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Biology 2

by: Carla Notetaker

Biology 2 Biology II Lab

Carla Notetaker

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Respiratory system Study Guide
Biology II Lab
Study Guide
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Carla Notetaker on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biology II Lab at University of Pittsburgh taught by in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Biology II Lab in Biology at University of Pittsburgh.


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Date Created: 01/24/16
Respiratory system It is the gas exchange of CO and O between the air and blood and 2 2 between blood and cells. Gases in the air:  21% O 2  78% N (n2t part of the respiratory process)  Less than 1% CO an2 other gases Atmospheric pressure: Pressure exerted by the atmosphere on the body surfaces in mmHg or kPa (1kPa=7.5mmHg)- Sea level = 760 mmHg. Atmospheric pressure decreases at higher elevations yet % of gases don’t differ. Highest to lowest atmospheric pressure: Sea levelLas VegasDenverMexico cityLa paz Andes mountains Mt. Everest Calculating atmospheric pressure: P= Percentage/100 * surrounding atmospheric pressure Eg. Argon at sea level: PAr 0.93/100*760 torr= 7.1 torr Total pressure is the addition of all the pressures. When EPO hormone in the kidneys senses a low O level2 it sends a signal to the bone to make more RBC’s. Gases dissolve in solution – fresh water, sea water or body fluids Most gases dissolve poorly in water Factors influencing solubility in water: – Higher pressures  more gas in solution up to a limit for each gas – Cold water holds more(dissolves faster) gas than warm water – Other solutes decrease the amount of gas that dissolves into solution We use lungs to respire; other organisms use internal and external gills. Ventilation is the process of bringing oxygenated water/ air into lungs (alveoli) Inhalation: Diaphragm contracts(move down) Exhalation: Relaxes (up) Common features in respiratory organs: – Moist surfaces in which gases dissolve and diffuse – Increased surface area for gas exchange – Extensive blood flow – Thin, delicate structure Water vs. Air breathing Aquatic animals(water based):  Less available oxygen  Oxygen availability fluctuates as water temperature changes  Moving water of respiratory membranes takes more effort as its more dense than air (removes heat from gill surface and can create osmotic movement) Terrestrial animals(land based):  Deal with desiccation (Big problem) of respiratory membranes Body surfaces for gas exchange • Invertebrates with one or a few cell layers can use diffusion for gas exchange • Some don’t need specialized transport mechanisms • Some large/ complex animal body surfaces may be permeable to gases • Amphibians are the only vertebrates to rely on their skin for gas exchange under water External gills • Vary widely in appearance/ have a large surface area (extensive projections) • May exist in one body area or scattered over a large area • Limitations – Unprotected & subject to damage – Energy required to wave gills back and forth – Appearance and motion may attract predators Internal gills (more protected than external) • Fish gills covered by the operculum • Main support structure Gill arches • Gill arches branches to filaments branches to Lamellae • Blood vessels run the length of the filaments – Oxygen-poor blood travels through afferent vessel (going in) – Oxygen-rich blood travels through efferent vessel (going out) • Countercurrent exchange arrangement of water & blood flow maximizes oxygen diffusion into blood Mechanisms to ventilate gills • Buccal pumping: Hydrostatic pressure gradient created by lowering jaw to suck water in and opening operculum to draw water through Flap of tissue prevents fish from swallowing water they inhale • Ram ventilation: swimming with mouth open is more efficient • Many fish use both methods • Both are flow-through systems – water moves unidirectionally Insect trachea • Small amount of fluid for gas to diffuse into • Muscular movements of body draw air into and out of tracheae • Open circulatory system of insect not used in gas exchange(oxygen doesn’t mix with hemolymph) • Oxygen diffuses directly from air  tracheae tracheoles body cells • Very efficient – supports insect flight muscles with highest metabolic rate known Air breathing lungs • Most air-breathing terrestrial vertebrates use lungs • Lungs may be filled using positive or negative pressure • Lungs can be ventilated using tidal or flow-through systems • Boyles Law: Volume and Pressure are inversely proportional • Amphibians and a few reptiles have  Positive pressure filling of lungs  Lowers bottom jaw to create pressure gradient to suck air in  Closes mouth to raise pressure and force air into lungs Mammalian respiratory systems Nose/mouthAir is warmed & humidified, mucus and hair in nose clean the air of dust PharynxCanal for movement Larynx Vocal cord Trachea Glottis protected by epiglottis, rings of cartilage, cilia& mucus trap particles Branches into: 1. 2 bronchi 2. Bronchioles (surrounded by circular muscle to dilate or constrict passage) 3. Alveoli (site of gas exchange) – One cell thick – Type I cells – gases diffuse across – Type II cells – secretory cells Lungs Allow movement of CO & O 2n & 2ut -ventilation(2 lobes on left side, 3 lobes on right). Encased by pleural sac.  Double layer of thin, moist tissue  Fluid between layers acts as lubricant and makes layers adhere to each other  Movements of chest wall will result in lung also moving  Lungs will be inflated by expansion of the chest wall Negative pressure ventilation • Most reptiles, birds & mammals • Volume of lung expands, creating negative pressure, and air drawn into lungs • Process differs in some ways among classes of vertebrates Mammals – tidal ventilation • Inhalation – intercostals contract to move chest wall up and out, diaphragm contracts and drops down – thoracic cavity enlarges, pressure drops, air sucked in • Exhalation – intercostals and diaphragm relax – thoracic cavity compressed, pressure increases, air pushed out Higher concentration of CO in lungs than environment exhale 2 Lower concentration of O in 2ungs than environment inhale Avian lung Has a negative pressure filling and a flow-through system. Air sacs expand and shrink but do not participate in gas exchange. Air enters trachea, 2 bronchi then parabronchi then lungs. Blood flows into birds’ lungs in a crosscurrent direction with respect to air movement. Less efficient than fish gills (Air and blood don’t move in opposite directions along entire length of capillaries). More efficient than tidal ventilation of mammals. Control of ventilation in mammals • Respiratory centers located in brainstem. Signals travel from brain through:  Intercostal nerves to intercostal muscles  Phrenic nerves to diaphragm • Stretch receptors send signals to brain that lungs are inflated – this inhibits stimulus to contract until exhalation • Can be overridden to increase or decrease rate (risk: hyperventilating) Factors increasing rate: Conscious effort, exercise, stress, decrease in blood O l2vel, increase in CO2 or pH Factors decreasing rate: Stretching lungs during inhalation, conscious effort, sleep • Chemoreceptors in aorta, carotid arteries and brainstem monitor – Hydrogen ions (pH) – Partial pressures of O &C2 2 • Increase breathing rate if – O levels fall 2 – pH drops due to increased acid production from anaerobic metabolism or CO fro2 aerobic metabolism Oxygen transport Not enough oxygen dissolves into blood to support metabolic needs & Respiratory pigments increase the amount of gas carried in solution – May be contained within red blood cells or in plasma – Proteins with one or more metal ions Respiratory pigments 2+ • Hemoglobin – iron Fe (4 protein subunits, each has a heme unit – contains iron. A Single hemoglobin molecule binds up to 4 O ) 2 2+ • Hemocyanin –Cu • All have a high affinity for O 2 • Noncovalent and irreversible binding of O 2 Graph slide 39 • Curve can shift in response to metabolic waste products (Increasing amounts of CO , H a2d temperature make O load 2 and unload easier. Decrease shifts left, increase shifts right) • Curve can shift between species with different metabolic rates (Smaller animals unload hemoglobin more readily at any given temperature. Small shift to right) Hemoglobin O 2carrying molecules have begun as single-subunit proteins like myoglobin(protein in muscles that reserves O 2) Gene duplication resulted in hemoglobin and in subunits of hemoglobin Mutations affect the affinity of hemoglobin for O 2 Sickle-cell anemia – single amino acid substitution forms long strands that deform red blood cell under low O condi2ions, leads to anemia Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum growing and multiplying inside red blood cells. Sickle-cell trait protects individual from developing full blown malaria. Heterozygote advantage – no pronounced anemia or severe malaria Extreme conditions High altitudes hemoglobin with higher affinity for O 2 larger hearts and lungs than predicted for body size, higher number of red blood cells per volume Extended diving  high numbers of red blood cells, larger blood volumes, large amounts of myoglobin (spare O for2critical structures lacking myoglobin) Impact on public health Asthma: Muscles around bronchioles are hyperexcitable - contract more than usual. (may have genetic basis) Smoking: One of leading global causes of death. Up to 85% of all new cases of lung cancer each year attributed to smoking. Long-term smoking is the major cause of emphysema Emphysema: Involves extensive lung damage, reduces elastic quality of lungs and total surface area of alveoli and reduced blood oxygen and poor lung function


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