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HDFS study Guide 1

by: Camryn McCabe

HDFS study Guide 1 HDFS 129

Marketplace > HDFS 129 > HDFS study Guide 1
Camryn McCabe
Penn State
GPA 3.81

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for the first exam on Thursday, 1/28 not included: 1/26 notes
Intro to HDFS
Molly Countermine
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Camryn McCabe on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HDFS 129 at a university taught by Molly Countermine in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 467 views.

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Date Created: 01/24/16
HDFS study guide: Exam 1 Basis of the study of human development and family studies  The study of human development and family studies (HDFS) is interdisciplinary o HDFS relates to:  Psychology  Sociology  Biology  Kinesiology  Nutrition  Anthropology  The study of human development: the goal is to discover the similarities/differences between individuals as they develop throughout their life  Crucial to look at patterns and the influence of context  The Life Span Perspective  Development = lifelong process o Each stage has it’s own particular tasks o Development is best understood in context of entire lifespan  Plasticity- “the degree to which characteristics can/cannot change throughout the lifespan”  Historical context/chronological time o We must view development in “terms of the time during which one lived” o Individuals are affected by events/improvements that happen during our life  Contextualism- we must study development in various contexts o Family, siblings, peers, school, work, community, culture, SES o Reciprocal influence- “development is an ongoing interaction between a changing individual in a changing environment”  Multidimensionality- many intra-individual factors interact to affect development  Multidisciplinary- HD study involves collaboration across various fields of study (AKA interdisciplinary) Concepts & Controversies Nature v. Nurture HDFS study guide: Exam 1  Nature- emphasizes the influence of heredity/biologically based predispositions o Temperament, IQ, race, height, weight, reflexes, basic needs  Nurture- emphasizes influence of forces in environment o Prenatal condition, parenting, life experiences, nutrition, medical care, community, culture  Jim Twins o Separated at the age of 4 weeks o Reunited at 39 o Had incredible similarities  Wives had same names  Married same number of times  Both prone to nail biting  Both smoked Salem cigarettes  Drove same type of car o Proof that nature plays a huge role o Very similar, but very different in appearance (even though they’re identical) o Example of the effects of nurture o Faces looked different  Could be a result of habits, or happiness o Different height  Could be a result of the nutrition they received  Traits with substantial genetic predisposition: o Intelligence- IQ (you can’t become much smarter than you’re destined to be) o Verbal ability o Vocational interest (career) o Scholastic achievement- grades, degrees (correlated w/IQ) o Memory o Extroversion/introversion o Neuroticism Big 5 o Openness (ability to adapt) traits o Conscientiousness (how you think about other people/ doing the right things) o Agreeableness  Disorders that have a substantial genetic predisposition: o Depression o Anxiety o Alzheimer’s disease o Schizophrenia o Autism o Alcoholism  All addiction really (anything that releases dopamine) HDFS study guide: Exam 1  “The environment modifies or enhances traits to which we are predisposed.” o Overlap from inheritance and experience when a child is raised by the biological parents Stability v. Change  Ideas in question: o Personality stability over time o The extent of which early experiences set the life path of individuals o The ability to predict later development from early development o The easiness/difficulty of changing as we get older o Reciprocal influence- each individual influences and is influenced by other individuals in his/her environment o Just because you’re susceptible to something doesn’t mean something is inevitable o Susceptibility ≠ inevitability Scientific Inquiry: studying human development o Goals of scientific investigation: o Description- average trends o Explanation- why do we develop the way we do? o Optimization- how can we help people develop is a positive direction? o The Cycle of Science Observatio ns Support theory or modify theory Theory Systematic Hypothese observation s o Theory- set of assumptions that attempt to describe, predict, or explain a phenomenon HDFS study guide: Exam 1 Hypothesis- proposed explanation to a phenomenon; can be tested to determine accuracy Correlational Research o Goal: describe strength and direction of the relationship between 2 variables o The result of this research is a correlation coefficient ranging from -1.00 to +1.00 o Strength is represented by the number o The bigger the number, the stronger the correlation o Direction is represented by the sign o (+), Variables move in same direction o (-), Variables move in opposite direction o Used to predict one variable from another BUT o Correlation ≠ causation o Could be a 3 party variable driving the correlation o Research question: is there a relationship between X and Y? o Is there a relationship between desired level of intimacy in friendships and gender of an individual? o Must operationalize the concepts: gender and intimacy o Where it gets messy…  Are we measuring intimacy? …Depends on your own definition  Are we really measuring gender or affects of gender socialization? o In research, it is necessary to consider not only obvious explanations, but also alternative explanations and how concepts are operationalized. Developmental Designs o Developmental designs- relationship between age of subjects and another variable o Cross-sectional design- individuals of different ages are compared on a particular variable at one period in time o Demonstrates age difference  Ex.) People of different ages use technology differently o Advantages- saves time and money o Disadvantages- cohort effects; results may be due to subjects’ membership in a particular generation, rather than a developmental process o Longitudinal design- same individual is studied over an extended period of time HDFS study guide: Exam 1 o Demonstrates age changes  Ex.) Do people use technology differently as they age? o Advantages- truly studies developmental change o Disadvantages- time consuming and expensive; risk of losing participant (attrition); only studying 1 cohort; cohort effect- can’t necessarily generalize results to another cohort


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