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Psy 381 Abnormal psych study guide

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by: Jeulia Notetaker

Psy 381 Abnormal psych study guide PSY 381

Marketplace > University of Arizona > Psychlogy > PSY 381 > Psy 381 Abnormal psych study guide
Jeulia Notetaker
GPA 3.0
Abnormal Psychology
Judith Becker

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These notes cover key topics that could be on the first exam
Abnormal Psychology
Judith Becker
Study Guide
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This page Study Guide was uploaded by Jeulia Notetaker on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 381 at University of Arizona taught by Judith Becker in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Arizona.


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Date Created: 01/24/16
Abnormal Psych The application of psychological science to the study of mental disorders The ling dividing normal from abnormal is not clear Symptoms and signs of mental disorders when one is out of contact with reality One symptom by itself is sufficient to make a diagnosis A group of symptoms that appear together and are assumed to represent a specific type of disorder Duration or persistence of maladaptive behaviors Impairment in the ability to perform social and occupational roles Defined by clusters of persistent maladaptive behaviors that are associated with personal distress Condition results from the inability of some internal mechanism to its natural function Not every dysfunction leads to a disorder the scientific study of the frequency and population of disorders within a population the number of new cases of a disorder that appear in a population during a specific period of time number of active cases new and old present in a population during a specific periodtime the presence of more than one condition within the same period of time There can be more than one symptom of a disorder in one person Psychotic disorders are less influenced by culture than are nonpsychotic disorders Symptoms of certain disorders are more likely to vary across cultures than are the disorders themselves The definition of abnormal behavior will change and evolve over time as will culture Clinical depression is a universal phenomenon Depression is not limited to western or urban societies Each culture has its own ways of interpreting s reality including expressing or communicating symptoms or physical and emotional disorder China has more somatic disorders N American and Europe more depressed feelings Chapter 2 the cause of most abnormal behavior remains a mystery She had a bad relationship with her mom and after a big argument she tried to kill herself by taking a bottle of Tylenol She spent 30 days in a psychiatric hospital Looks for biological abnormalities that might cause abnormal behavior Ex syphilis dementia 1 Cause of abnormality genes neurochemistry psychical damage 2 Type of treatment medication and other somatic therapies 3 Focus bodily functions an structures Abnormal behavior is caused by unconscious mental conflicts that have roots in early childhood Aggressivesexual a pleasure principle b reality principle c societal standards of behavior d Superego ego moral anxiety e ld ego neurotic anxiety f Ego protects itself from neurotic anxiety by using defense mechanisms 1 early childhood experiences 2 psychotherapy 3 unconscious mind views abnormal behavior and normal behavior as a product of learning Classical conditioning and operant conditioning Learning through reinforcement punishment and extinction Behaviorism Neutral a blank slate 1 Social learning 2 cognitive behavior therapy 3 observable behavior An explicitly positive view of human nature free will we control choose and are responsible for our actions Determinism 1 Cause of abnormality frustrations of society 2 Treatment nondirective therapy 3 Focus free will Disruption in the functioning of various neurotransmitters are present among disorders Mental health problems are not necessarily caused by a chemical imbalance in the brain Schizophrenia dopamine Depressionserotonin Malfunction in serotonin pathways involved in etiology of depression May be more neurotransmit Attachment Temperament Emotions Learning and cognition Modeling Attributions Chapter 3 The use of psychological techniques and the therapistclient relationship to produce emotional cognitive and behavior change Adherents to different paradigms offer very different treatments using different treatments for different disorder Are chemical substances that affect psychological states Often safe and effective Alleviate symptoms not cure causes of illness Many must be taken for a long periods of time All medications have side effects Most of the time mwewwe Shock therapy 1 current passes through both hemispheres 2 current passes through one hemispheres Surgical destruction of specific regions of the brain Used to treat sever cases of COD Free association Insight Interpretation Resistance Transference derived from psychoanalysis treatment is brief Focuses on changing emotion and styles of interacting in close relationships encourages clienttherapist relationship focused on present Today it incorporates many learning based principles Focusing Asks whats works role of therapist is activedirect ls effective in treatment of nonpsychotic depression Eliminating phobias 1 In vivo desensitization gradually confronting fear 2 Flooding confronting fears at full intensity use of classical conditions to create not eliminate and unpleasant response Effectiveness not clear used to primarily treat substance abusers relationship between a behavior and its consequences teaches clients to be direct about their feelings and wishes 1 rehearses new social skills 2 teaches clients through solving a variety of life s problems people are intuitive scientist Constantly draw conclusions about the causes of events Adults model an appropriate behavior child asked to repeat the action develop internalization depression is caused by errors in thinking Emotional disorders are caused by irrational beliefs viewed 2 qualities as in a therapist warmth genuineness empathy 1 valuing clients for who they are 2 a bond between therapist and client a statistical procedure that allows researchers to combine the results from different studies in a standardized way Yes for the most part Depends on nature of client duration of therapy clients background YAVIS young attractive verbal intelligent successful 1 whether a treatment can work under prescribed circumstances 2 whether therapy does work in the real world Chapter 4 FJ FFDN assumes that distinctions among members of different categories are qualitative Quality not quantity describes the objects of classification in terms of continuous dimensions How much of a characteristic that object exhibits International classification of diseases Published by world health organization More than 200 specific diagnostic categories 22 primary headings 1 symptoms that must be present 2 Diagnosis can be ruled out if certain conditions prevail agreement among raters using dsm5 concerned with factors that cause or contribute to the onset of the disorder concerned with present time Correlations between disorder and other symptoms circumstance test procedures concerned with the future and with stability of the problem over time disorders are defined in terms of snapshots of symptoms at particular points in time various types of consistency consistency of measurements over time internal consistency of items cultural differences people may alter behavior intentionally or unintentionally sometimes called objective tests provides precises measures of brain structures provide static images of brain structures created functional brain images identifies changed in brain activity that last less than a second Can be used to rule out various neurological conditions Explores relationship between rain functions and specific mental disorders Norms unavailable expensive patient exposed to radioactivity localizations of brain functions not fully known Chapter 5 state of arousal defined by objective states of feeling as sadness anger disgust Pattern of observable behaviors as facial expression pitch of voice body movements A pervasive and sustained emotional response can color perception a combination of emotional cognitive and behavioral symptoms Depressed mood accompanied by other symptoms loss of energy loss of pleasure fatigue changes in sleep and appetite opposite of depression euphoria exaggerated feeling of physical and emotional well being are defined in terms of episodes discrete periods of time in which the person behavior is dominated by either a depressed or manic mood Experience of a depressive episode episodes of depression and mania dysphonic or depressed euphoria irritability and anxiety slowed thinking guilt and worthlessness speeded thoughts inflated self esteem self destructive ideas suicidal thoughts aches pains changes in sleep and appetite and pleasurable activities as if in slow motion gregarious and energetics easily distracted major depressive disorder persistent depressive disorder premenstrual dysphonic disruptive mood dysregulation disorder manic or hypomanic episodes 1 Bipolar 1 at least one manic episode 2 Bipolar 2 at one hypomanic episode no full blown manic episodes bipolar Must experience numerous hypomanic and depressive episodes during a two year period A particularly severe type of depression Hallucionations or delusions Post partum rapid cycling and seasonal disorder Uses light therapy a period of recovery return of active symptoms in women Keep having repetitive thoughts which is seen in depression in men Distract themselves from depressions Bipolar mood disorders have heritability of 80 in twins PET and fMRI indicate different activity levels in regions of prefrontal cortex PCF in depressed individuals Decreased activity on left side of brain Abnormally elevated activity in orbital PFC and ventromedial PFC Most frequent used anti depressant Few side effects sexual dysfunction weight gain Less dangerous in event of overdose imipramine and amitriptyline More side effects constipation drowsiness drop BP blurred visions equal in success rate to SSRls not as effective as tricyclics Side effects consuming foods with tyramine cheese and chocolate increase BP Used in treatment of anxiety disorder particularly agoraphobia and panic used to treat bipolar Alleviation of manic symptoms 40 of patients do not improve DSM5 does not address the issue Only as a symptom of mood disorder person becomes relatively detached from society and feels existence is meaningless rules of the social group dictate that the person sacrifice own life for other sake sudden breakdown in social order Living unbearable circumstances psychological pain social isolation feelings of being a burden previous attempts Reduced level of serotonin Social crisis centers and hotlines Psychoterpy reduce tunnel vision meds SSRls and hospitalization


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