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Cal State Fullerton - HIST 110 - World Civilizations #1 - Class Notes

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Cal State Fullerton - HIST 110 - World Civilizations #1 - Class Notes

School: California State University - Fullerton
Department: History
Course: World Civilization to 16th Century
Professor: Stefan Chrissanthos
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: world civilizations, history, Archaeology, Paleolithic, Neolithic, homo sapiens, beginning, and agriculture
Name: World Civilizations #1
Description: The first notes covered in class and textbook
Uploaded: 01/24/2016
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background image WORLD CIVILIZATIONS   1.  Earliest Human Societies   Before writing, humans grasped various concepts in order for survival. It last for several million years. 
Thousands of years before the recording of history, humans populated the entire Earth except for Antarctica. 
Homo sapiens: “thinking man” or “skillful man.”   Until recently it was assumed that man evolved through a process called natural selection.   Hominid: A humanlike creature. Walked about in East Africa as early as 4.5 million years ago.   Homo ergaster: The earliest forms of homo sapiens. Appeared 150,000 years ago and evolved 100,000 years 
ago.  
From there humans and their descendants formed languages and expanded to Southwest Asia, Europe and East 
Asia 75,000 years ago. Due to the Ice Age 17,000 years ago, the Pacific Basin froze and enabled the people to 
cross into North America. The rapid migration southward also led them into South America.  
Tool making is the earliest indicator of hominids and human beings. Both bone and stone were found to be in 
the Paleolithic era. These tools found have no function thus they were probably made for art.  
Paleolithic Age (Old Stone Age) extended from the appearance of the tools found to about 10,000 BCE. 
Hunting and gathering was commonly in family groups or clans. During this time, human’s physical appearance 
and capacity to reason, plan, organize and create art changed. 17 types of Hominids evolved during this time. 
They came to an end for unknown reasons, but some indicate it was due to warfare, and others it was gradual 
absorption by a more advanced species, the Homo Sapiens. A famous example of the failed homos was the 
Neanderthal Man, who flourished in Europe then disappeared around 30,000 BCE. Physical changed occurred 
with the hominids and advanced in their skill work. They also adapted to the environment. 
Neolithic Age (New Stone Age) is during social breakthrough. In the Holocene Era, humans would depend 
less on hunting and gathering, and depend more on food production, thus we moved closer to water. It was also 
during this time that climate became drier.  
Neolithic (food-producing) Revolution is a time that humans begin to grow or breed their own food. Dramatic 
series of changes in human societies resulted, such as 1) settling down in permanent locations with expanding 
populations, 2) creation of property of land, livestock and sources of water, 3) systematic regulation was 
developed to enforce the rights of access to land and water –Codes of law, 4) specialization of labor.  
Believed that agriculture emerged in a region of the Near East called the Fertile Crescent. By 7000 BCE 
agriculture and livestock breeding appeared in the Near East, Central America, South America, northern China, 
southern China, southeast Asia, northeast Africa, West Africa.  
Civilizations arose and each shared 8 attributes: 1) primarily rural, 2) based on peasant agriculture or livestock 
breeding, 3) maintained life in balance with their natural environment, 4) based heavily on gods and spirits, 5) 
religions emphasized sacrifice and ritual, 6) relied on religious specialists to communicate with gods, 7) 
believed time to be cyclic, and 8) their social values emphasized kinship and the clan.  
Death at young ages and decline in health was common.   The Yellow River (sorrow of China) was used to farm in Northern China, although it was ruinous at times. 
Deserts and drier lands made it harder to grow food, thus stockbreeding was used. Communities near oceans, 
lakes and seas would craft canoes, hooks and nets, and later begin voyages.  

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School: California State University - Fullerton
Department: History
Course: World Civilization to 16th Century
Professor: Stefan Chrissanthos
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: world civilizations, history, Archaeology, Paleolithic, Neolithic, homo sapiens, beginning, and agriculture
Name: World Civilizations #1
Description: The first notes covered in class and textbook
Uploaded: 01/24/2016
2 Pages 19 Views 15 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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