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Biology Lab

by: Carla Notetaker

Biology Lab Biology II Lab

Carla Notetaker

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The Cardiovascular System Study Guide.
Biology II Lab
Study Guide
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Carla Notetaker on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biology II Lab at University of Pittsburgh taught by in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Biology II Lab in Biology at University of Pittsburgh.


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Date Created: 01/24/16
Cardiovascular System Cadiovascular system: Important for regulation of heat, aids in protection (leukocytes), and important for transport and distributing of O and2CO . 2 Pump Heart Conducting System Blood vessels (for transport) Fluid medium Where the action occurs Primary function of circulatory systems is:  Transport necessary materials to all the cells of an animal’s body  Transport waste products away from the cells where they can be released into the environment 3 basic types:  Gastrovascular cavities - Body cavity with a single opening to the outside - Cnidarians (jellyfish/sea anemones/hydras) - Food is digested in the cavity and absorbed by body cells - Wastes are excreted into the cavity - All animal’s body cells are located near the cavity or slender extensions from it - Muscular efforts of the body wall increase effectiveness  Open systems - Arthropods(excluding octopus)/ some mollusks - Basic components  Hemolymph (spaces surrounding organs-Mixes directly with interstitial fluid)  Vessels  One or more very simplistic hearts - Vessels open into animal’s body cavity - Nutrients and waste exchanged by diffusion between hemolymph and body cells - Advantage: Metabolically inexpensive - As an animal’s activity increases, circulation becomes more efficient - Limitations – hemolymph cannot be selectively delivered to different tissues  Closed systems (eg Humans start at the heart and ends there) - Earthworms/ cephalopods/all vertebrates (no. of chambers differ) - Blood and interstitial fluid are physically separated by blood vessels (differ in components and chemical composition) - Larger, more active animals need a higher pressure to pump blood to all body cells Common features o Blood remains within vessels for distribution o One or more contractile, muscular hearts o Solutes exchanged with environment and body cells o Contains disease-fighting cells and molecules o Can be adjusted to match the animal’s metabolic demands (O2and glucose to make ATP) o Capacity to heal themselves when wounded (clots) o System grows in size as an animal grows Advantages: o Animal can grow larger with more efficient supply o Blood flow can be selectively controlled 2 major groups: o Single circulation – fish  Single atrium collects blood from tissues  Single ventricle pumps blood out of the heart  Arteries carry blood away from the heart to the gills  Blood picks up oxygen and drops off carbon dioxide and goes on through arteries to other body tissues  Delivers oxygen and nutrients, picks up carbon dioxide and waste products  Deoxygenated blood is returned by veins to the heart o Intermediate circulation- Amphibians/ most reptiles  Amphibians rely on lungs and highly permeable skin to obtain oxygen and get rid of carbon dioxide  Heart pumps blood to either  Pulmocutaneous circulation – respiratory surfaces of lungs and skin  Systemic circulation – body tissues  2 atria to collect blood Right atrium – blood from body/ low in oxygen (except oxygenated blood from skin) Left atrium – blood from lungs (oxygen rich when air breathing)  Both atria dump into single ventricle  Internal structure keeps 2 oxygenated and deoxygenated blood mostly separated  Some mixing does occur reducing efficiency  Noncrocodilian reptiles also have 2 atria and 1 ventricle (Ventricle partially divided – higher efficiency)  Both must use low or moderate pressure systems to minimize pressure flowing through lung tissue o Double circulation – crocodiles/ birds/ mammals  Oxygenated and deoxygenated blood separates into 2 distinct circuits  Systemic circulation – to the body  Pulmonary circulation – to the lungs  2 atria and 2 ventricles  Advantage: 2 different pressures in 2 different systems (needs more pressure to pump to body as opposed to lungs, low pressure in capillaries allow diffusion) Blood - Fluid connective tissue - Cells and cell fragments - Solution of water containing dissolved nutrients, proteins, gases, and other molecules - Components:  Plasma(45%) – water and solutes Functions in buffering, water balance and immune cell transport  Leukocytes(1%) – white blood cells Defend body against infection and disease  Erythrocytes(34%) – red blood cells Biconcave and no nucleus to increase surface area and pass easily through capillaries, have a definitive life span of 120 days. Oxygen transport using hemoglobin  Platelets or thrombocytes Role in formation of blood clots (fibrin precipitation) Vertebrate heart - Septum separates atria and ventricles - Blood enters from systemic or pulmonary veins into atrium - Through one-way atrioventricular (AV) valves into ventricles - Out one-way semilunar valves into aorta (systemic) or pulmonary arteries(aeortic and pulmonary valves) - Systematic circulation: Right side pumps deoxygenated blood to lungs Pulmonary circulation: Left side pumps oxygenated blood to body Red- Oxygenated Blue-Deoxygenated Myogenic hearts o Electrically self-excitable, generate own action potential Neurogenic hearts of arthropods require regular electrical impulses from the nervous system o Nervous input can increase or decrease rate o Sinoatrial node (SA) node – pacemaker Collection of modified cardiac cells that spontaneously and rhythmically generate action potentials o Action potential spreads because cardiac cells electrically coupled by gap junctions (syncytium) o Both atria contract together forcing blood through AV valves into ventricles o Electrical impulses reach atrioventricular (AV) node conducts impulse to ventricles o Both ventricles contract together forcing blood through semilunar valves into systemic or pulmonary arteries (AV valves shut so blood travels only one way) Diagram and table slide 28 Cardiac cycle o Events that produce a single heartbeat o 2 phases Diastole – atria contract and ventricles fill (blood pressure lowest) Systole – ventricles contract and blood is ejected from the heart (blood pressure highest) o Heart valves open and shut in response to pressure gradients Electrocadiogram (ECG/EKG) o Record of electrical impulses generated during the cardiac cycle o Monitor electrical activity produced by SA node o P wave – begins when SA node fires o QRS complex – 3 waves – AV node excites ventricles o T wave – repolarization of ventricles back to resting state o Examine for normal frequency, strength, duration and direction of signals Blood flow o Arteries - Conduct blood away from the heart - Layers of smooth muscle and connective tissue around smooth endothelium o Arterioles - Can dilate or constrict to control blood distribution to tissues o Capillaries - Site of gas and nutrient/waste exchange. Single-celled layer of endothelium on a basement membrane - Continuous capillaries have smooth walls - Fenestrated capillaries have openings or fenestrations - Smallest/ narrowest vessels in the body - Blood enters capillary on arteriole end under pressure - Pressure forces some fluid out of the blood (not red blood cells or large proteins) - Most of the fluid that leaves will be recaptured by the venule end of the capillary  Pressure decreases along the capillary bed  Proteins in the blood create an osmotic force that draws fluid back into blood - Lymphatic system will collect fluid that is not captured and return it to the blood o Venules - Small/ thin extensions of capillaries o Veins - Conduct blood back to the heart - Thinner and less muscular than arteries - Need help returning blood to the heart  Smooth muscle contractions help propel blood  Valves inside veins squeezed by skeletal muscles Diverging system: going from larger vessels to smaller ones Converging system: going from smaller veins to larger ones Blood pressure, flow and resistance Blood pressure – force exerted by blood on the walls of blood vessels (Higher in arteries than veins) Resistance (R) – tendency of blood vessels to slow down the flow of blood (Based on vessel radius, length and blood viscosity) Poiseuilles Law: Blood flow= πrp / 8µL Blood viscosity can increase as body is dehydrated or decrease blood flow Change in arteriolar resistance is a major mechanism to control blood flow to a region(blood flow affected by nervous system and hormones) Radius is the most important factor Vasodilation – increase in radius Vasoconstriction – decrease in radius Controlled by locally produced substances, hormones, and nervous system input Cardiac output o Amount of blood the heart pumps per unit time in Liters/minute o Depends on size of the heart and how often it beats o Stroke volume – amount of blood a heart ejects at each beat o Higher heart rates of smaller animals gives them a greater cardiac output that would be predicted based on the size of their hearts (must meet high metabolic demands) Systemic blood pressure o The greater the cardiac output and the higher the resistance, the higher the blood pressure o Garden hose analogy o Arterial blood pressure is a function of how hard the heart is working and how constricted or dilated the various arterioles are Adaptive functions o System must adapt to changing conditions – sleep, sudden activity, and emergencies o Exercise - Blood must be routed to different areas in proportion to their need for oxygen and nutrients - Vasodilation/vasoconstriction - Epinephrine – hormone from adrenal gland acts to increase cardiac output (increasing stroke volume and/or heart rate) o Blood pressure - Baroreceptors are stretch receptors in certain arteries - Communicate with brain to signal blood pressure - Brain and other nerves can act to decrease or increase blood pressure as needed Impact on public health o Cardiovascular disease (conditions affecting the heart and blood vessels) accounts for more deaths each year in the US than any other cause o Systemic hypertension or high blood pressure  Many causes – obesity, smoking, aging, etc.  Can be treated with diet, exercise and drugs o Atherosclerosis – systemic hypertension can cause damage leading to the formation of plaque inside arterial walls which can block the lumen o Coronary artery disease results from plaque forming in the coronary arteries supplying the heart muscle o Myocardial infarction (MI) or heart attack - Localized regions of the heart muscle die when the blood supply is cut off - Dead cardiac muscle does not regenerate - Cardiac angiography can detect narrowing of coronary vessels - Balloon angioplasty can widen the lumen of narrowed vessels - Coronary artery bypasses take a healthy blood vessel and use it to replace a blocked coronary artery


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