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BIO 1510 Lab Review

by: Taylor Notetaker

BIO 1510 Lab Review BIO 2200 (Microbiology, Dr. Thomas Roberts)

Taylor Notetaker

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This is a review of BIO 1510 lab review. This is a good study material for the lab quizzes and test.
Dr. Thomas Roberts
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Taylor Notetaker on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 2200 (Microbiology, Dr. Thomas Roberts) at Wayne State University taught by Dr. Thomas Roberts in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biological Sciences at Wayne State University.

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Date Created: 01/24/16
The metric system is widely used by scientists for data collection and analysis. At sea level, the temperature at which water boils is 212 degrees Fahrenheit. In the metric system the Celsius scale is used to measure temperature. The metric system is not used by every single nation in the world. To make metric conversions, you move the decimal point to the right if you are converting to a smaller unit. A compound lipid is not one that had two or three different fatty acids. When mixed with water, lipids float with the water. The “R” group is not the same for every fatty acid. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) does not utilize a active phase and a mobile phase. A simple paper test to identify a lipid shows a greasy, waterproof spot. In the metric system, the basic unit for length is meter. Saturated fats are highly hydrogenated, each carbon in the chain is attached to 2 or 3 hydrogen atoms. The oxygen that is released in photosynthesis comes from water. In the respirometer setup that used yeast cells ad different substrates, if the height of the bubble increased by 20mm, this indicates that 2 mL of CO2 was generated. Anaerobic respiration generally leads to end products like organic acids and alcohols. Green photosynthetic pigments reflect light in the green wavelength. The chemical DCPIP is used to artificially accept electrons. During cellular respiration, inorganic ions such as magnesium or zinc usually act as cofactors. Most photosynthetic organisms use chlorophyll as their primary photosynthetic pigment. Chlorophyll a is blue/green in color. When determining the respiratory rate of germinating beans, the respirometer was set up such that it measured O2 consumed. The light reaction doesn’t always require the presence of light while the dark reaction only occurs in the dark. Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are two processes that are key components of carbon cycling in the environment. The dark or light- independent reactions that occur during photosynthesis are also called the Calvin cycle. If the light reaction occurs, DCPIP solution changes color from blue to colorless. In the experimental apparatus for measuring photosynthesis, the water is not enriched with NaHCO3 because the chemical acts as a source of O2. Plants reflect green. Meiosis produces daughter cells that are not identical to the parent. G1, S, and G2 stages are collectively called interphase. Chromatids are joined at their centromere. Anaphase: chromatids drawn to opposite poles by spindle fibers during mitosis. Mitotic stage metaphase: chromosomes align along a central plane. Animal cells undergoing mitosis have visible centrioles. Cells resulting from the process of mitosis are diploid. In the process of crossing over, pieces of DNA are traded between adjacent homologous chromosomes. Binary fission is the simplest form of cell division which occurs in prokaryotic cells. The three main steps in PCR reaction are denaturation, annealing, and extension. During agrose gel electrophoresis, positively charged DNA fragments will travel farther than negatively charged DNA fragments. The primers in the PV92 kit are designed such that when the ALU element is present, the PCR product will be longer. Animal cells undergoing mitosis have visible centrioles. When the pre-mRNA is still in the nucleus, the non-coding introns are removes from the RNA. During PCR, the process of rapid heating and cooling of the thermal block is known as thermal cycling. The human genome has 2 chromosomes. Two areas of genetic research on which PCR has made a big impact are gene mapping and gene detecting. Individual deoxynucleotides are the raw material of DNA. Reducing sugars have potentially free aldehyde or ketone groups. Amylose is a storage starch found in plants.  The process of ascending chromatography depends on capillary action to  separate compounds.  In TLC the position to which an amino acid migrates is dependent on the R  group.  Glycine is the simplest amino acid, as its R group is a single hydrogen.  Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in 1:2:1 ratio. The baffled test indicates whether a compound is a monosaccharide. The mobile phase in chromatography cannot flow past he top edge of the  stationary phase.  The biuret reagent reacts with peptide bonds.  Rf=distance of solvent from the origin/ distance of spot from the origin  Sodium hydroxide is a strong base and can form a burn of spilled on skin The iodine test does not indicate whether a compound is a reducing sugar.  Sucrose is not a reducing sugar.  A blue/black color in the iodine test indicates the presence of highly coiled  starches. The ninhydrin reagent reacts with free amino acids.  Amino acids are readily detected and partly identified by the ninhydrin test.  A solution that is positive for the biuret test doesn't turn bright blue.  Enzymes lower the activation energy of a reaction.  The active site is the special area of an enzyme into which the substrate fits.  Changes in temperature, pH, salt, and ion concentration can change the  structure of an enzyme's active site.  Sucrase is an enzyme produced by live yeast.  Sucrose molecules are too large to pass through the cell membranes of yeast.  Denaturation is not a process by which the primary protein structure breaks  down. The barfoed's test is not used to determine whether or not sucrase had degraded sucrose.  When the amount of enzyme is kept constant by the amount of substrate is  gradually increased, then the velocity at which the enzyme works is gradually  increased until it reaches a maximum. Each antibody recognizes only a single antigen.  Extremely high/low pH values usually result in a complete loss of enzyme activity due to denaturation of the enzyme.  When you are exposed to a disease agent, your body mounts an immune  response.  Boiling the sucrase solution did affect the amount of product produced in the  experiment performed. The home pregnancy test is an antibody based test. When the active site of an enzyme is denatured, an enzyme substrate complex  can not still be formed. Above 40 degrees Celsius, most enzymes active in living tissues become  denatured.  The ELISA assay is performed in triplicates.  The substrate TMB that is used in the ELISA assay is colorless by itself.  The enzyme HRP is not linked to the antigen.  With higher resolution the image appears sharper.  The iris diaphragm regulates the amount of light that reaches the specimen.  The ocular is the lens that you look through.  The ocular lens by itself usually magnifies the image 10 times.  Always begin examining the slide with the low objective in place.  Immersion oil does not have the same refractive index as glass.  An electron microscope lets you see the tiny organelles within cells down to an  individual molecule such as DNA.  Primary antibodies confer specificity to the ELISA assay. Prokaryotic cells do not have a membrane bound nucleus Or other organelles. Gram positive bacteria are irreversibly stained with the primary stain.  Sodium fluoride (NaF) is a metabolic inhibitor that depletes the cell of Mg2+. Aerobic respiration can on.y occur in the presence of oxygen.  Solar energy is transformed to chemical energy during photosynthesis carried out by green plants.  Glycolysis a six carbon molecule becomes 2 three carbon molecules.  Aerobic respiration is a more erode t proceeds because it breaks glucose  completely and releases lots of ATP.  If oxygen or mitochondria are limited, glycolysis is followed by fermentation.  Alcoholic fermentation an lactic acid fermentation are anaerobic processes. The Krebs cycle occurs in a eukaryote cell's mitochondria. A respirometer is a device used to detect changes in gas pressure and volume.  A strong base like KOH absorbs carbon dioxide.  ATP means adenosine triphosphate. The Krebs cycle and electron transport system are only found in aerobic  respiration.


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