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Bio Notes 1/21

by: Rocket

Bio Notes 1/21 BIO 1144

GPA 4.0

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About this Document

Notes about 4 chordate body design, tunicates, lanelets, hagfishes, jawless, cartiligenous+bony fishes, amphibia, reptilia, aves classes
Thomas Holder
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rocket on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views.


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Date Created: 01/24/16
Bio II Notes Thomas Holder  1/12    ➢ Phylum Chordata  +Deuterostomes  ­Anus develops before mouth  +Endoskeleton  ­ Mainly vertebrates  ­ Few invertebrates    4 Critical Innovations of Chordate Body Design  (found in some point during development birth → death)  1. Notochord  ­Skeletal support along dorsal axis  ­Replaced by jointed backbone (vertebral column)  ­Remnants of notochord in discs left behind       2.  Dorsal Hollow Nerve cord  ­Expanded at anterior end → brain  ­Enclosed/Supported/Protected by vertebral column and/or notochord  ­Earlier groups have a ventral nerve chord       3.  Pharyngeal Slits          Pharynx ​ : back of the mouth cavity            ­ H2O enters mouth comes out of slits (gills)       4.  Postanal Tail            ­Only few fishes exhibit these 4 traits as adults!!    ★  Includes invertebrates and vertebrates as long as they have all 4 traits    Humans  ­ Notochord → series of bony elements (vertebrae) discs, shock absorbers  ­ Nerve cord → hollow+dorsal (spinal cord +brain) Largest Brain Capacity!  ­ Pharyngeal Slits only found in embryonic development              1 pair on right and left and retained and they become Eustachian tube pair  + Postanal tail only found in embryonic development  ­  1 vertebrae retained as tailbone (coccyx)          ❏ Subphylum Urochordata​  (Tunicates)  ­approx. 3,000 species        ­Invertebrates  ­Marine                               ­Filter feeders    Adults ​                              Larvae    ​                         ❖ Subphylum Cephalochordata​  (Lancelets)  ­25 species       ­Invertebrates  ­Marine             ­Filter feeders      ★ Subphylum Vertebrate ​ “Backboned Animals”  +Vertebral Column  ­ Bony elements or Cartilage elements  + Endoskeleton  ­ Mostly calcified “bone”  ­ Bone or hardened cartilage  +Cranium  ­ Vertebrae gets better with evolution:  Human vertebra > Bird vertebra  +Hox genes  ­ 2 clusters → more complexity in development, especially in large animals  +Neural Crest  ­ cells “migrate”, originally produced in nerve chord, layout blueprint for nervous system  and skeleton system            ➢ Class Myxini ​ (Hagfishes)  ­Marine                         ­Coated in slime  ­approx. 30 species       ­Simple skeleton  ­Jawless                        ­Skull (not complete)  ­Nearly blind                ­Notochord  ­Very poorly developed vertebrae    ❏ Class Cephalaspidomorphi ​ (Jawless fishes)  ­Lampreys            ­Marine + Freshwater  ­Lack Jaws           ­Mostly parasitic, Some filter feeders  ­Lack appendages  ­Coated in slime  ­approx. 40 species  ­Notochord in adults  ­Cartilaginous vertebral column    ❖ Class Chondrichthyes​  (Cartilaginous fishes)   ­Chondi = Cartilage           ­Jaws  ­Paired appendages (fins)    ­Notochord in adults  ­cartilaginous Vert. column    ­Mostly marine  ­approx. 850 species        ­Sharks/Skates/Rays    ★ Class Osteichthyes​  (Bony fishes)  ­Oste=bone         ­Almost all have a complete skeleton  ­approx. 24,000 species    ­bony skeleton+vertebrae (in most)  ­Some retain notochord and cartilage vertebrae into adulthood  ­Jaws  ­Paired appendages (fins)  +Very successful group in fresh and marine waters    4 Terrestrial class    ● Class Amphibia​  → “living a double life”  ­1st Terrestrial vertebrate group  +Split life between and aquatic stage and a terrestrial stage         Aquatic Stage = larvae         Terrestrial Stage = adult                              Tadpole→ frogs  ­Most lay eggs in water or at least moist areas  ­Not completely separated from water!  ­Most reproductively tied to water  +1st Tetrapod group  ­  4 legs (limbs)  +Approx. 4,000 species  ­ Frogs/Salamanders/Toads  ­ Thin, moist skin  ­ Lungs    ❏ Class Reptilia  ­Turtles/Crocodilians/Lizards/Snakes/Dinos  ­approx. 8,000 species     ­Thicker skin + scales  +Enhanced   ­ Kidneys to conserve water  ­ Locomotion  +Larger   ­ Brains  ­ Limbs + Muscles  ­Life away from water, no longer needed constantly or reproductively  ­1st group Truly Terrestrial  +Amniotic Eggs  ­ Not laid in water or reproductively tied into water  ­ Advanced, shelled egg with 3 Internal membranes  ­ Shell combined shell membrane, double protection                      1. Chorion­gas exchange in/out  2. Allantois­ embryonic waste bladder, urinary bladder  3. Amnion­ encloses embryo, “indoor pond”        Sexual Reproductive Modes: 3  1. Oviparous​ ­ Egg laying outside of body (Fish, Amphibian, Reptiles, Birds, Mammals)  2. Ovoviviparous​ ­ Live bearing with retention of eggs but no maternal connection (Fish,  Reptile)  3. Viviparous​ ­ Live bearing with retained eggs and a maternal connection (placenta)  (Reptiles, Mammals)      ➢ Class Aves  ­Birds         ­Approx. 9,000 species  ­Mostly fly     ­Evolved from small dinosaurs  ­Fossils 150 mybp   ­​Phylum Chordata  ­Deuterostomes        ­Feathers + Scales    +Endoskeleton  ­ Mainly Vertebrates    ­ Few invertebrates  ­ Lightweight skeleton  ­ Highly modified forelimbs → WINGS  +Contain  ­ Air sacs + gas exchange + lungs  ­ Organ reduction  +High Metabolism  ­ Great need for oxygen  ­ Highest food requirement by size for any vertebrates  +Endothermic   ­ High temperature (Birds, Mammals)  ­ “Internal temp”  +Ectothermic  ­ “External temp”   ­ Body temp primarily determined by outside temp  (Fishes, Amphibians, Reptiles)  +Oviparous  ­ Only eggs 


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