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PENN STATE / HHD / HHD 129 / human development and family studies (HDFS) relates to what?

human development and family studies (HDFS) relates to what?

human development and family studies (HDFS) relates to what?


School: Pennsylvania State University
Department: HHD
Course: Intro to HDFS
Professor: Molly countermine
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: HDFS
Cost: 50
Name: HDFS study Guide 1
Description: for the first exam on Thursday, 1/28 not included: 1/26 notes
Uploaded: 01/24/2016
5 Pages 7 Views 5 Unlocks

HDFS study guide: Exam 1

human development and family studies (HDFS) relates to what?

Basis of the study of human development and family  studies

∙ The study of human development and family studies (HDFS) is  interdisciplinary

o HDFS relates to:

 Psychology

 Sociology

 Biology

 Kinesiology

 Nutrition

 Anthropology

∙ The study of human development: the goal is to discover the  similarities/differences between individuals as they develop  throughout their life

∙ Crucial to look at patterns and the influence of context ∙ The Life Span Perspective

∙ Development = lifelong process

o Each stage has it’s own particular tasks

o Development is best understood in context of entire  lifespan

∙ Plasticity- “the degree to which characteristics can/cannot  change throughout the lifespan”

∙ Historical context/chronological time

what is the The study of human development?

o We must view development in “terms of the time during  which one lived”

o Individuals are affected by events/improvements that  happen during our life

∙ Contextualism- we must study development in various contexts o Family, siblings, peers, school, work, community, culture,  SES If you want to learn more check out among the stated objectives of the national collegiate athletic association (ncaa) regulations is to

o Reciprocal influence- “development is an ongoing  

interaction between a changing individual in a  

changing environment”

∙ Multidimensionality- many intra-individual factors interact to  affect development

∙ Multidisciplinary- HD study involves collaboration across  various fields of study (AKA interdisciplinary)

Concepts & Controversies

Nature v. NurtureIf you want to learn more check out lnq chemistry

Big 5 traits

HDFS study guide: Exam 1

∙ Nature- emphasizes the influence of heredity/biologically based  predispositions

o Temperament, IQ, race, height, weight, reflexes, basic  needs

what is Plasticity?

∙ Nurture- emphasizes influence of forces in environment o Prenatal condition, parenting, life experiences, nutrition,  medical care, community, culture

∙ Jim Twins

o Separated at the age of 4 weeks Don't forget about the age old question of christine's notes

o Reunited at 39

o Had incredible similarities

 Wives had same names

 Married same number of times We also discuss several other topics like the cells that produce testosterone in the testis are called ________.
We also discuss several other topics like ibp advertising

 Both prone to nail biting

 Both smoked Salem cigarettes

 Drove same type of car

o Proof that nature plays a huge role

o Very similar, but very different in appearance (even though they’re identical)

o Example of the effects of nurture

o Faces looked different

 Could be a result of habits, or happiness

o Different height

 Could be a result of the nutrition they received If you want to learn more check out asb 222 exam 2

∙ Traits with substantial genetic predisposition:

o Intelligence- IQ (you can’t become much smarter than  you’re destined to be)

o Verbal ability

o Vocational interest (career)

o Scholastic achievement- grades, degrees (correlated w/IQ) o Memory

o Extroversion/introversion

o Neuroticism

o Openness (ability to adapt)

o Conscientiousness (how you think about other people/  doing the right things)

o Agreeableness  

∙ Disorders that have a substantial genetic predisposition: o Depression

o Anxiety

o Alzheimer’s disease

o Schizophrenia

o Autism

o Alcoholism

 All addiction really (anything that releases dopamine)

HDFS study guide: Exam 1

∙ “The environment modifies or enhances traits to which we are  predisposed.”

o Overlap from inheritance and experience when a child is  raised by the biological parents

Stability v. Change

∙ Ideas in question:

o Personality stability over time

o The extent of which early experiences set the life path of  individuals

o The ability to predict later development from early  development  

o The easiness/difficulty of changing as we get older o Reciprocal influence- each individual influences and is  influenced by other individuals in his/her environment o Just because you’re susceptible to something doesn’t mean  something is inevitable

o Susceptibility ≠ inevitability

Scientific Inquiry: studying human development o Goals of scientific investigation:

o Description- average trends

o Explanation- why do we develop the way we do?

o Optimization- how can we help people develop is a positive direction?

o The Cycle of Science



Support theory or modify theory




Hypothese s

o Theory- set of assumptions that attempt to describe, predict, or  explain a phenomenon

HDFS study guide: Exam 1

Hypothesis- proposed explanation to a phenomenon; can be  tested to determine accuracy

Correlational Research

o Goal: describe strength and direction of the relationship between 2 variables

o The result of this research is a correlation coefficient ranging  from -1.00 to +1.00

o Strength is represented by the number

o The bigger the number, the stronger the correlation

o Direction is represented by the sign

o (+), Variables move in same direction

o (-), Variables move in opposite direction

o Used to predict one variable from another BUT

o Correlation ≠ causation

o Could be a 3rd party variable driving the correlation o Research question: is there a relationship between X and Y? o Is there a relationship between desired level of intimacy in  friendships and gender of an individual?

o Must operationalize the concepts: gender and intimacy o Where it gets messy…

 Are we measuring intimacy? …Depends on your own  definition

 Are we really measuring gender or affects of gender  socialization?

o In research, it is necessary to consider not only obvious  explanations, but also alternative explanations and how  concepts are operationalized.

Developmental Designs

o Developmental designs- relationship between age of subjects  and another variable

o Cross-sectional design- individuals of different ages are  compared on a particular variable at one period in time o Demonstrates age difference

 Ex.) People of different ages use technology  


o Advantages- saves time and money

o Disadvantages- cohort effects; results may be due to  subjects’ membership in a particular generation, rather  than a developmental process

o Longitudinal design- same individual is studied over an extended  period of time

HDFS study guide: Exam 1

o Demonstrates age changes

 Ex.) Do people use technology differently as they  


o Advantages- truly studies developmental change

o Disadvantages- time consuming and expensive; risk of  losing participant (attrition); only studying 1 cohort; cohort  effect- can’t necessarily generalize results to another  cohort

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