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Date Created: 01/23/16
PHE 180 Final StudyGuide INFORMATION FROM EXAM ONE Morality in United States • Life expectancy for the U.S population in 2013 was unchanged from 2012 at 78.8 years. (both sexes) After the age 65, 19.3. • 10 Leading causes of death: 1. Heart Disease 2. Cancer 3. Chronic Lower Respiratory 4. Unintentional injuries 5. Stroke 6. Alzheimer’s Disease 7. Diabetes 8. Inﬂuenza & Pneumonia 9. Kidney Disease 10. Suicide Concept 1: Health, Wellness, Fitness & Healthy Lifestyles: An Introduction Concept 2: Self-Management and Self-Planning • Wellness Dimensions: 1. Spiritual 2. Social 3. Emotional-mental 4. Intellectual 5. Physical • FITT Principle: Frequency, Intensity, Time, Type • Skill-Related Physical Fitness: Agility, Balance, Coordination, Power, Reaction time, Speed • Health-Related Physical Fitness: Body Composition, Cardiovascular Fitness, Flexibility, Muscular Endurance, Strength • Help Philosophy: H: Health E: Everyone L: Lifetime P : Personal • Stages of Change:Maintenance : “I regularly practice healthy lifestyles.” Action: “ I have made some life-style changes.” Contemplation: “I am thinking about change.” Precontemplation: “I don't want to change.” PHE 180 Final StudyGuide • Healthy People 2020 is a comprehensive set of health promotion and disease prevention objectives with the primary intent of improving the nation’s health. -Quality of life -Prevention -Public awareness -Importance of environment. • Types of Resistance Training: - Isotonic (dynamic strength/ endurance) Concentric- Muscle shortens Eccentric- Muscle Lengthens Plyometrics- develop explosive power - Isometric (static strength) Ex. plank - Isokinetic (machine) • Illness: The ill feeling and/or symptoms associated with a disease or circumstances that upset homeostasis. • Wellness: The integration of many different components (social, emotional/mental, spiritual, and physical) that expands one’s potential to live (quality of life) and work effectively and to make a signiﬁcant contribution to society. Wellness reﬂects how one feels (a sense of well-being) about life, as well as one’s ability to function effectively. Wellness, as apposed to illness ( a negative), is sometimes described as the positive component of good health. • Quality of Life: A term used to describe wellness. An individual with quality of life can enjoyably do the activities of life with little or no limitation and can function independently. Individual quality of life requires a pleasant and supportive community. • SMART Goal : Speciﬁc, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, Timely • Classes of Nutrients: Carbs, Minerals, Fats, Proteins, Vitamins, Water • Carbs: 1. Simple: soda, candy, sweets; Individual glucose, sucrose, or fructose molecules; Increased blood sugar. 2. Complex: Pasta, Rice, Breads, Potatoes; Chains of glucose molecules • Fats: 1. Saturated: Animal sources, Solid at room temperature. 2. Unsaturated: Vegetable sources, Liquid at room temperatures • Vitamins: Antioxidants “All Stars” : Broccoli, Cantaloupe, Carrots, Strawberries, Red Bell peppers, sweet potatoes, spinach • Two Types of Vitamins: Fat Soluble (A, D, E, K) Water Soluble (B, C) • Calculating Maximum Heart Rate: 220-age • Calculating Target Heart Rate: ((220-age) x 0.5)) & ((220-age) x 0.7)) = (#-#) PHE 180 Final StudyGuide • How Long/ How many days? Moderate: 5 days a week 30 mins 50-70% Vigorous: 3 days a week 25 mins 70-85% • 2 Non-Performance components: Metabolic Fitness, Bone Integrity INFORMATION FROM EXAM TWO Stress • Step 1 in managing stress is to recognize the causes and to be aware of the symptoms. • Stressors: a source of cause of stress (vary in severity) • Types of Stressors: 1. Environmental 2.Physiological 3. Emotional* (psycho-social) • General Adaption Syndrome: -Alarm: Immune system is initially depressed (start sweating, etc.), -Resistance:body tries to cope with stressor -Exhaustion: body goes into breakdown mode • Responses to Stress: Physiological- Fatigue (headaches, indigestion, insomnia) ; Cognitive- Impair concentration/attention; Emotional- Anxiety/Apprehension; Behavioral- (Nail-biting, altered eating & sleeping habits, smoking, alcohol, drug use, less physical activity) • Stress-Prone Personalities: Type A (Time Urgency, Competitive, Anger & hostility) Type D- Distressed ( Negative emotions) Time Management • Types of Coping Strategies: 1. Appraisal-Focused: change the way you are thinking, seeing knowledge or practicing skills. 2. Emotion-Focused: most effective for uncontrollable stressors, relaxation techniques, physical activity, prayer. 3. Problem-Focused (most effective for controllable stressors) problem solving PHE 180 Final StudyGuide • Relaxation Techniques: 1. Reduce mental activity 2.Recognize tension 3. Reduce respiration The Use and Abuse of Tobacco Chemistry of Cigarette Smoke • Gaseous Phase(CO): Carbon monoxide released, shortness of breath, neonatal problems • Particulate Phase: Nicotine (increases CHD risks), Tar (increases cancer risks) • Second-Hand Smoke: Mainstream Smoke- smoke that is inhaled & exhaled Sidestream Smoke- unﬁltered smoke from burning tip of cigarette, Contains nicotine and 20-100x carcinogens as mainstream smoke. The Use and Abuse of Alcohol • One Drink: Beer: 5% alcohol X 12 oz = .48 oz alcohol Wine: 12% alcohol X 4 oz = .48 oz alcohol Whiskey: 40% alcohol X 1.25 oz = .5 oz alcohol • Factors Determining Effects: How much was consumed, rate of consumption, what is in stomach, other drugs/medications, context of drinking, etc. • BAC: Blood Alcohol Content legal limit is .08% • Health Consequences: Increased risk of cancer, impaired immune system, Memory & psychiatric disorders • College students drink more than the rest of society. The Use and Abuse of Drugs • Drugs: any substance (other than food) that alters structure or function in living organisms. • Psychoactive(mood altering) Drugs 1. Depressants 2. Opiate Narcotics 3. Stimulants 4. Hallucinogens 5. Marijuana PHE 180 Final StudyGuide 1. Depressants: Alcohol, tranquilizers, barbiturates, small doses slow HR & respiration, large doses dramatically depress HR & respiration enough to cause death 2. Opiate Narcotics: Heroin, Codeine, Morphine, Methadone/Suboxone, (smoked, injected, sniffed, or swallowed). 3. Stimulants: Nicotine, Caffeine 80% pop daily use, Cocaine—coke- powder form - Crack- rocklike form , amphetamines, Crystal methamphetamine (ICE) diet pills Consequences of Stimulant use: cocaine & methamphetamine( highly addictive) , Damage dopamine receptors, Short-and long-term health effects (stroke, respiratory problems, poor complexion, tooth loss, etc.) Decongestants- Pseudoephedrine 4. Hallacinogens (Psychedelics)- LCD, PCP(angel dust), Ectasy(MDMA) - “Molly”, Inhalants, Less-known drugs (shrooms, peyote cactus buttons) Inhalants: 1. Chemical Solvents ( glue, gasoline, paints, paint thinner, typewriter correction ﬂuid, lighter ﬂuid, shoe polish, liquid wax). 2. Aerosols ( hair spray, air fresheners, insect spray, spray paint). 3. Nitrites (Amyl nitrie, nitrous oxide-laughing gas- butyl nitrite -a room odorizer-) 5. Marijuana: Classiﬁed as a hallucinogenic, but its effects are less dramatic, THC- active ingredient, Most widely used illicit drug in the U.S. (pipe, joint, bong) Consequences: Physical health effects(CVD, lung cancer, stroke), Impaired cognitive abilities (deﬁcits in attention, learning & processing speed), Emotional Problems (panic attacks), Withdrawal symptoms( irritability, anxiety, sleep difﬁculties) 6. Designer Drugs: made in laboratories, have many of the same properties as the drugs they simulate (pain relievers, anesthetics, amphetamines) Bath salts, Ecstasy Oxycontin- hillbilly heroin, Vicodin- the most widely misused prescription narcotic in the U.S. Ritalin- to improve academic performance. Methadone, Valium, Xanx, Percoset, Accidental misuse Sexually Transmitted Infections • Types 1. Bacterial (curable with antibiotics) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Syphilis 2. Viral (no cure) HIV Gential Herpes HPV Hepatitis B PHE 180 Final StudyGuide • HIV/AIDS: Incidence increasing disproportionately among women & minorities. HIV attacks the immune system. AIDS is when infected with HIV and develop opportunistic diseases. • HIV transmission: 1. Sexual activity 2. Contact with infected blood (needle sharing) 3. Transmission from an infected mother to child. (breast milk) Spread by contact with body ﬂuids: blood, breast milk, semen, & vaginal ﬂuids • The most common STI : HPV (Human Papillomavirus) often not aware of infection, short term, RISK( causes genital warps, leading cause of cervical cancer) PREVENTION: Gardisil vaccination, • Most Commonly reported: CHLAMYDIA Most have no symptoms Men- penis discharge,burning sensation Women- same, plus lower ab or back pain intercourse pain, bleeding between periods. Treatment: Antibiotics • Gonorrhea: second most commonly reported STI. Symptoms occur within 3-7 days after bacteria enters. Antibiotics • Hepatitis B : spread through unprotected sex, IV drug use or mother> baby Symptoms: Jaundice, fatigue, ab pain, loss of appetite, nausea Risks: Chronic infection> liver disease> premature death Prevention: vaccine • Genital Herpes Among the most commonly spread due to lack of awareness of infection Cause: HSV Symptoms: Lesions/blister on penis vagina > last week-month Cure: none Risks: cervical cancer, transmission to unborn child Prevention: condom abstinence • Syphilis Less common now Cause: bacteria symptoms: chancre sores at site of sex contact Cure: antibiotics Risk:blindness, deadness Cancer, diabetes, Health Threats Causes of death in young adults: injuries, homocide, suicide, accidents, AIDS • PHE 180 Final StudyGuide • Benign: Non-cancerous cells Malignant: Cancerous cells • CANCER: 2nd leading cause of death. Lung ( #1 for both males & females) Prostate (#2 for males) Breast ( #2 for females) Colon ( #3 for both) • Nearly 65% of all cancers are attributable to or related to diet and tobacco. • Cancer/Moles A symmetry B order irregularity C olor D iameter ( > 1/4 inch) • Alcohol is “intimately associated” with the causes and severity of injuries. • Diabetes: A leading cause of morbidity and mortality. • Blood Glucose > 125 • Type 1: (Juvenile Onset) Pancreas fails to produce insulin Type 2: (Adult Onset) (95% of Diabetics) Lack of sensitivity to insulin. Often caused by obesity Carb-Loaded Video Notes • Diabetes: 7th leading cause of death in the U.S 8th leading cause of death world wide • 1/3 Children are Diabetic • By 2050, 1/3 americans will be diabetic and 1/2 americans will be obese. • Metabolic Syndrome- High blood pressure, etc. How did this happen— GMOS, pesticide, HFCS, heavy metals, Trans Fat, PORTION SIZE, 66% increase of plate size , 44% increase bread size from ﬁnal dinner Food Pyramid- Mid 20th century; Dr. Keys- K ration , the seven country study: highest rate of heart disease and diet, …. Food Desert: Urban neighborhood with no access to homegrown/ healthy foods. The Unconscious Mind: You eat 30% more when you're with someone else.. if you're with more than two you eat 90 % more PHE 180 Final StudyGuide
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