×
Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to Clemson - ENV 80176 - Class Notes - Week 2
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to Clemson - ENV 80176 - Class Notes - Week 2

Already have an account? Login here
×
Reset your password

What is a mineral?

What is a mineral?

Description

School: Clemson University
Department: Environmental Resource Science
Course: Physical Geology
Professor: Alan coulson
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: Physical Geology and Geology
Cost: 25
Name: Physical Geology Notes, Week 2 (Lectures 3&4)
Description: These notes cover Lectures 3 and 4 for Alan Coulson's Geology 101 Course.
Uploaded: 01/24/2016
7 Pages 48 Views 6 Unlocks
Reviews


.lst-kix_2vqv541d3roc-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_2vqv541d3roc-0}ol.lst-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-2 0}.lst-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-6}.lst-kix_2fckekyk6ub8-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_wg0ev59zfp83-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-4 0}ul.lst-kix_5myoszhjt943-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5myoszhjt943-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5myoszhjt943-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-5}ol.lst-kix_2vqv541d3roc-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_2vqv541d3roc-3 0}.lst-kix_ie9nq43a1ig1-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ie9nq43a1ig1-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-5}.lst-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-0,decimal) ".) "}ol.lst-kix_2vqv541d3roc-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_2vqv541d3roc-8 0}ol.lst-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-7 0}.lst-kix_ie9nq43a1ig1-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-4 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-4,lower-latin) ") "}.lst-kix_ie9nq43a1ig1-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ie9nq43a1ig1-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_ggw9uc8o1vos-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-5 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-5,lower-roman) ") "}ul.lst-kix_5myoszhjt943-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_t2xx589yctmj-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_ggw9uc8o1vos-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5myoszhjt943-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ie9nq43a1ig1-0 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_ggw9uc8o1vos-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5myoszhjt943-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ggw9uc8o1vos-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5myoszhjt943-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ggw9uc8o1vos-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-7}ul.lst-kix_ggw9uc8o1vos-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ggw9uc8o1vos-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5myoszhjt943-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ggw9uc8o1vos-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5myoszhjt943-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-3 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-3,decimal) ") "}ul.lst-kix_ggw9uc8o1vos-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ie9nq43a1ig1-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_wg0ev59zfp83-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-2,lower-roman) ".) "}.lst-kix_wg0ev59zfp83-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-6 0}.lst-kix_ie9nq43a1ig1-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ie9nq43a1ig1-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-1,lower-latin) ".) "}ol.lst-kix_2vqv541d3roc-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_momjxqhqijr4-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_momjxqhqijr4-2}ol.lst-kix_2vqv541d3roc-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_2vqv541d3roc-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_2vqv541d3roc-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_2vqv541d3roc-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_2vqv541d3roc-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_2vqv541d3roc-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_2vqv541d3roc-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_wg0ev59zfp83-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_2vqv541d3roc-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_wg0ev59zfp83-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_wg0ev59zfp83-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_wg0ev59zfp83-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_wg0ev59zfp83-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_wg0ev59zfp83-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_286q7yj8je2q-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_286q7yj8je2q-4 0}.lst-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-5}ol.lst-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-4 0}ol.lst-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-1 0}.lst-kix_nacxr1jsvxtp-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_nacxr1jsvxtp-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-1 0}.lst-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-3}.lst-kix_nacxr1jsvxtp-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_nacxr1jsvxtp-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_r999svgmveyw-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_nacxr1jsvxtp-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_3jhk7621cpbn-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_r999svgmveyw-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_r999svgmveyw-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-2}ol.lst-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-7 0}ul.lst-kix_irkwf6j0ckih-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_irkwf6j0ckih-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_irkwf6j0ckih-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_irkwf6j0ckih-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_irkwf6j0ckih-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_irkwf6j0ckih-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-2 0}ul.lst-kix_irkwf6j0ckih-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_irkwf6j0ckih-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_irkwf6j0ckih-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_r999svgmveyw-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_t2xx589yctmj-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-8,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_momjxqhqijr4-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_momjxqhqijr4-2 0}.lst-kix_t2xx589yctmj-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_t2xx589yctmj-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-0}.lst-kix_t2xx589yctmj-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_momjxqhqijr4-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_momjxqhqijr4-1}.lst-kix_4zrujdvxgdgy-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_3kehq782yobq-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_4zrujdvxgdgy-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_4zrujdvxgdgy-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_uvhjme2yd3py-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_uvhjme2yd3py-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-0}.lst-kix_4zrujdvxgdgy-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-7 0}.lst-kix_2fckekyk6ub8-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_qflx0z8mtac-0 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_3kehq782yobq-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_4zrujdvxgdgy-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_3kehq782yobq-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_2fckekyk6ub8-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_3kehq782yobq-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3kehq782yobq-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3kehq782yobq-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3kehq782yobq-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3kehq782yobq-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3kehq782yobq-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_qflx0z8mtac-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_2fckekyk6ub8-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-4 0}.lst-kix_2fckekyk6ub8-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-7}.lst-kix_qflx0z8mtac-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_qflx0z8mtac-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_qflx0z8mtac-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-1 0}.lst-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-0}ul.lst-kix_r999svgmveyw-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-3 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-3,decimal) ") "}ul.lst-kix_r999svgmveyw-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_r999svgmveyw-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_r999svgmveyw-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_r999svgmveyw-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-2,lower-roman) ".) "}.lst-kix_irkwf6j0ckih-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_momjxqhqijr4-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_momjxqhqijr4-3 0}.lst-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-6}.lst-kix_stzmjmui89l8-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_stzmjmui89l8-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-8}.lst-kix_stzmjmui89l8-5 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_stzmjmui89l8-5,lower-roman) ") "}ul.lst-kix_jipny72zll13-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-1 0}ol.lst-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-8 0}ul.lst-kix_jipny72zll13-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_jipny72zll13-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_jipny72zll13-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_r999svgmveyw-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_jipny72zll13-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_r999svgmveyw-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_jipny72zll13-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_r999svgmveyw-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_stzmjmui89l8-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_stzmjmui89l8-2,lower-roman) ".) "}ul.lst-kix_jipny72zll13-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_r999svgmveyw-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_jipny72zll13-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_jipny72zll13-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-5 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-5,lower-roman) ") "}.lst-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-8,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-6 0}.lst-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-1}ol.lst-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-0 0}.lst-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-4}.lst-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-4 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-4,lower-latin) ") "}.lst-kix_286q7yj8je2q-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_286q7yj8je2q-6}.lst-kix_stzmjmui89l8-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_stzmjmui89l8-1,lower-latin) ".) "}ol.lst-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-2 0}.lst-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-1,lower-latin) ".) "}.lst-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-0,decimal) ".) "}ol.lst-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-6 0}ol.lst-kix_2vqv541d3roc-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_2vqv541d3roc-7 0}ol.lst-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-7 0}.lst-kix_3jhk7621cpbn-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_3jhk7621cpbn-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_3jhk7621cpbn-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_3jhk7621cpbn-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_3jhk7621cpbn-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_3jhk7621cpbn-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3jhk7621cpbn-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3jhk7621cpbn-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3jhk7621cpbn-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3jhk7621cpbn-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3jhk7621cpbn-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3jhk7621cpbn-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_3jhk7621cpbn-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2b3atma9fdo5-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2b3atma9fdo5-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2b3atma9fdo5-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_stzmjmui89l8-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_stzmjmui89l8-6}ul.lst-kix_2b3atma9fdo5-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2b3atma9fdo5-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2b3atma9fdo5-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2b3atma9fdo5-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2b3atma9fdo5-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2b3atma9fdo5-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_nacxr1jsvxtp-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_r999svgmveyw-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_2vqv541d3roc-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_2vqv541d3roc-6}.lst-kix_nacxr1jsvxtp-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_btr6g5i0q7m5-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-1 0}.lst-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-3}.lst-kix_wph0ces6w9m-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_r999svgmveyw-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_4zrujdvxgdgy-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-7}ul.lst-kix_4zrujdvxgdgy-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_3jhk7621cpbn-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_4zrujdvxgdgy-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4zrujdvxgdgy-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4zrujdvxgdgy-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_wph0ces6w9m-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_4zrujdvxgdgy-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4zrujdvxgdgy-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4zrujdvxgdgy-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4zrujdvxgdgy-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-0}ol.lst-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-7 0}.lst-kix_stzmjmui89l8-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_stzmjmui89l8-4}ol.lst-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-1 0}.lst-kix_2vqv541d3roc-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_2vqv541d3roc-8}ul.lst-kix_btr6g5i0q7m5-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_btr6g5i0q7m5-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_btr6g5i0q7m5-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_btr6g5i0q7m5-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_r999svgmveyw-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_btr6g5i0q7m5-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_t2xx589yctmj-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_btr6g5i0q7m5-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_btr6g5i0q7m5-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_btr6g5i0q7m5-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-7,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-6 0}.lst-kix_t2xx589yctmj-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-2,lower-roman) ".) "}.lst-kix_4zrujdvxgdgy-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-3 0}.lst-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-6,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-2 0}ol.lst-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-0 0}.lst-kix_4zrujdvxgdgy-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_momjxqhqijr4-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_momjxqhqijr4-8 0}ol.lst-kix_stzmjmui89l8-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_286q7yj8je2q-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_286q7yj8je2q-8}ol.lst-kix_stzmjmui89l8-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_stzmjmui89l8-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_stzmjmui89l8-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_stzmjmui89l8-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-7}ol.lst-kix_stzmjmui89l8-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_irkwf6j0ckih-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_irkwf6j0ckih-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_stzmjmui89l8-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_stzmjmui89l8-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nacxr1jsvxtp-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_stzmjmui89l8-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_2fckekyk6ub8-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_nacxr1jsvxtp-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_qflx0z8mtac-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_nacxr1jsvxtp-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nacxr1jsvxtp-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nacxr1jsvxtp-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nacxr1jsvxtp-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_momjxqhqijr4-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_momjxqhqijr4-7 0}ul.lst-kix_nacxr1jsvxtp-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_2vqv541d3roc-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_2vqv541d3roc-1}.lst-kix_2fckekyk6ub8-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_nacxr1jsvxtp-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_qflx0z8mtac-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_nacxr1jsvxtp-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-5 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-5,lower-roman) ") "}.lst-kix_286q7yj8je2q-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_286q7yj8je2q-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-2,lower-roman) ".) "}.lst-kix_286q7yj8je2q-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_286q7yj8je2q-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-3 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-3,decimal) ") "}.lst-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-7}ol.lst-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-5 0}ol.lst-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-7}ol.lst-kix_momjxqhqijr4-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_momjxqhqijr4-6 0}.lst-kix_286q7yj8je2q-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_286q7yj8je2q-0,upper-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-8}ol.lst-kix_286q7yj8je2q-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_286q7yj8je2q-3 0}ol.lst-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-0,decimal) ".) "}ol.lst-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_o3lm497u7zo9-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_286q7yj8je2q-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_286q7yj8je2q-8 0}ul.lst-kix_o3lm497u7zo9-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_o3lm497u7zo9-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_o3lm497u7zo9-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_o3lm497u7zo9-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_o3lm497u7zo9-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-5 0}ul.lst-kix_o3lm497u7zo9-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_o3lm497u7zo9-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_btr6g5i0q7m5-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_o3lm497u7zo9-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-5 0}.lst-kix_286q7yj8je2q-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_286q7yj8je2q-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_286q7yj8je2q-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_286q7yj8je2q-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_ggw9uc8o1vos-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-3 0}.lst-kix_ggw9uc8o1vos-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-4 0}ol.lst-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-5 0}.lst-kix_ggw9uc8o1vos-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_51rn2dks89cy-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_51rn2dks89cy-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_51rn2dks89cy-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-4 0}ul.lst-kix_51rn2dks89cy-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_btr6g5i0q7m5-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_51rn2dks89cy-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_51rn2dks89cy-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_51rn2dks89cy-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-0 0}ul.lst-kix_51rn2dks89cy-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_btr6g5i0q7m5-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_51rn2dks89cy-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_btr6g5i0q7m5-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-4}.lst-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-1}ol.lst-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-0 0}ol.lst-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_stzmjmui89l8-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_stzmjmui89l8-0}ol.lst-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-8,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-0 0}.lst-kix_wph0ces6w9m-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-5 0}ol.lst-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-3 0}.lst-kix_wph0ces6w9m-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-0}ol.lst-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-8 0}ol.lst-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-5}.lst-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-3}.lst-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-8}.lst-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_ggw9uc8o1vos-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-1,lower-latin) ".) "}.lst-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-6}.lst-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-4}.lst-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-1}ol.lst-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-3 0}ol.lst-kix_momjxqhqijr4-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_momjxqhqijr4-1 0}.lst-kix_ncykudfygtad-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-8}ol.lst-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-3 0}.lst-kix_stzmjmui89l8-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_stzmjmui89l8-7}ol.lst-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ncykudfygtad-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-0 0}ol.lst-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_irkwf6j0ckih-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_o3lm497u7zo9-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-6 0}.lst-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-4 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-4,lower-latin) ") "}.lst-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-2,lower-roman) ".) "}.lst-kix_286q7yj8je2q-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_286q7yj8je2q-5}.lst-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-3}.lst-kix_irkwf6j0ckih-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_o3lm497u7zo9-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_ncykudfygtad-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-2 0}ol.lst-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-8 0}.lst-kix_momjxqhqijr4-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_momjxqhqijr4-7,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_286q7yj8je2q-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_286q7yj8je2q-0 0}.lst-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-6}.lst-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-4}.lst-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-5}.lst-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-6}ol.lst-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-6 0}ol.lst-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-2 0}.lst-kix_momjxqhqijr4-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_momjxqhqijr4-2,lower-roman) ".) "}.lst-kix_2vqv541d3roc-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_2vqv541d3roc-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_momjxqhqijr4-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_momjxqhqijr4-8}.lst-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-0,decimal) ".) "}.lst-kix_stzmjmui89l8-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_stzmjmui89l8-8,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_286q7yj8je2q-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_286q7yj8je2q-6 0}.lst-kix_2vqv541d3roc-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_2vqv541d3roc-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_stzmjmui89l8-3 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_stzmjmui89l8-3,decimal) ") "}.lst-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-5 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-5,lower-roman) ") "}.lst-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-6,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_stzmjmui89l8-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_stzmjmui89l8-6 0}ol.lst-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-2 0}.lst-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-8,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-7 0}ul.lst-kix_2fckekyk6ub8-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_uvhjme2yd3py-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_r59wiyg98uil-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_uvhjme2yd3py-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-3 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-3,decimal) ") "}ul.lst-kix_qflx0z8mtac-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_qflx0z8mtac-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_qflx0z8mtac-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_5myoszhjt943-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_286q7yj8je2q-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_286q7yj8je2q-5 0}.lst-kix_stzmjmui89l8-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_stzmjmui89l8-0,decimal) ".) "}ol.lst-kix_stzmjmui89l8-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_stzmjmui89l8-0 0}.lst-kix_51rn2dks89cy-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_2fckekyk6ub8-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_5myoszhjt943-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_2fckekyk6ub8-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2fckekyk6ub8-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2fckekyk6ub8-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2fckekyk6ub8-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2fckekyk6ub8-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_r59wiyg98uil-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_2fckekyk6ub8-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2fckekyk6ub8-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_3jhk7621cpbn-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_ggc9icc7qrh7-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-6 0}.lst-kix_jipny72zll13-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-7 0}ol.lst-kix_stzmjmui89l8-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_stzmjmui89l8-7 0}ul.lst-kix_ie9nq43a1ig1-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_stzmjmui89l8-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_stzmjmui89l8-3}ul.lst-kix_qflx0z8mtac-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ie9nq43a1ig1-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_qflx0z8mtac-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-5 0}ul.lst-kix_ie9nq43a1ig1-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_jipny72zll13-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_qflx0z8mtac-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ie9nq43a1ig1-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_qflx0z8mtac-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_51rn2dks89cy-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_qflx0z8mtac-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_qflx0z8mtac-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ie9nq43a1ig1-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-3 0}ol.lst-kix_stzmjmui89l8-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_stzmjmui89l8-1 0}ul.lst-kix_ie9nq43a1ig1-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_r59wiyg98uil-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_ie9nq43a1ig1-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ie9nq43a1ig1-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ggc9icc7qrh7-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_ie9nq43a1ig1-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_3kehq782yobq-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-4}.lst-kix_nacxr1jsvxtp-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_stzmjmui89l8-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_stzmjmui89l8-5 0}.lst-kix_3jhk7621cpbn-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-1 0}.lst-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-2}ol.lst-kix_stzmjmui89l8-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_stzmjmui89l8-2 0}.lst-kix_szwxgbgv76ju-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_2b3atma9fdo5-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_r999svgmveyw-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-0,decimal) ".) "}.lst-kix_ggw9uc8o1vos-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-6}ol.lst-kix_stzmjmui89l8-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_stzmjmui89l8-3 0}ol.lst-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-7 0}ol.lst-kix_286q7yj8je2q-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_286q7yj8je2q-2 0}ol.lst-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-0 0}.lst-kix_t2xx589yctmj-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-8 0}.lst-kix_szwxgbgv76ju-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-4 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-4,lower-latin) ") "}.lst-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-0}.lst-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-3}.lst-kix_o3lm497u7zo9-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-8 0}.lst-kix_4zrujdvxgdgy-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_286q7yj8je2q-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_286q7yj8je2q-2}.lst-kix_wph0ces6w9m-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_2fckekyk6ub8-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_286q7yj8je2q-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_286q7yj8je2q-1 0}.lst-kix_irkwf6j0ckih-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_qflx0z8mtac-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ncykudfygtad-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-6}ol.lst-kix_stzmjmui89l8-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_stzmjmui89l8-4 0}.lst-kix_2vqv541d3roc-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_2vqv541d3roc-7}.lst-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-2,lower-roman) ". "}ul.lst-kix_ggc9icc7qrh7-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ggc9icc7qrh7-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ggc9icc7qrh7-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ggc9icc7qrh7-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ggc9icc7qrh7-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ggc9icc7qrh7-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ggc9icc7qrh7-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ggc9icc7qrh7-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_momjxqhqijr4-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_momjxqhqijr4-0 0}ul.lst-kix_ggc9icc7qrh7-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-5 0}.lst-kix_286q7yj8je2q-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_286q7yj8je2q-3}.lst-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-1}ol.lst-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-3 0}ol.lst-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-3}ol.lst-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-5 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-5,lower-roman) ") "}.lst-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-3 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-3,decimal) ") "}.lst-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-4 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-4,lower-latin) ") "}.lst-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-2,lower-roman) ".) "}.lst-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-7}.lst-kix_2b3atma9fdo5-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-0,decimal) ".) "}ol.lst-kix_momjxqhqijr4-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_momjxqhqijr4-5 0}.lst-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-1,lower-latin) ".) "}.lst-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-3}.lst-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_momjxqhqijr4-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_momjxqhqijr4-5}.lst-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-8}ol.lst-kix_286q7yj8je2q-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_286q7yj8je2q-7 0}ol.lst-kix_stzmjmui89l8-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_stzmjmui89l8-8 0}.lst-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-1}.lst-kix_3kehq782yobq-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-4 0}ol.lst-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_3kehq782yobq-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_3kehq782yobq-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_3kehq782yobq-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_momjxqhqijr4-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_momjxqhqijr4-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_momjxqhqijr4-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_momjxqhqijr4-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_momjxqhqijr4-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_stzmjmui89l8-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_stzmjmui89l8-2}.lst-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-5 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-5,lower-roman) ") "}ol.lst-kix_momjxqhqijr4-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_2b3atma9fdo5-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_3kehq782yobq-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_szwxgbgv76ju-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-3 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-3,decimal) ") "}.lst-kix_2b3atma9fdo5-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_2b3atma9fdo5-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_2b3atma9fdo5-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_szwxgbgv76ju-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-1,lower-latin) ".) "}ol.lst-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-6 0}.lst-kix_szwxgbgv76ju-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_stzmjmui89l8-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_stzmjmui89l8-1}.lst-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-3}.lst-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-5,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-6 0}.lst-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-0}ol.lst-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-1 0}ol.lst-kix_2vqv541d3roc-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_2vqv541d3roc-5 0}.lst-kix_szwxgbgv76ju-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_momjxqhqijr4-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_momjxqhqijr4-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_momjxqhqijr4-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-2}.lst-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-4}ol.lst-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-2 0}.lst-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-1,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-4 0}ol.lst-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-7 0}.lst-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_2vqv541d3roc-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_2vqv541d3roc-4}.lst-kix_momjxqhqijr4-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_momjxqhqijr4-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-2}ol.lst-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-5 0}ul.lst-kix_szwxgbgv76ju-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_momjxqhqijr4-4 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_momjxqhqijr4-4,lower-latin) ") "}ul.lst-kix_szwxgbgv76ju-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_szwxgbgv76ju-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_momjxqhqijr4-5 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_momjxqhqijr4-5,lower-roman) ") "}ol.lst-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-1 0}.lst-kix_jipny72zll13-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_szwxgbgv76ju-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-8 0}ul.lst-kix_szwxgbgv76ju-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_momjxqhqijr4-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_momjxqhqijr4-0,decimal) ".) "}.lst-kix_momjxqhqijr4-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_momjxqhqijr4-1,lower-latin) ".) "}ol.lst-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-0 0}.lst-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-8}.lst-kix_2vqv541d3roc-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_2vqv541d3roc-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_2vqv541d3roc-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_2vqv541d3roc-4,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-2 0}ol.lst-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_szwxgbgv76ju-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_szwxgbgv76ju-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_szwxgbgv76ju-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_2vqv541d3roc-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_2vqv541d3roc-8,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_szwxgbgv76ju-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-8 0}ol.lst-kix_2vqv541d3roc-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_2vqv541d3roc-6 0}.lst-kix_r59wiyg98uil-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_uvhjme2yd3py-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-0 0}.lst-kix_momjxqhqijr4-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_momjxqhqijr4-6}.lst-kix_uvhjme2yd3py-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_2vqv541d3roc-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_2vqv541d3roc-3}.lst-kix_uvhjme2yd3py-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-1}.lst-kix_r59wiyg98uil-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_5myoszhjt943-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_5myoszhjt943-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_uvhjme2yd3py-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_uvhjme2yd3py-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-2}ol.lst-kix_momjxqhqijr4-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_momjxqhqijr4-4 0}.lst-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-7}.lst-kix_ggc9icc7qrh7-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_ggc9icc7qrh7-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_jipny72zll13-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_ggc9icc7qrh7-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_51rn2dks89cy-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-5 0}.lst-kix_51rn2dks89cy-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_jipny72zll13-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_ggc9icc7qrh7-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_51rn2dks89cy-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-1}.lst-kix_jipny72zll13-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_jipny72zll13-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_5myoszhjt943-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_5myoszhjt943-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_ggc9icc7qrh7-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_r59wiyg98uil-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-1 0}.lst-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-8}ol.lst-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-3 0}.lst-kix_r59wiyg98uil-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_51rn2dks89cy-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_286q7yj8je2q-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wph0ces6w9m-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_286q7yj8je2q-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wph0ces6w9m-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_286q7yj8je2q-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wph0ces6w9m-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_286q7yj8je2q-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wph0ces6w9m-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wph0ces6w9m-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-4 0}ol.lst-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_286q7yj8je2q-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_286q7yj8je2q-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_momjxqhqijr4-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_momjxqhqijr4-4}ol.lst-kix_286q7yj8je2q-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_286q7yj8je2q-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_286q7yj8je2q-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-3}ol.lst-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-4 0}.lst-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-7}ul.lst-kix_wph0ces6w9m-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wph0ces6w9m-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wph0ces6w9m-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_3kehq782yobq-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_wph0ces6w9m-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-0 0}.lst-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_2b3atma9fdo5-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-2,lower-roman) ".) "}ol.lst-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-2 0}.lst-kix_3kehq782yobq-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-2}.lst-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-2}.lst-kix_2b3atma9fdo5-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-1}.lst-kix_szwxgbgv76ju-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-4 0}.lst-kix_ggw9uc8o1vos-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_wg0ev59zfp83-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-8,lower-roman) ". "}ul.lst-kix_wg0ev59zfp83-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wg0ev59zfp83-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wg0ev59zfp83-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wg0ev59zfp83-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-6,decimal) ". "}ul.lst-kix_wg0ev59zfp83-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-0}ul.lst-kix_wg0ev59zfp83-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_szwxgbgv76ju-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_ncykudfygtad-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-5}ul.lst-kix_wg0ev59zfp83-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wg0ev59zfp83-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_2vqv541d3roc-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_2vqv541d3roc-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-5 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-5,lower-roman) ") "}.lst-kix_o3lm497u7zo9-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_o3lm497u7zo9-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-0}.lst-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-0,upper-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-1,lower-latin) ".) "}.lst-kix_o3lm497u7zo9-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_ncykudfygtad-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_286q7yj8je2q-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_286q7yj8je2q-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-7,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_286q7yj8je2q-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_286q7yj8je2q-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-6,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_286q7yj8je2q-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_286q7yj8je2q-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-4 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-4,lower-latin) ") "}.lst-kix_286q7yj8je2q-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_286q7yj8je2q-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-1}.lst-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-1,lower-latin) ".) "}ol.lst-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-8 0}.lst-kix_btr6g5i0q7m5-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-3 0}.lst-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-5}.lst-kix_btr6g5i0q7m5-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_btr6g5i0q7m5-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_momjxqhqijr4-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_momjxqhqijr4-0}.lst-kix_286q7yj8je2q-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_286q7yj8je2q-1}.lst-kix_ggw9uc8o1vos-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_ggw9uc8o1vos-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_btr6g5i0q7m5-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-0,upper-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_2vqv541d3roc-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_2vqv541d3roc-2}.lst-kix_btr6g5i0q7m5-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-5}.lst-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-5}.lst-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-8}.lst-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-4}.lst-kix_wph0ces6w9m-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_wph0ces6w9m-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-5 0}ol.lst-kix_2vqv541d3roc-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_2vqv541d3roc-2 0}.lst-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_2vqv541d3roc-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_2vqv541d3roc-5}.lst-kix_ggw9uc8o1vos-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-5}ul.lst-kix_t2xx589yctmj-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_t2xx589yctmj-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_t2xx589yctmj-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_t2xx589yctmj-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_t2xx589yctmj-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_t2xx589yctmj-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_t2xx589yctmj-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-5 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-5,lower-roman) ") "}ol.lst-kix_2vqv541d3roc-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_2vqv541d3roc-4 0}ol.lst-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-3 0}.lst-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-6}.lst-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-3 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-3,decimal) ") "}ul.lst-kix_t2xx589yctmj-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_t2xx589yctmj-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_z1iuhptktsyt-4}.lst-kix_irkwf6j0ckih-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_o3lm497u7zo9-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_irkwf6j0ckih-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_o3lm497u7zo9-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_2vqv541d3roc-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_2vqv541d3roc-0,upper-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-0,decimal) ".) "}.lst-kix_ncykudfygtad-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-8 0}.lst-kix_momjxqhqijr4-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_momjxqhqijr4-7}.lst-kix_wph0ces6w9m-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_ncykudfygtad-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_r59wiyg98uil-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_r59wiyg98uil-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_r59wiyg98uil-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_r59wiyg98uil-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_r59wiyg98uil-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_r59wiyg98uil-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_momjxqhqijr4-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_momjxqhqijr4-6,decimal) ". "}ul.lst-kix_r59wiyg98uil-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_r59wiyg98uil-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-4 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-4,lower-latin) ") "}ul.lst-kix_r59wiyg98uil-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_momjxqhqijr4-3 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_momjxqhqijr4-3,decimal) ") "}.lst-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-1,lower-latin) ".) "}ol.lst-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_irkwf6j0ckih-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_2vqv541d3roc-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_2vqv541d3roc-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-3}.lst-kix_stzmjmui89l8-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_stzmjmui89l8-7,lower-latin) ". "}ul.lst-kix_uvhjme2yd3py-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_uvhjme2yd3py-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_uvhjme2yd3py-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_uvhjme2yd3py-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_uvhjme2yd3py-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_uvhjme2yd3py-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_uvhjme2yd3py-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_stzmjmui89l8-4 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_stzmjmui89l8-4,lower-latin) ") "}ol.lst-kix_2vqv541d3roc-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_2vqv541d3roc-0 0}.lst-kix_2vqv541d3roc-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_2vqv541d3roc-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_stzmjmui89l8-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_stzmjmui89l8-8}.lst-kix_286q7yj8je2q-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_286q7yj8je2q-4}.lst-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-8}.lst-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-8}.lst-kix_uvhjme2yd3py-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_r59wiyg98uil-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-6 0}ol.lst-kix_2vqv541d3roc-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_2vqv541d3roc-1 0}.lst-kix_uvhjme2yd3py-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-6}.lst-kix_r59wiyg98uil-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_286q7yj8je2q-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_286q7yj8je2q-0}.lst-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-2,lower-roman) ".) "}.lst-kix_5myoszhjt943-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_51rn2dks89cy-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-4}.lst-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_fcmx0oyeteyz-2}.lst-kix_jipny72zll13-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_3jhk7621cpbn-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_ggc9icc7qrh7-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-7 0}.lst-kix_jipny72zll13-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_5myoszhjt943-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_51rn2dks89cy-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-2}ol.lst-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-7}.lst-kix_5myoszhjt943-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ggc9icc7qrh7-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_51rn2dks89cy-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_nacxr1jsvxtp-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-8 0}.lst-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-4}ul.lst-kix_ncykudfygtad-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_3kehq782yobq-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_r999svgmveyw-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_wph0ces6w9m-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_stzmjmui89l8-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_stzmjmui89l8-5}.lst-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_tha2aw1q1cxh-0}.lst-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-4 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dtbmk1ctxad1-4,lower-latin) ") "}ul.lst-kix_ncykudfygtad-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ncykudfygtad-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ncykudfygtad-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ncykudfygtad-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_szwxgbgv76ju-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_ncykudfygtad-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ncykudfygtad-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_2b3atma9fdo5-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_ncykudfygtad-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_286q7yj8je2q-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_286q7yj8je2q-7}ul.lst-kix_ncykudfygtad-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_t2xx589yctmj-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_momjxqhqijr4-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_momjxqhqijr4-3}.lst-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-2}.lst-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dnfjh4lvyxgv-0,decimal) ".) "}.lst-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_wlcrcriryu8t-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ch30dpiw1dni-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_vl7dr4ouidmw-6}.lst-kix_4zrujdvxgdgy-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_2fckekyk6ub8-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_ncykudfygtad-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-3 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_rtnwhz7ewu9-3,decimal) ") "}.lst-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_bn1hvrs5c28d-1}.lst-kix_o3lm497u7zo9-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_qflx0z8mtac-7 > li:before{content:"- "}

Lecture 3: Minerals and the Rock CycleIf you want to learn more check out What is the maturational theory?

Don't forget about the age old question of How does specialization lead to global trade?
We also discuss several other topics like What defines neuroendocrine system and its role?

*Geology in the News: Seismic activity in Pacific Northwest linked to subduction of Juan de Fuca plate

Part 1: Minerals and Rock/Basic Chemistry

  • Minerals used for many things other than rocks

            - In foods you eat, in products you use etc…If you want to learn more check out What are the types of financial systems?

            - Used in building

            - Used to sell for lots of moneyIf you want to learn more check out Who is clement of alexandria?

           

Atoms- contains nucleus (w/neutrons and protons) and surrounding electrons

Atomic number- tells us number of protons in an atom.

                          -  tells us what element the atom belongs to.Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of sociocultural?

                          - can change number of electrons or neutrons, but NOT protons (w/o changing element)

*Earth’s crust is made up of different elements but not many. (almost 50% is oxygen and about 28% is silicon)

Part 2: What is Mineral?

  • Must pass all 5 requirement

  1. Non-synthetic- must be formed in nature
  2. Inorganic- not living and do not have lipids, proteins, etc
  3. Crystalline- molecules arranged in very organized, tight pattern.

*opposite of crystalline is amorphous, meaning without a tight pattern

  1. Solid- not liquid or gas
  2. Set Chemical Composition- able to write a chemical formula.

*some substitution are okay; some samples have some slightly different compositions.

Part 3: Mineral Properties

  • Color- Although easy to identify, some minerals have different colors.

            Example: A sample of quarts could be blue while another sample is pink

  • Streak- Color of mineral when ground up (Sometimes, the streak can be a different color than the actual mineral)
  • Hardness- How difficult is it to scratch/damage

                        *Moh’s scale- scale of 1-10 (1= soft, 10= hard) (1= Talc, 10= Diamond)

                        * Tools: Fingernail- hardness of 2.5

                                     Pocketknife- hardness of 5

  • Luster- How shiny/ bright a mineral is.

                        * Metallic- Very shiny/reflects light

                        * Vitreous- glassy; some light passes through

                        * Silky, Pearly, etc…

  • Effervescence- The “Acid” Test (Will the sample fizz when acid is added?)
  • Crystal Form- How crystals from (some form cubes, some form w/sharp edges etc..)

                         *most crystals are hard to identify unless in perfect condition

  • Breakage Pattern- How they break,

                         *Fracture- no set pattern to the break

                         *Cleavage- forms flat, smooth surfaces when broken. (Pay attention to how it broke-in which direction, at what angle and number of faces)

  • Other mineral properties as well (including taste, magnetic, odor, etc)

Part 4: Common Mineral Groups

  • Depends on what anion (negatively charged particle) the mineral has.

                        *common test question: How do you classify a mineral? (Ans. anions)

  • Sulfides (s)- Sulfur atom as the anion - 2 similar formulas
  • Oxides (o) - Oxygen atoms are anions- 3 metal + anion (Pb O-, Pbs -, etc)

                         * sulfides and oxides are very desirable due to cost effectiveness

  • Sulfates (SO4)-Sulfur bonded to oxygen

               *used in construction (drywall), plasters (casts), etc.

  • Phosphates (PO4)- Not common, but important in fertilizers, bones and teeth
  • Carbonates (CO3)- Found in invertebrates (corals, shells, etc)

                           *strong effervescence feature

  • Silicates (S1O4)- Tetrahedron geometry

                                       

                            *Polymerization- combining tetrahedron together (by the oxygen atoms)

                                             

-Types of Silicates:

  1. Island Silicates- no polarization
  2. Chain Silicates- form chains/strings of silicates (single chain or double chain)
  3. Sheet Silicates- expanding on 2D surface; layered structure

                               * Weak bonding- easy to peel off of one another

  1. Framework Silicates- encountered very often      

Part 5: The Rock Cycle

Rocks- Different than minerals * minerals make up rocks*

     

3 Types of Rocks: -differentiated by how they form (explained in the Rock Cycle)

  1. Igneous Rocks- formed by cooling of magma (liquid, molten rock)

             - Weathering- breaking down of rock

         - Erosion- carrying of weathered rock to another location

         - Deposition- placement of eroded sediments

  1. Sedimentary Rock- formed by Lithification (building up of previously broken up rocks)
  2. Metamorphic Rock- formed by Metamorphism (forming by replacing old minerals w/ new ones by high temperature and high pressure)

                     *increase temperature may cause forming of magma which restarts cycle

Shortcuts in Rock Cycle:

Lecture 4: Igneous Rocks and Processes

*Geology in the News: 21,000 homes in Flint, Michigan have lead contamination in drinking water.

Part 1: Magma

  • Why do we care?

             -some activity can be hazardous, so we want to know about it

             -Igneous rocks are good materials for construction, as they are durable and easy to use.

Magma- Liquid rock (low ground)

Lava- Same as magma, but at high ground

          *only difference is high/low ground)

How to create magma:

  1. Temperature- rocks melting point  is 500/600 degrees

                  * rocks made up of different minerals, each with their own melting points

                  * Partial melting- melting of rock occurs gradually and at a range of temperatures

                                              (because of  different minerals)  

  1. Wet Melting- presence of water causes lower melting point *faster melting*
  2. Decompression Melting- less pressure= lower melting point

Magma Composition

        -gases (small amounts, dissolved)

          *important in volcanic eruptions

       -S1O2 (silicon)

3 Main types of magma

  1. Basaltic Magma- most common magma on earth

                                *generated in mantle

                                *dry magma- less water than other magmas

                                *50% S1O2 (pretty low percentage)

                                *over 1100°C (hotter than magma)  

                                *can find this magma almost everywhere

  1. Andesitic Magma-found only in/around Pacific (Andesite Line and Ring of Fire)

                               *more understood after plate tectonic theory

                                 - subduction causes this odd magma

                                 - Andesitic magma forms at subduction zones (continental + oceanic plates colliding)

                               *60% S1O2

                               *1000°C at most (lower temperature)

                               *relatively dry magma

  1. Rhyolitic Magma-cooler temperature: 700-800°C

                                        -70% S1O2

                                        - Wet magma (higher water content)

*Don’t try to memorize all 3 types and each detail; know how each one relates to each other (example: higher S1O2 content, low/wet magma, etc)*

Freezing of magma

  • Crystallization- freezing of magma to form igneous rock
  • Partial freezing- freezes at a range of temperatures, due to multiple mineral

-Only outcome during freezing

  • Equilibrium crystallization: everything in magma is frozen into the rock; identical chemical composition from liquid to solid
  • Fractional crystallization: something is removed during freezing process; different chemical compositions from liquid to solid

-As the minerals freeze, they form in a specific sequence

  • Bowens Reaction Series- diagram that shows how this works
  • Discontinuous Branch- goes from forming one kind of mineral to forming another (left-hand branch)
  • Continuous Branch- plagioclase is calcium or sodium-rich, based on temperature(right-hand branch)

*Know order of minerals on the branches, and know the left-hand margin (temperature bar)*

Part 2: Igneous Rocks

2 Broad types:

  1. Plutonic (aka Intrusive)-formed in low surface (not lava, only magma)
  2. Volcanic (aka Extrusive)- formed above surface of earth

How to identify Igneous rocks:

  1. Texture- how large mineral crystals are
  2. Composition- what makes up the rock

A.Plutonic Rocks

  • Pluton- any large body of plutonic rock

 

Types of pluton:

  1. Dikes and sills-long/narrow

-dikes oriented vertically

-sills relatively parallel to the ground

*only difference between them*

  1. Laccolith-dome-shaped frozen magma
  2. Batholith-large plutons with no particular shape

                   (Main Characteristics: large size - Mt. Rushmore is carved in Batholith)

*Know how these look; common test question is to identify pictures*

Textures

  1. Pegmatitic (pegmatite)- many relatively large crystals
  2. Phaneritic- smaller crystals but still visible

Composition

  1. Could identify each mineral individually
  2. Color index- color can tell you composition (works most of the time)

-S1O2 Content

       *Felsic-lighter color (white, pink, red)

       *Intermediate- equal mix of light and dark; rock will look gray

       *Mafic- dark colors (black and brown)

       *Ultramafic-green and yellow minerals

B.) Volcanic Rocks

  • Use textures/composition to determine

       Texture

       1.) Porphyritic- some small, some large crystals

                          *large crystals called “phenocrysts”

                          *forms due to rapid freezing process of this type of rock

       2.) Aphanitic- cannot see many crystals w/o magnification

                          *glassy-looks and feels like glass (example of how color index can fail you)

                          *vesicular-many holes/openings in the rock

                           (holes form because of last minute gas bubbles popping while rock is freezing)

   

   

 

 

                               

 

       

Page Expired
5off
It looks like your free minutes have expired! Lucky for you we have all the content you need, just sign up here