COMM 2020 Exam 1 Study Guide
COMM 2020 Exam 1 Study Guide Comm 2020
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bridie Burke on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Comm 2020 at East Carolina University taught by Eric Shouse in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 216 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Speech Communication in Communication at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 01/24/16
COMM 2020 Study Guide Exam 1 1/28/16 Classical Greece (490 – 322 BC) Rhetoric – ability to discover most appropriate means of persuasion, taught by sophists Debates over who owned what property led to court debates, where people defended themselves (weren’t good speakers). You won the court case if you were the best speaker, so Athenians would hire sophists to teach effective speaking. Aristotle’s types of speeches: 1. Forensic – to accuse or defend (in court) 2. Deliberative – to persuade or dissuade (political speeches) 3. Epideictic – to commemorate or blame (at funeral or wedding) Socrates taught Plato who taught Aristotle Gorgias – a sophist, loved rhetoric Plato wrote play about an encounter between Gorgias and Socrates. Gorgias bragged about his ‘verbal magic’ claiming he could convince people of anything Socrates – Greek philosopher Argued that rhetoric was manipulative, believed philosophy reveal real truth Made analogy: Gorgias is cook who can season bad food to make it taste good, but it isn’t healthy. Philosophy is the doctor who can find the root of nutrition Believed in truth, justice & Athenian way if people didn’t live this way, he would call them out on it. Socrates outed everyone, so people didn’t like him – arrested for ‘corrupting the youth’ and was sentenced to death. Court was run by sophists so he drank poison & killed himself Protagoras – sophist, believed in rhetoric & arguing Told his students to learn both sides of an argument if you know both sides fully, you can decide which side you believe Isocrates – sophist, world traveller Believed it was impossible to know everything about a situation Traveled the world & has seen much truth – found that truth is relative to where you are Plato – philosopher, didn’t like sophists Sophists killed his teacher Socrates, so he hated sophists Made distinction between rhetoric & truth didn’t trust the people & believed gov should be run by philosopher kings (but this didn’t happen) Aristotle – philosopher, Had faith in the people – believed people will believe truth if it’s presented by two equal speakers To make sure two speakers were ‘equal’ – send to Aristotle’s Academy: o Logos – practical reasoning o Pathos – emotional proof o Ethos – speaker credibility (most important) Classical Rome Cicero – rhetorician, came up with 5 cannons of rhetoric: 1. Invention – coming up with something to say 2. Arrangement – order case if effective way 3. Style – word choice, situation based 4. Delivery – how you physically/vocally deliver speech 5. Memory – ability to remember facts, use of notes Quintilian – rhetorician, suggested 5 principle truths: 1. Defend truth 2. Protect the innocent 3. Prevent criminal behavior 4. Inspire the military 5. Inspire the public Socrates & Cicero died for these values Believed public speaking is how we construct society’s rules, values & beliefs civil engagement – acting on awareness of responsibility to community Communication Process Environment feedback Speaker Listener (message encoded) code (message decoded) message: gesture, eye contact, tone, etc environment: internal/external noises, sights, etc Performance Anxiety o 95% or speakers in the US have some degree of performance anxiety o people who are perceived as less anxious are more successful (even if they only appear less anxious) When we speak, we communicate: Verbally – what we are physically saying, words, phrases Visually – how we appear when we say it, fidgety, confident Vocally – how our voice sounds when we speak, loud, shaky Physiology of Anxiety o our body can’t distinguish between physically threatening & emotionally threatening situations o body initiates FIGHT, FLIGHT, or FREEZE o blood flows out of hands, feet to core, heart rate increases, body shakes as it tries to get blood back into hands and feet How to manage anxiety: PRACTICE practice can reduce anxiety by 75% o Practice out loud, it’s not the same as internally Prepare Breathing Control – exhale longer than inhale o Controls breathing control heart rate o Heart sends signals to brain calms body Meditation/Physical Trigger o Meditate & learn how your body feels when it’s relaxed o Find physical trigger to associate with relaxation (fist Power Pose – stretch out and take up space Listening Hearing – physiological process of processing sounds Listening – psychological process of making sense of sounds 1. Receive stage: listeners usually attend to one or more stimuli we are alert to what interests us and ignore the other factors 2. Comprehend stage: goal is to understand the message (helps to ask questions) 3. Interpret stage: listeners supply meaning to messages they just sensed (words can have different meanings) 4. Evaluate stage: thinking deeply, decide what info to store. Evaluate message & speaker 5. Respond stage: listeners communicate boredom, agreement, etc. with nonverbal communication 6. Memory stage: listener decides what part to store in long term memory Research & Preparation When coming up with basic research question: 1. An open ended question (not simply a yes or no question) 2. Focus on only one topic 3. Answer should help generate thesis or argument for speech Coming up with good topic: 1. Select topic that fits requirement of assignment 2. Select topic which showcases experience & knowledge 3. Select topic that interests you 4. Select topic which can be made interesting for audience Researching – what to avoid Plagiarism – presenting someone else’s idea s your own o Incremental – fail to give credit (accidental) o Patch work – ideas from different sources & strung together o Global – steal entire speech/paper Conducting research: Background info – provides context on topic Tangential Info – evidence which provides color & capture audience Evidentiary into – examples & statistics to support main points Demonstrations: Blow in up for audience to see (PPT, poster) Practice demo so you can perform smoothly Keep it short Clear it with instructor
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