Week 3 Study Guide
Week 3 Study Guide PY 101 - Intro to Psychology
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brianna Alvarado on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PY 101 - Intro to Psychology at Texas Christian University taught by Dr. Whelburg in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 127 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 01/24/16
Exam 2 – General Psychology Chapters 5 – 8 Developmental Psychology Deals with changes from birth to life Physical, cognitive, social Nature vs. nature 3 Major Issues o Nature v. nature o Continuity and stages o Stability and change Motor skills, problem solving, language Stages vs. continuity (in terms of how development occurs) Stage: believe children grow in stages as they seem to develop chunks of abilities and to experience events at certain times in life o crawl walk Continuous: kids constantly add new lessons and skills on top of old lessons and skills as they get older o Steady, uniform o Interaction and growth Teratogen Agents that can damage the embryo/fetus o Viruses and drugs o Alcohol depresses activity in the central nervous system and puts child at prime for alcohol disorders Chemical marks on DNA that switch genes on/off o Epigenetic effect Impaired behavior Maturation Orderly sequence of growth and development Basic course while experience adjusts it o stand walk o noun adjective Memory begins to mature at around 3 ½ years Brain o Overproduce neurons (subsides) o Neural networks grow o Use it or lose it o Memory, thinking, language Motor o Sequence is same, timing changes o Guided by genes o Cerebellum Infant amnesia Able to recall if 4 or 5 NOT 3 3.5 years Do not retain memories Memory for skills develops earlier than fact memory Piaget (and his stages) Involved interacting with the world to develop Sensorimotor: senses and actions (object permanence and stranger anxiety) o 0-2 years old Preoperational: images rather than words (pretend play, egocentric, language development) o 2-6,7 years old Concrete Operational: logic, concrete analogies, arithmetic (conversation, math) o 7-11 years old Formal Operational: logic, abstract thoughts o 12+ years old Schemas Concepts to pour experiences into and make sense of them o Cat, dog, love Assimilation Interpretation in terms of schemas New experiences are categorized into current schemas for understanding purposes Accommodation Process of adjusting a schema Refinement Imprinting Attachment to first moving creature Familiarity Conservation Concrete/Operational reasoning Mass, volume, number remains the same despite changes in form Developed at age 6 o Model couch, toy Attachment Theory Ainsworth and Harlow Stability and security Bond forms due to bodily contact, not feeding Secure: social competence, exploration, comforted, trust Insecure: deprived of health, anxiety, do not explore, no trust Object Permanence Awareness of object even when not seen Gradual development Lacks at 6 months Develops at 8 months Parenting Styles Authoritarian: strict o Less social skills Permissive: lenient o Aggressive, immature Authoritative: both demanding and responsive o High self-esteem, self- competence Shows correlation, not causation o Trait influences parents or vice versa Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence Fluid: ability to reason o Declines with age o Begins at 20-30 years through 75 years Crystalized: accumulated knowledge, learning o Increases up to old age o Gain vocab and knowledge Erikson Psychosocial Development (8 stages) Kohlberg (and his levels) Levels of Moral Thinking (3 stages) Sensation Deflection of physical energy (stimulus) from the environment to convert into neural signals Perception Process by which the brain organized and interprets senses Organization o Bottom-up: sense receptor brain/mind level o Top-down: guided by higher-level processes (experience and expectation) Absolute Threshold Minimum stimulation needed to detect stimulus 50% of the time Half detected, half not detected Sensory Adaptation No longer notice stimulus Diminished sensitivity due to constant stimulation Nerve cells fire less frequently The “blind spot” in the eye Where the optic nerve leaves the eye No receptor cells (cones or rods) Rods and Cones Rods o Share bipolar o Combined messages o Dim light Cones o Color o Ineffectual in dim light o One bipolar cell o Sensitivity o Detail and color Gestalt (including connectedness, proximity, interposition, closure, continuity) understand the laws of our ability to acquire and maintain meaningful perceptions in an apparently chaotic world Lightness Constancy Theory proposed by psychology researcher Hans Wallach in 1948 Explored human visual perception of neutral colors (colors that have brightness but no hue; white, gray and black). This theory states that although these colors, when seen in isolation on a blank screen appear to emit light, when paired with a surrounding ring of different brightness, those items will no longer appear to emit light. Perceptual set Mental tendencies and assumptions that greatly affect what we perceive o Can influence what we hear, taste, feel, and see Monster or tree? o If you are looking for a tree, then you will see a tree Stereotypes o McDonalds bag = better fries o Vinegar beer is okay until you know there is vinegar in it Experience forms schemas that influence perception o Ex. Names, baby color The Phi Phenomenon When two adjacent stationary lights blink on and off in a quick succession and we perceive a single light moving back and forth between them Illusion of movement Related to the ability of viewers to perceive motion from a series of still images projected onto a screen at 24 frames per second Continuous movement in rapid series = stroboscopic movement Super-fast slideshow Perceptual adaptation The ability of the body to adapt to an environment by filtering out distractions Regardless of the viewing angle, distance, and illumination, we can identify people and things Color constancy experience of color depending on context; In vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field Means by which the brain accounts for the differences that the subject may witness, particularly alterations in the visual field. If an individual's visual field is altered forty five degrees left, the brain accounts for the difference allowing the individual to function normally. Learning The process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviors Ability to adapt to the environment Classical Conditioning (NS, US, UR, CS, CR) Learn to expect and prepare for significant event such as food or pain due to stimuli Ivan Pavlov: ring bells dog salivates Prediction and control of behavior, basic form of learning NS= neutral stimuli (tone) US= unconditioned stimuli (food) UR= unconditioned response (salivation after tone) CS= conditioned stimuli (tone after dog salivates) CR= conditioned response (salivation after tone) The Little Albert study Connect loud noise to mouse, and after is scared of the mouse Associated furry animals with loud sound and fear Shaping Gradually guiding actions toward a desired behavior Give rat a piece of food the close it gets to a lever o Successive approximates Can a dog determine red from green? o Intelligence and ability to distinguish Reinforcement An event that strengthens a preceding response Depends on the animal and the conditions Pay check, attention, etc. Positive: strengthens response by adding a desirable stimulus o Pet dog, he comes Negative: strengthens response by removing an aversive stimulus o Take painkillers, pain stops Punishment Any consequence that decreases the frequency of a preceding behavior Powerfully restrain unwanted behavior Punished behavior is suppressed, not forgotten Teaches discrimination- certain results but not others will be reinforced o Punishment end swearing or prevent swearing from inside the house Can teach fear o Generalization occurs when an organism’s response to similar stimuli is also reinforced o Fear a punishing teacher, try to avoid school or become anxious May cause aggression as a way to cope Reinforcement Schedules (Fixed Interval, Variable Interval, etc.) Fixed-interval: reinforce the first response after a fixed time period o Check mail more often as package is supposed to come o Bird peck for food closer to feeding time o Choppy start-stop time Fixed-ratio: reinforces behavior after a set number of responses o Coffee shops give free drinks after certain amount is spent o Rats may receive one pellet for every thirty responses Variable-ratio: reinforces after a seemingly unpredictable number of responses o Slot machines o fishing Variable-interval: reinforces the first response varying time intervals o Rechecking email or Facebook response o Slow, steady response Spontaneous recovery Extinction occurs when CS is repeated without US o Response is diminished The reappearance of a weakened CR after a pause o Extinction is suppression rather than elimination Secondary/Conditioned Reinforcer vs. Primary Reinforcer Conditioned (secondary) reinforcers receive power through learned association with primary reinforcers Primary reinforcers are unlearned o Conditioned: check mark o Primary: Candy Operant Conditioning Organisms associate their own actions with consequences Actions involving reinforcers increase Actions followed by punishment decrease Behavior that operates on the environment to produce rewarding or punishing stimuli Skinner Elaborated Edward Thorndike’s law of effect o Rewarded behavior is likely to reoccur o Behavior control o Operant chamber Lever to press for reinforcement Taught pigeons to walk, play Ping-Pong coined the term operant conditioning; it means roughly changing of behavior by the use of reinforcement which is given after the desired response Generalization The tendency to respond likewise to stimuli similar to CS Different tones of bell, rubbed and scratched show same result, fear of all automobiles The “Law of Effect” from Thorndike He placed a cat in the puzzle box, which was encouraged to escape to reach a scrap of fish placed outside. Thorndike would put a cat into the box and time how long it took to escape. The cats experimented with different ways to escape the puzzle box and reach the fish. In successive trials the cats would learn that pressing the lever would have favorable consequences and they would adopt this behavior, becoming increasingly quick at pressing the lever. Observational Learning Learn by experience Chimpanzees learn by watching humans Sister burns fingers, child won’t touch stove Type of cognitive learning (learning by observation or watching/listening to others) Modeling A method used in certain techniques of psychotherapy whereby the client learns by imitation alone, without any specific verbal direction by the therapist "Model your behaviors and learn how to act by watching how others are performing in the same situation." o imitation Extinction The disappearance of a previously learned behavior when the behavior is not reinforced Extinction is observed in both operantly conditioned and classically conditioned behavior Discrimination The ability to perceive and respond to differences among stimuli The ability to differentiate between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that have not been paired with an unconditioned stimulus o Differentiate between different tones It is considered a more advanced form of learning than generalization (similarities) Animals can be trained to discriminate as well as to generalize Instinctive drift Stop performing those behaviors in the way they learned and start reverting back to their more instinctual behaviors The animal no longer performs the behaviors it has been taught, but goes back to behaviors that are in its nature o It begins to do what it is driven to do regardless of the resulting punishment A dog with the nature to bark at visitors taught to sit quietly when a guest enters through reward and punishment. Under stress, however, it may have instinctual drift, disregarding the learned behavior and barking at the guest. Memory Learning that has persisted over time o Information has been stored and can be received Recall: retrieving information that is not currently in you conscious awareness but was learned at a previous time Recognition: identifying previously learned items (MC test) Relearning: learning something more quickly the second time The serial position effect The tendency of a person to recall the first and last items in a series best, and the middle items worst Recency and primary effect o Recall last best, and then first Immediate recall of a list of items (such as words) is best from the end of the list and worst in the middle Proactive interference Forward-acting Old learning disrupts the recall of new information o New and old learning collide o New lock combination is hard to remember because you confuse it with the old one Retroactive interference Backward-acting Occurs when new learning disrupts recall of old information o New lyrics to the tone of an old song may cause difficulty in remembering the new song Visual encoding The process by which we remember visual images Presented a list of words, each shown for one second, you would be able to remember if there was a word that was written in all capital letters, or if there was a word written in italics Images lead to a remembering the concept Rehearsal Conscious repetition Words attached to memories The more times nonsense syllables were practiced, the fewer repetitions were needed Retrieval Just because you cannot remember something doesn't mean that it is not in your memory. It may be a problem with being able to locate it for retrieval. Retrieval cues: memories held in storage by a web of associations o Anchors to help retrieve memory “tip of the tongue” o Web needs to be more sufficient Priming To retrieve a specific memory from a web of associations you must activate one of the strands leading to it Spelling hare when looking at a rabbit vs. hair Smells, tastes, sights can evoke memory o “waking of associations” Ebbinghaus’ research Learn quick, forget quick Learning meaningful info required 1/10 the effort of nonsense More practice, more learning Initial forgetting is rapid, then levels off with time The Spacing effect States that we learn material more effectively and easily when we study it several times spaced out over a longer time span, rather than trying to learn it in a short period of time This holds true for material you want to store for a long time (i.e., really store it in memory), whereas cramming can work to store information for short periods of time Chunking Organizing information into a familiar, manageable unit o Can remember more Break down complex information into subdivisions Mnemonic Vivid imagery, phases, etc. and organizational devices in aiding memory More bizarre = remember better Remembering using association The “magic” number in memory 5-9 pieces of information in short term memory Duration in 20 seconds Capacity for processing information Flashbulb memory Clarity of memories of surprising, significant events detailed and vivid memory that is stored on one occasion and retained for a lifetime o 9/11 Retrieval cues Just because a memory has been fully encoded is no guarantee that it can be retrieved and applied at will Retrieval cues are any stimulus or words that help us remember stored memories o Sights, smells, noises Memory can be improved with clever reminders When a memory is encoded it is more likely to be recalled in conditions that are similar to the ones in which it was initially learned o Underwater vs. on land The “misinformation effect” The impairment in memory for the past that arises after exposure to misleading information. Reminisced about an experience with someone and you both seem to have different recollections of the same event? Long-term memory is very prone to errors and can easily be altered and molded Recovered Memories Emergence of a formerly repressed memory Doubts about the realities of these memories and whether recovered memories were accurate
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