Bio Notes 1/21
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rocket on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views.
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Date Created: 01/24/16
Bio II Notes Thomas Holder 1/12 ➢ Phylum Chordata +Deuterostomes Anus develops before mouth +Endoskeleton Mainly vertebrates Few invertebrates 4 Critical Innovations of Chordate Body Design (found in some point during development birth → death) 1. Notochord Skeletal support along dorsal axis Replaced by jointed backbone (vertebral column) Remnants of notochord in discs left behind 2. Dorsal Hollow Nerve cord Expanded at anterior end → brain Enclosed/Supported/Protected by vertebral column and/or notochord Earlier groups have a ventral nerve chord 3. Pharyngeal Slits Pharynx : back of the mouth cavity H2O enters mouth comes out of slits (gills) 4. Postanal Tail Only few fishes exhibit these 4 traits as adults!! ★ Includes invertebrates and vertebrates as long as they have all 4 traits Humans Notochord → series of bony elements (vertebrae) discs, shock absorbers Nerve cord → hollow+dorsal (spinal cord +brain) Largest Brain Capacity! Pharyngeal Slits only found in embryonic development 1 pair on right and left and retained and they become Eustachian tube pair + Postanal tail only found in embryonic development 1 vertebrae retained as tailbone (coccyx) ❏ Subphylum Urochordata (Tunicates) approx. 3,000 species Invertebrates Marine Filter feeders Adults Larvae ❖ Subphylum Cephalochordata (Lancelets) 25 species Invertebrates Marine Filter feeders ★ Subphylum Vertebrate “Backboned Animals” +Vertebral Column Bony elements or Cartilage elements + Endoskeleton Mostly calcified “bone” Bone or hardened cartilage +Cranium Vertebrae gets better with evolution: Human vertebra > Bird vertebra +Hox genes 2 clusters → more complexity in development, especially in large animals +Neural Crest cells “migrate”, originally produced in nerve chord, layout blueprint for nervous system and skeleton system ➢ Class Myxini (Hagfishes) Marine Coated in slime approx. 30 species Simple skeleton Jawless Skull (not complete) Nearly blind Notochord Very poorly developed vertebrae ❏ Class Cephalaspidomorphi (Jawless fishes) Lampreys Marine + Freshwater Lack Jaws Mostly parasitic, Some filter feeders Lack appendages Coated in slime approx. 40 species Notochord in adults Cartilaginous vertebral column ❖ Class Chondrichthyes (Cartilaginous fishes) Chondi = Cartilage Jaws Paired appendages (fins) Notochord in adults cartilaginous Vert. column Mostly marine approx. 850 species Sharks/Skates/Rays ★ Class Osteichthyes (Bony fishes) Oste=bone Almost all have a complete skeleton approx. 24,000 species bony skeleton+vertebrae (in most) Some retain notochord and cartilage vertebrae into adulthood Jaws Paired appendages (fins) +Very successful group in fresh and marine waters 4 Terrestrial class ● Class Amphibia → “living a double life” 1st Terrestrial vertebrate group +Split life between and aquatic stage and a terrestrial stage Aquatic Stage = larvae Terrestrial Stage = adult Tadpole→ frogs Most lay eggs in water or at least moist areas Not completely separated from water! Most reproductively tied to water +1st Tetrapod group 4 legs (limbs) +Approx. 4,000 species Frogs/Salamanders/Toads Thin, moist skin Lungs ❏ Class Reptilia Turtles/Crocodilians/Lizards/Snakes/Dinos approx. 8,000 species Thicker skin + scales +Enhanced Kidneys to conserve water Locomotion +Larger Brains Limbs + Muscles Life away from water, no longer needed constantly or reproductively 1st group Truly Terrestrial +Amniotic Eggs Not laid in water or reproductively tied into water Advanced, shelled egg with 3 Internal membranes Shell combined shell membrane, double protection 1. Choriongas exchange in/out 2. Allantois embryonic waste bladder, urinary bladder 3. Amnion encloses embryo, “indoor pond” Sexual Reproductive Modes: 3 1. Oviparous Egg laying outside of body (Fish, Amphibian, Reptiles, Birds, Mammals) 2. Ovoviviparous Live bearing with retention of eggs but no maternal connection (Fish, Reptile) 3. Viviparous Live bearing with retained eggs and a maternal connection (placenta) (Reptiles, Mammals) ➢ Class Aves Birds Approx. 9,000 species Mostly fly Evolved from small dinosaurs Fossils 150 mybp Phylum Chordata Deuterostomes Feathers + Scales +Endoskeleton Mainly Vertebrates Few invertebrates Lightweight skeleton Highly modified forelimbs → WINGS +Contain Air sacs + gas exchange + lungs Organ reduction +High Metabolism Great need for oxygen Highest food requirement by size for any vertebrates +Endothermic High temperature (Birds, Mammals) “Internal temp” +Ectothermic “External temp” Body temp primarily determined by outside temp (Fishes, Amphibians, Reptiles) +Oviparous Only eggs
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