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UCONN - PNB 3260 - Class Notes - Week 1

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UCONN - PNB 3260 - Class Notes - Week 1

School: University of Connecticut
Department: Physiology
Course: Stem Cell Biology
Professor: Conover
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Stem Cell Biology
Name: PNB 3260 Lecture Notes
Description: Week One Notes
Uploaded: 01/24/2016
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background image   PNB 3260 Stem Cell Biology   Week 1 Notes  Lecture 1 January 19, 2016  Stem cells can self renew -->committed cell -->differentiated cells 
Many diseases involve the inappropriate death of cells  
  Example: Parkinson’s Disease ~1 million new cases a year, very prevalent in U.S.    Example: Type I Diabetes (About 10% of diabetes patients), expensive treatment    Example: Heart disease affects tens of millions in the U.S. and leads to millions of 
fatalities 
Stem cells      Helpful for novel drug based therapies     Learning about disease  Applications of stem cells  1.  Replace cells lost to degenerative disease. 
2.  Patient-specific stem cells can be used to screen for therapies & understand disease 
etiology.  3.  Understand the role of stem cells in cancer progression.   Ethical questions    Should surplus embryos be used?    Is "destroying" embryos  to make cell line ethically okay?    Controversy about human-animal chimera - effects on the brain of the animal when 
human brain cells are transplanted 
  Debates and discussions may thwart advances in stem cell research    Lecture 2 January 21, 2016  Fundamentals of Developmental and Stem Cell Biology: Patterning in the embryo 
After fertilization of oocyte there is surrounding zona pellucida  
  it's an extracellular matrix material that doesn't grow in size    cell eventually becomes primarily nucleus and less cytoplasm     reason for zona pellucida:   restriction of additional sperm entering    activated when sperm penetrates  keeps it's own distinct formation    compaction stage is when there is junction and connection between 
cells - not as loose - this stage could be differentiated with a cell 
membrane marker 
important for attachment    "hatching" when embryo breaks through zone pellucida    then embryo can implant in the embryo wall - don't want embryo to 
break out before this because it will lead to ectopic pregnancy in 
fallopian tube  Blastocyst    cells pressed to one side and there is a fluid filled cavity     Trophoblast: the outer cells that will form placenta and umbilical cord    Embryoblast: the inner cells (2 kinds) one form endoderm   includes the inner cell mass (ICM) that will form embryo    primitive endoderm will be yolk sac    remainder will be epiblast cells    location/positioning will distinguish future function    then forms into gastrula    7 days in humans   
background image Gastrula    amionic next to embryo    ectoderm, medoderm, endoderm, germ cells    inserts into uterine wall and expands  Hypoblast is the primitive endoderm (aka yolk sac)  Stem cell therapy    remove trophoblasts and culture them to be self renewing and pluripotent then give  them different things to induce differentiation     mouse cultures don't work for humans   Growth factor conditions promote different stem cell lines from early mouse and human embryos  
"Passages" means division so many times then you must split the plates 
FGF and activin needed for ESCs in humans and not mice 
EpiSCs = embryonic stem cells    already primed and set to their eventual fates/differentiation  ESCs (embryonic stem cells)    not primed     primed and naive stem cells    inhibit FGF and GSK3 to make naive ESCs  completely undetermined state  want to take EpiSCs to Naive ESCs to be at full capacity  Cellular development potential    Totipotent - can make the entire organism - includes cells created from the very first  divisions after fertilization     Pluripotent - able to form complete embryo (all 3 germ layers)    Multipotent - able to form various cell types, but usually only from one germ layer  Pluripotency    Examples:  Morula  inner cell mass  epiblast  primordial germ cells  germline stem cells    Somatic cells need the activation of a transcriptional regulatory network (NANOG, SOX2,  OCT4, TCF3 and others )  nuclear transfer  direct reprogramming    derivation of pluripotent stem cells    won't get pluripotent cells after the epiblast  Gastrulation and Germ layers    ectoderm, medoderm, endoderm    crest (blastopore lip) form directly across from where sperm penetrates    time where all the cells are migrating    start forming 3 layers    ectoderm - skin, PNS and CNS, neural tube and somites forming    medoderm - muscle, connective tissue, blood, bone    endoderm - gut and respiratory system, relies on mesoderm    each layer influences the other layers  Germ layers    ectoderm --> epidermis and nervous system    medoderm --> bones, muscle, connective tissues, blood tissues    endoderm --> gut epithelium and respiratory system  Functional Criteria for Pluripotent Stem cells    in vitro differentiation to all 3 germ lineages or remain as stem cells 

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School: University of Connecticut
Department: Physiology
Course: Stem Cell Biology
Professor: Conover
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Stem Cell Biology
Name: PNB 3260 Lecture Notes
Description: Week One Notes
Uploaded: 01/24/2016
3 Pages 15 Views 12 Unlocks
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