BIO 1230 Test #1 Study Guide
BIO 1230 Test #1 Study Guide BIO 123
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Abby Joannes on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 123 at Clemson University taught by Professor Minor in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 89 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Human Biology in Biology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 01/23/16
BIO 123 Test 1 Study Guide Relationship between form and function • The form of something is the structure or anatomy while the function is what the part does. Many times, the function depends on the particular form. Characteristics of life (seven characteristics) • Contain nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids • Composed of cells o Prokaryotic cells: structurally simple. Limited to bacteria and Achaea o Eukaryotic cells: contains membrane bound organelles. Have the ability to be large in size compared to prokaryotic organisms. • Grow and reproduce • Use energy and raw materials • Respond to their environment • Maintain homeostasis • Evolve and adapt o Note: this is not shown in just one single generation, but instead in a span of generations Biological Organization • Domains o Domain Bacteria § Unicellular prokaryotic organisms o Domain Archaea § Unicellular prokaryotic organisms; most live in extreme environments o Domain Eukarya § Eukaryotic cells that contain a membrane-bound nucleus and internal compartments § Contains 4 kingdoms: Protists, Fungi, Plants, Animals • Categories of Classification o Note- Genus and Species are italicized o Domain is the most inclusive, species are the most specific o Properties of Atoms • Definition: units of matter that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means • Subatomic particles include: protons (+1 charge), electrons (-1 charge), neutrons (no charge) • Isotopes: atoms that have the same number or protons but differ in the number of neutrons Types of Bonds • Covalent: sharing of electrons between atoms; can be equal or unequal. Strongest type of bond. • Ionic: transfer of electrons between atoms. Strong type of bond. • Hydrogen: attraction between a hydrogen atom with a slight positive charge and another atom (often O) with a slightly negative charge. Weak type of bond but still very beneficial to human life. Biomolecules • Synthesis: the way polymers form; the reaction that bonds one polymer to another releases a water molecule • Degradation: break down, the opposite of synthesis • Components of each biomolecule o Carbohydrates: monosacchariedes o Lipids: fatty acids o Proteins: amino acids o Nucleic Acids: nucleotides • Types of biomolecules and their functions o Carbohydrates: sugars and starches, provide fuel for the human body, short term storagwe o Lipids: fats, long term energy storage o Proteins: contribute to structural support, transport, movement, and regulation of chemical reactions o Nucleic acids: “struction set” Water • Needs o Debate about how much water a human needs to consume. Between drinking when thirsy or 64 oz/daily o Varies with activity amount • Properties o Liquid at room temperature o Universal solvent: many different solutes can be put into water used as the solvent. o Cohesive and adhesive o High specific heat o High heat of vaporization o Less dense in solid form than in liquid form pH • Definition: the measure of hydrogen ion concentration • Scale: ranges from 0 to 14 o 0-6: acidic (H+ concentrated) o 7: neutral (H+ & OH- is equal) o 8-14: basic (OH- concentrated) Membranes • Structure & function o Structure: lipids, proteins, carbohydrates. Hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails form double layer. Extracellular fluid surrounds the cell while the hydrophilic heads interact with the cytoplasm inside the cell. o Function: maintains the cell’s structural integrity. Regulates movement of substances in and out of cell. Provide recognition & communication between cells. Stick cells together to form tissues and organs. • Types of Transport o Passive transport types § Simple diffusion § Facilitated diffusion § Osmosis: diffusion with water involved o Active transport: requires energy. This type of transport typically moves from low to high concentrations Functions of Organelles • Lysosome: digests substances brought into the cell and destroys old parts of cell • Nucleus: contains DNA and controls cellular activity • Nucleolus: produces components of ribosomes (RNA and proteins) • Ribosome: site where protein synthesis begins • Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum: studded with ribosomes and produces membrane • Golgi complex: sorts, modifies, and packages proteins • Microfilament: plays a role in muscle contraction and cell division • Plasma membrane: regulates movement of materials into and out of cell • Vacuole: store & release various substances in the cell membrane • Centrioles: may function in cell division • Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum: detoxifies drugs and produces membrane • Microtubule: maintains cell shape and forms tracks on which vesicles move • Mitochondrion: provides cell with energy through the breakdown of glucose during cellular respiration • Cytoplasm: material surrounding the nucleus
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