Intro to Biology finished study guide
Intro to Biology finished study guide Bio 110
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elisha Hanson on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 110 at Eastern Michigan University taught by Anna casper in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biology I in Biology at Eastern Michigan University.
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Date Created: 01/24/16
Process of Science Describe the nature of scientific reasoning. What is science? Describe the process of hypothesis – driven science (the scientific method). Controlled experiments Observational studies What makes a hypothesis “scientific”? The experiment was and experiment The hypothesis has to be testable and replicated, falsifiable Must have natural (not supernatural predictions). What are the chances that the results might not be perfect? Random chance Genetic differences between individual caterpillars Environmental factor that were not controlled Null hypothesis – what will happen if the difference between groups in an experiment is due to change. Test group – exposed to variables being tested. Control group – identical to test, but not exposed. Independent variable – factor being tested, manipulated. Dependent Variable – factor you expect to vary, response/record Controlled Variable – factors held same for all groups Prediction – something being predicted, like predicting that something is going to change or happen to the experiment. Hypothesis – Tentative explanation for observation made to be tested Scientific Theory – Well supported theory’s Controlled experiments included: - Test groups - Control groups - Independent variables (experiment) - Dependent variables (responding) - Controlled variables Y-axis – Dependent variable X-axis – Independent variable Macromolecules What are the key atoms in organisms (4 molecules) - Hydrogen - Carbon - Nitrogen - Oxyen - 96% four molecules - 4% trace molecules Atoms - Protons - Neutrons - Electrons (shell) Nucleus= protons = (+) charge determines element Neutrons = no charge determine (isotopes) Electrons = arranged in e- shells (orbitals) Outer most shell – (valence shell) determines chemical behavior Atoms react to form an ______ outer shell Full Covalent bonds – a shared bond between 2 atoms staring a pair of (e-) Controlled experiment (manipulative)= Scientist assigns subjects to test, controlled groups - Scientists manipulates one variable Observational study (natural) - Subjects assign themselves to test, control groups - Scientist does not manipulate a variable. “Manipulative” controlled experiment - More reliable - Subjects randomly assigned to test or control group, in a way that makes groups as similar as possible - Can tell us about the cause or result - Only difference between the control group is the independent variable. Organic Macromolecules What are the orange balls? Electrons Why are they closer to the O than to the H? O has a higher electronegativity Are the orange balls apart of a covalent bond or a hydrogen bond? Covalent bond Four classes of organic macromolecules - Alpha carbon - Amino functional group - Side chain (varies) - Carboxyl functional group Three categories of amino acid R groups - Non-polar = hydrophobic - Polar = hydrophilic - Charged = (acidic or basic) = hydrophilic Which of these categories interact well with water? Water is polar, the bond in the water are partly charged Shapes of Proteins st 1 structure - Order of amino acid - Covalent bonds nd 2 structure - Helix - Delta sheet - H-bonds between atoms of backbones 3rd structure - Overall globular shape - Bonding between R groups - All kinds of bonding th 4 structure - Two or more polypeptides joined together - Not present in all proteins - Are all kinds of bonding. Carbon, oxygen and partially neg. and pos. How many molecules of water are needed to completely break apart a protein that is ten amino acids long? - 9 peptide bonds - 9 molecules of water What can cause a protein denaturation? - High heat - Salt - Wrong PH - Certain chemical means - Ex. Urea How does RNA differ from DNA? DNA has uracil RNA has Thymine Four macromolecules - Proteins to Amino acids - Nucleic acids to nucleotides - Polysaccharides to monosaccharides Delta APP and Alzheimer’s Disease - Delta – amyloid precursor protein is found in the phospholipid outer cell membrane of neurons. Plasma Membrane - Heads are hydrophobic - Tails are hydrophilic - The whole thing is a phospholipid bilayer Amphipathic = has hydrophobic region and hydrophilic region DNA What type of bonding holds the two strands together? Sugar phosphate backbones RNA Is RNA double stranded? Sugar phosphate backbone Polysaccharide carbohydrates macromolecules Types of carbohydrates (simple sugars) Monosaccharides – glucose Disaccharides (double sugars) Glucose and fructose Polysaccharides Are all three types considered marcomolecules? Three key aspects of carbohydrates functions? 1. Identification 2. Energy storage a. Alpha 1,4 linkages b. Helical structure 3. Structural support a. Beta – 1, 4 linkages b. Parallel strands, linked Fats and oils (Triglycerides) Why are fats and oils such a good source of energy? - 3 dehydration reactions - The electrons shared all the bonds - Shared equal that create potentially Cell membrane Ecstasy (or molly) fact sheet - Drug is MDMA = 3.4 mathylendioxymethamphetamine - Synthetic drug, alters how neurons use serotonin - Stimulant and psychedelic Affects: - Blood pressure - Pulse - Water balance - Kidney function - Body temperature Solute = molecules being dissolved Solvent = solution doing the dissolving Cell Structure The health center collected blood from Ellie, and observed it under a light microscope. They identified foreign cells that were about 1/10 the size of Ellie’s white blood cells Do you think the infectious organism is a virus, prokaryotic, or eukaryotic? o Not a virus, it’s not a eukaryote, so it’s a prokaryote because they are known as bacteria and you can see under a light microscope. o Plants and yeast have cell wall= Eukaryotes o Animal cells don’t have a cell wall Prokaryotes - Examples: Bacteria, archaea - Size:1-10 micrometer - Plasma Membrane: yes - Cell wall: yes - Ribosomes: yes - DNA: yes, circle - Mitochondria: no - Membrane-bound organelles: no Eukaryotes - Examples: Animals, plants, fungus - Size: 10-100 - Plasma Membrane: yes - Cell wall: yes, plant and yeast have cell walls - Ribosomes: yes - DNA: yes, linear chromosomes in cased in nucleus - Mitochondria: yes - Membrane-bound organelles: yes Cell wall -plant- Cellulose - Yeast- glucan and Chitin -bacteria- peptidoglycan Ribosomes link amino acids together to make a protein? True they make a protein by linking an amino acid together Amoxicilin, penicillin - Blocks the enzyme that creates links in peptidoglycan molecules - Enzyme is only in bacteria Steptomycin - Blocks prokaryotic ribosomes - Target only prokaryotic ribosomes Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (cipre) - Blocks bacteria DNA gyros enzyme needed counter act excessive twisting of DNA that occurs when circles of DNA are unwound to be copied into DNA or RNA. Eukaryotic suspects # 1: Cryptococcus neoformans - 2.5 -10um fungus found in decaying pigeon or chicken droppings - Inhaled as spores that eventually spread to the brain causing meningoencephalitis Eukaryotic Suspects # 2: Toxoplasma Gondi - 4-6um single –celled protozoan parasite of mammals and birds - Causes toxoplasmas - Usually acquired through ingesting cysts in under cooked meat - Sometimes acquired from ingesting cysts in cat feces. Strange similarities - rDNA is Ellie’s mitochondria TGGTCCGTCAG - rDNA is Coxietta bacteria TGGTCGGTCAG What would you tell Ellie’s? - the endosymbiotic theory (well supported) - right size - circleralur DNA - Chloroplasts and mitochondria - Own protein synthesis - In membrane or mitochondria All eukaryotes have mitochondria, not all eukaryotes have chloroplasts purpose an evolutionary explanation for this observations. - Humans only have mitochondrian - Plants have both - First eukaryotic eats some prokaryotic cells - Some eukaryotic cells don’t eat prokaryotic cells Familial hypercholesterolemia - This disease causes early Atherosclerosis and heart attacks - may have visible cholesterol deposits on body - cholesterol is carried to body tissues via LDL - too much LDL is blood= to much cholesterol - why do these individuals have too much LDL in their blood? Insulin is a protein. It is hypothesized at the rough ER and eventually at the plasma membrane. - Rough ER – Golgi Cis – Trans Golgi – vesicles – Plasma Membrane LDL Receptors - This receptor is synthesized at rough ER, then transported to the plasma membrane. - This receptor binds LDL and removes it from circulation - Most individuals with FH have a mutation in the gene for LDL receptor - Defective gene – defective LDL receptor protein. Cell Membrane What substances cross lipid bilayers most readily? - 3 – Uncharged polar molecule that are large - 1 – hydrophobic molecules - 4 – Ions and other charged molecules - 2 – uncharged polar molecules that are small - 3- glucose - 2- H2O - 1 – O2 - 4 – K+ Non-polar = small, large Polar = small, large Charged = nothing How easily can glucose cross the lipid bilayer of a cell? - Glucose is polar; large to cross more then 4 atoms - Not likely to cross Exploding Fish You place an animal cell in a container of distilled water. What will happen? - The cell will swell and it might explode. - The water will move into the cell until it explodes. You place a plant cell in the same solution of distilled water? - Plants have a cell wall that pushes back against the water volume - Freshwater fish don’t explode because they have kidney’s to filter the water through them. - Fish cells have higher salt leaves - Water will always be going into a fis How about a salt water fish? - Freshwater: Water is continually entering the fish - Saltwater: water is continually existing the fish Another strategy- what else could a fish do to reduce or stop water from leaving its body? - Increase the salt in their cells because of urea. - Osmotic balance Plasma membrane is a __________. - Fluid mosaic - Proteins embedded - Cholesterol embedded - Carbohydrates attached - Stuff moves not all stuck in place. Passive Transcript - Simple diffusion - All by it’s self Facilitated diffusion - With the help of protein Channel protein - Just at hole Carrier protein - Changes shape for protein Active transport - ATP - Needs energy to move proteins - Carrier proteins can only help not channel proteins - Examples: aquaporin channel proteins in your cells let water pass through more quickly. Which statement in correct about facilitated diffusion? - It requires proteins in a cell membrane What are the two basic types of cells? - Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic What is the different between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells? - Eukaryotic cells have nucleus, prokaryotic cells no nucleus Describe the structure and function of the nucleus? - Contain chromatin, DNA and protein, surrounded by double phospholipid bilayer. - Has pores - Nuclear membrane - Rough ER - Smooth ER If a cell in your body has a lot of ribosomes (compared to other cells), what would you assume about the function of this cell? - Makes proteins List the components of the endomembrane system? - Rough ER, smooth ER, nuclear membrane, Golgi vesicles Describe the structure and the function of the smooth ER? - Ribosomes on it make proteins, ribosomes are attached protein can have ER vesicles Describe the structure and function of the Golgi? - Contiguous with rough ER, no ribosomes, synthesizes lipids Describe the structure and the function of a lysosome? - Vesicles enter through cis Golgi and exist through trans Golgi side What is the function of a chloroplast? And what is the function of a mitochondrion? - Build sugars carbohydrates, photosynthesis, breaks down sugar to create ATP. Cellular respiration. List the three main components of the cytoskeleton? - Intercellular prom work made of tubulins subunits, rapidly grow/shrink. Chromosomes during cell division. Describe the structure and function of microfilaments? - Microfilaments are known as Actin The cell has two categories - Based on structure and complexity What happens when cell are big? - Total surface area sum of the surface area (height x width x length x number of boxes) - Total volume (height x width x length x number of boxes) - Surface – to – volume (ratio) (surface area x volume) Prokaryotic cell - Nucleus: contains chromatin - DNA and Protein - Surrounded by double phospholipid bilayer - Proteins can go in on out RNA is made - Has pores (RNA, proteins in and out) - Nuclear membrane is contiguous with rough ER Endomembrane system - Rough ER and smooth ER - Rough ER and smooth ER are part of the endomembrane system. - Rough ER - Smooth ER - Nuclear membrane - Golgi - Vesicles Rough ER - Ribosomes on it and make proteins - Contiguous with nuclear membrane - Ribosomes are attached - Ribosomes make proteins - Proteins can have ER vesicles Smooth ER - Contiguous with rough ER - No ribosomes - Synthesizes lipids Ribosomes - Can be either free in cells cytoplasm or bond the rough ER - Synthesis proteins - TEM showing ER ribosomes. Prokaryotic cells - Capsule: gel-like coating - Fimbriae: hair like bristles help attach to surfaces - Flagella: rotating filaments, helps cell move - Ribosomes: synthesize proteins - Chromosomes: (DNA) not inside nucleus, is one big circle - Plasma membrane: phospholipids bilayer that regulates entrance and exit or molecules - Cell wall: covering that supports shapes, and protects cell. When water moves across a selectively permeable membrane down its concentration gradient, this is called? - Osmosis Is saltwater hypertonic, isotonic, hypotonic to drinking water? - Hypertonic to drinking water Simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion -simple diffusion allows passes of non-polar small molecules and does not require a source of ATP. - simple diffusion can move particles in the direction of concentration gradient whereas materials can move with organist concentration gradient in facilitated diffusion - the process of simple diffusion occurs only in prokaryotes while facilitated diffusion is seen only in eukaryotes. - facilitated diffusion requires specific facilitator for specific molecules which is not the case with simple diffusion. What are the four key atoms in and organisms? - Hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen In which type of bond do atoms share electrons? Is this a weak or strong bond? - Iconic bond and weak What are the two sub-types of covalent bonds? What is the difference between these sub- types? - Polar equal shared non-polar not equal shared. How does electronegativity affect covalent bonds? - Changes potentially energy
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