a new object has appeared because  attention if focused elsewhere (ex; gorilla video from class) o Top down factors: goals and intentions  Primary task difficulty  Features of attended vs. ignored objects o Bottom up: stimulus properties  Unique of distinct objects/events  Change blindness  o Failure to notice something has changed from the way it was  before   11.Know McGurk effect  When visual information influences auditory perception  Principle that one sensory system may affect another  Objectives: Chapter 3 1. Know attention and how attention can be explained by top­down and bottom­up  processing  Attention o A concentration of mental activity using several cognitive  processes o Allows you to process selective aspects of your sensory world o Spotlight metaphor  o Top down: attention can be directed to relevant objects and  locations o Bottom up: unique or distinct objects or events can capture  our attention  2. Know divided attention and selective attention, and be able to differentiate  between the two.  Divided attention o Trying to multitask and attend to more than two stimuli  Selective attention  o Try to attend to certain info and ignore the other information  3. Know dichotic listening task and the cocktail party effect.    Dichotic listening­ hearing a different message in each ear, but only  attending to one  o (Unattended message: don’t notice language change, do  notice speaker gender change, do notice their name 2/3 of  time)  Cocktail party effect­ when you are attending to a conversation, but  you notice your name being mentioned in a nearby  conversation  4. Know Stroop effect and why it is associated with selective attention. And how  automatic vs. controlled process framework can explain Stroop effect?  Stroop effect­ reading a color when the font is a different color than  the word (RED)   Word reading is automatic process  Color naming is a controlled process  5. Know the feature­present and the feature­absent effect. Be able to differentiate  them (Try to understand them by thinking some examples)  The feature present effect: the item captures your attention  automatically  Feature absent effect: search time increases as irrelevant items  increases examines every item, one at a time until you find target  6. Know Bottle­neck theory of attention and its limitation  Narrow passageways limits amount of information we can attend to  While one information is flowing through the bottleneck, the other  info is left behind 7. Know the isolated­feature effect & the combined­feature effect  Isolated figure effect: automatic, easy, like finding the green circle in  a group of yellow circles   Combined feature effect: two features are combined, finding a green  circle among the green squares 8.  Know Feature Integration theory and how it explains the isolated­feature effect  and the combined­feature effect  Feature­Integration Theory­ Developed by Anne Treisman (1980).  States that our attention can fall between focused and distributed  attention.  o Distributed Attn­ Registers features automatically, using  parallel processing. o Focused Attn­ Requires serial processing 


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