Chapter 38 biology 274 Fall 2015
Chapter 38 biology 274 Fall 2015 Bio 274
Cal State Fullerton
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Date Created: 01/23/16
From Questonill here does the mass of a growing plant com 39 Hypothesis The mass of a growing pliant comes from soil Alternate hypothesis The mass does not come from the soil Experimental setup l f l Sllb willow 200 lb seliilll Day 1 km sap ng 1 Measure the weight all a Plant the sapling willow sapling and a large and allllow it tn grow r amount of soil for 5 years 5 1i cal5i malllat Prediction After 5 years the soil mass will decrease by the same amoui lt E that the plant mass increased Predictian at altemnmte hypothesis The soil mass will not decrease Figure Elli39r ll part1 Biological Scienlcewiie It 2035 Pearson Prentice Hall Int 0 17 essential nutrients for vascular plant 3 carbon oxygen hydrogen make up 96 dry weight of the plant 0 Other 14 nutrients are sometimes referred to as mineral nutrients Essential nutrient required for normal growth and reproduction Required for speci c structure or metabolic function 0 ask are nutrients from soilwater or carbon dioxide Next is is a micro or macro nutrient Macro needed in large amounts Often limiting nutrient like N P K Micro needed in small amounts 0 Table 381 0 some nutrients are mobile NPKMg moving from older to younger So when plants are in short supplies of these mobile nutrients it goes to to young leaves D 0 non mobile ironcalcium stay quot tied upquot in older leaves Hydroponic growth used to help determine what happens when plant are de cient in certain nutrient NO soil only liquid cultures Wind Freeeingl Wafer Grg l i ms and train plants lichens thawing mess llu nlgli H battenTa erclhaea Fig Litre 334 BiellegiIzall Rimes lie It was Hearse Prentice Halli lmi39 Weathering of solid rock and cracks form where plants are then able to grow furthering breaking down the rock since expanding Which leads to A gravel B clay C sand D silt Then organisms occupy this substrate leaving feces dead cells humus Soils are important to plants for nutrient delivery and xchgange system nutrient recycling system waste disposal system ll Humus contains a high density of l diverse ergalnisms including plant39s animalgfungi pretlists bacteria and archaea Sail depth cm hull U11 Ilia Iiil 391 atnre attests the ability at rnets tn penetrate nnlnre deeply t stain water and nutrients as W EH as te aneher anti supper e beds Fer E r lpl t sail that is derninateri by allaysee trtieles tends ta entripaet and resist rnet penetratinn ratnre affects a seillis ability tel held water and make it avail tl tn plants water tends te adhere tn Isiahr and silt partiale it runs thrnngb sand and gravel seilz39s teatnre and water enntent dietate the aftr alilabilitjir i ygeni Lilte nth er enkaryetes plants have be take in naygen t e as an elleet rn n aeeepter during Cellular respiratieni Th gen nserll plant rent eellls is fennel in air peekets artien il partieles This eaplains why nutterwatering a plant is a itrirnental as nnderwatering it Otterwatering drewns ant s restts loam soil is the perfect soil with just enough of each substrate and humus 0 Anions react with water via hydrogen bonding aka they are more soluble in water except for Phosphate Ca or Fe or Al so the plants can easily access them However since so soluble in water they go where water goes can be lost via leaching quotis the loss or extraction of certain materials from a carrier into a liquid usually but not always a solvent 0 Cations can be dissolved into water but not as solul Emitting ey interact with egam react with organic matter and clay elitistgee en the eurfeee atquot retest L l l ll ll 9 Nutrient Ani ene are metly in EDIILllltl nl in zeeil ta Clay partelee arts erg matter are negati st enamel and hall ti l l in the Veil J Eandgrein w E an niene UEluElilly dtss elu e in seil water quottinesIr are readily evei lenllle fer abeerptitn by reet hetre 1391 Ei lm lkj I Not all plants require the same ph level in its soil environment most prefer ph between 67 An acidic environment allows for better uptake of cations because of cation exchange But don t necessarily need an acidic environment for this to happen Plants can release C02 into aka water and it reacts with water releasing a proton Cation exchange displacement of cation like Mg and Ca from soil particle by protons present in the acidic soil This releases the targeted cations which are then available for uptake by plants There is a risk to this because now the cations can be lost to leaching a Cetien exchange releases nutrients b whieh are sheerbed by rests lay er ergsnie matter A Released lPretens in millimeter f ginlutrilents i i if i x 1F it h39Q if 7 4T 7391 A e f39 la z 39 T hair Root hairs grow in the quotzone of maturationquot on the plants aka above the growing tip There root hairs grow off from it and are very ef cient at absorbing nutrients Since they are tiny and ne so have a large surface area to volume Increase surface area fer abs erptien of nutrients and water A How to bring cations into the root hair cells at hair 5 TE tside cell it positive charge aide cell tnega ve marge on the root hair cellmembrane it is full of numerous membrane proteins but requires energy to import the ions Nutrient concentrations in roots are typically much higher than in the soil SOO nutrients have to be transported against a concentration gradient Which is why need energy which is provided by proton pumps I How to establish the proton gradient that will allow ions to pass through the plant hairs cell membranes Proton pumps HATPase reacts reacts with the phosphate group in ATP leading to conformational change in the proton pump When this change occurs brings H ions outside of the cell so then there is a higher concentration of H on the outside compared to inside Keep in mind still have the anions NO3 and OH so then there is a membrane potential diff in electrical charge across a membrane outside inside This creates a potential energy that is known as voltage To determine if there is a membrane potential have to look at the inside of the cell compared to the outside a Ff Ull39Ullll PHITMPE EELEILUIIEH Elllll ezleotrnohen39lioal gradient 141 H H P403 H I H4 Proton H 7 39 V II Fl lj39 ah J 7 r Jquot 54 22 1 if 39vvl ALVA 92167 If 5 it ill ll illfl Allflhl might l l 391 ll ill lrlilillllu ll ill in i J 311 431 J39 Ai iiii4it H l ATP APPi ND W on Eli 1 H quot EllE Nu 1D 39LJElLIU39llEa E39llll39l ll llUUlL ll llf VlIEll nhannels llllt 39 r W H HT rain lit Ht HRH l A H tallll wiglfllhi ill lrllll lllllllllll I LightIi tail397 39 H Ell 1 ATP NE B How to bring cations into the root hair cells HillUllll EllLEI39 I39U39UL Illlizllll a VIE ontranstimtere H H H HUIf H Eotrarls quot j porter m w s 16 HM will llll ll ll llllslllllsl in al wkquot L 7 tillll 39 ENH f7 A39ll39lP EDP Pi DHquot Hi All of the above allowed the cations to come into the cell despite the cell having a larger concentration of cations The membrane potential allowed it to overcome the concentration gradient C How to bring anions into the root hair cells A cotransporter speci cally a symporter allows anions to be brought in against their concentration gradient oohh can relate this back to chp 37 since yes nally in the cell but how will it make its way to the vascular tissue the ways the ions are transported one of the 3 ways to and through casparian strip Nutrient transfer via mycorrhizal fungi Mycorrhizae fungi that have mutualistic relationship with vascular plants aka they interact at the plants roots sharing nutrients that each desperately needs Plants get nitrogen from the mycorrhizae Plant Nutrient Symbieses Ectemycoirrhlizal fungi EM F occur in trees and shrubs of temperate and ibereali regions They up iN Ettemycerrhizel fungi EMF form sheaths amend rents and penetrate between rent cells 39 i vie 39 Hyphee exteindl eutwerd quot 39 inte the sail Hypllnee term a I denseeentinueus 39 sheath ereund reet p Hypha e extend i inwasrclilbetween cellls trees erection ef plant feet Figure ill 1a Eieleg ltal Etienne 1339 IE Ii Peemsen iFirentite Hall line Arbueculer mycorrhizal fungi AW Occur in mast other plants and talkie up N and p Arbuscullar mycerrhizel fungi EMF centect the plasma membranes ef reel cellist tr Hyphee Extend exutwairdl inte F the seiill Hyphee extend inward penetrate eel wellltend entee x quotH quot plasma membrane Cmss seetiien elf plant ireet Figure jElei it Einlegital E i ug y fe ems Penman sFmentite Hail line Why are fungi good enough to have a mutualistic relationship with vascular plants Jl llquot4l lquot lr39UJJllIJ U1 lulluillllLJIIJLUHO llfyllu39h lll39hJIlLILIJIJL L111 OLlllJJI lLL ElliIi available for absorbing nutrients by up tn 70 percent Fungi synthesize and secrete digestive enzymes that brssll clown deed plant material and ether sources of nutrients re leasing ions that can be absorbed and used by the fungus it new nr 111 it nimnt nantrier Mechanisms of Ion exclusion Either it s directly harmful to the plant or too much of an ionnutrient like sodium is also harmful Passive exclusion So remember there s 3 ways which nutrientsions can travel through the plants cortex to vascular tissue However sometimes Trans and symp are not possible for ions because the cells in the cortex do not have membrane channel proteins which they can travel through Nutrients that travel to through apoplastic way may be able to go through the cortex but once hits the casparian strip the endodermal cell which it must pass through well through its cell wall it may not have the transporters or channels included Also occurs at the root hairs if doesn t have the protein membrane for the ion EXCLUDED Tine Endodermis amp Caparian Strip in the apoplast transport of tuxine or unwanted inns ml quot0395 be Cfomm39m Some ions are passivelyF excluded from J L entering the eymiplest nthere enter freelyr i 13 39 v Ti 3 i Tl Edge u 7 I a Fifi I a 1 H H l i i i l i l l39 H i shuns illJWW ill 3 l39lllglll Nll l lllllllill l ll ill l I r quot quot in F 7 J t quot f i K Endodermis Casparian strip Plasma membrane of fairness water 8 eelutee endgdermall gens tel enter the eymiplast Active exclusion 0 Once toxins inside cell oh no but have metallothioneins can come in bind to metal ions and prevent them from acting as poison And to produce this protein required energy 0 Proteins in tonoplast membrane surrounding vacuole allows plants to actively remove toxic substances from cytosol and store vacuoles Does so via look at diagram below rs in the tonoplast a In the tenepllaet antiperbara send Hl nut Ind He in quot Uee aaeuele te atere t KllI llE H W W a i I llquotr H i R Eatample S dlltli l a Illl H 3 H i a 4 Fretea l w R HU a Na ateretl m the aaeuele nwmp H Hit if Emma quot Elleetreehetnieal gradient eel up a s 7 T V a a Mime lua l ll lllii Am by pr t i pump a wharf Wkly amp M v v r a ll llll illl lilll llllil l v lllll ll r l a paaaea threughatltlperter E gag 1 g Ceald he need te deaelep aallt E DH DH mix It teletamt etapa AlfF mm Pi 3H 3 Halquot F i39 H int iquot39 H HI Hr HE m39li E b li iii 3 traaefermed aatipetter preaeat untraaefettned Jae aatiperter Nitrogen Fixation 80 atmosphere is made up of N however it s in a gaseous form which most animals or I will say organisms like plants can t take in this way However bacteria can since they can perform nitrogen xation which requires a lot of energy 0 We will look at the legume pea and Rhizobia bacteria 0 So the nodule structure on the plants root that contains the nitrogen fixating bacteria is where the rhizobia bacteria is held Rhizobia is responsible for enzyme nitrogenase the enzyme responsible for nitrogen xations Nodule also contains Leghemoglobin molecule Which is produced by the plant but only when colonization of the rhizobia happens Binds to oxygen which is important for the nitrogenase enzyme to function because oxygen renders the enzyme useless Keeps oxygen levels low enough for the nitrogenase and high enough for cellular respiration How do nitrogen xing bacteria colonize plants roots Roast lhair l i Faeoinaiel Rhiaabia Plants give the bacteria sugarprotection and bacteria give plants ammonia nitrogen is converted into ammonia But the bacteria requires a lot of sugar from that plant hence why there is strict regulation or else it can become like a parasite D I guess Infii El I First step Recognition i39 Plants secrete out avonoids that when they come into contact with rhizobia they react by producing nodfactors which bind the membrane proteins on the i E m surface of root hairs W 0 Recognition is unique for each plant i There are different avonoids and The bacterial cells eonteet the rootheir surface Rhizobie begin to ninltiphr and move through an invaginajm 517 tion of the rootheir rnernbrene called an infection thread Fleawquot quot The infection thread extends toward the root invading the cortex Hianeliule e rottione or the inieeiion hiresin nun on running lltltflllllLJItlllltfzu a F bonncl Cloisters within cortex cello each lled with rhizobia L h 71 T 539 ii quoti 39 59quot i The infected cortex cells CliVlClE rapidly forming root nodu lesf39 i l r i 1 7 Diet5 quot y l39u w l 39 BI H m i I H E Iter ME 1 51 l l I i r I ll h it I E l la I V nod factors The interaction between rhizobia and legumes ie one of the TiUSli complete and be5tstndiecl of all mutualisnis so Vascular plants 80 nutrients taken from soil and mycorrhizae fungi 99 plants make their own energy x l IIHIFEETIi l 39f nITHnEnFlitme AETE 1 Flltmriain r allaaa by rat ll1atra attract rhizobia hlizabia Ir trlttn hair39s htzalbt priifana inaida range Itair rid cause an imfaattan tl to farm 3 lnfaatliaiin tiered FEWE into the aorta the rat ill Infeatliaun tiered Ia a releasing rlhizola inaida earlier calls 5 H adula Imagine to form from Partiallyr dividing agartan aalla Vascular plants 95 import nutrients from Epiphytic plants nonparasitic plant that grows on trees or other solid objects and it not rooted in soil on rainwater that end particles tint collect in titit lltlSlltS er l the retiree of Parasitic Plants eel lls Finite Title SlithS 5n Dillil llllti rugh phtosymhesi and tap the WIN of Other species f0 W1 and mmn 39 m1fri am 2 Carnivorous Plants
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