Into to Animal Science, Midterm Study Guide
Into to Animal Science, Midterm Study Guide ANS 121
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Date Created: 01/24/16
Midterm Study Guide Information from week 13 lectures dairy and cattle labs and chapters 1 2 9 10 12 Reading Chapter 1 Introduction to Animal Sciences Vocabulary to know Agriculture the combination of art and science used to cultivate crops and livestock and process the products Animal Science the combination of disciplines that together comprise the study of domestic animals Animal breeding the use of biometry de ned below and genetics to improve farm animal production Animal health the study and practice f maintaining animals as near to a constant state of health as is possible and feasible Applied ethology the study of behavior in domestic animals Biofuel gas or liquid fuel made from biological materials such as crops and animal waste Biometry the application of statistics to topics in biology Biotechnology a collective set of tools and applications of living organisms or parts of organisms to make or modify products improve plants or animals or develop microorganisms for speci c uses Civilization in modern context this refers to what we consider a fairly high level of cultural and technological development Dairy product science The science of providing milk products asfood Domestic Animals Those species that have been brought under human control and that have adapted to life with humans dogs rst domesticated 14000 years ago according to archeological evidence Draft animal an animal whose purpose is to perform work that involves hauling or pulling Essential amino acids those amino acids required by the body that must be consumed in the diet Ethology the study of animals in their natural habitat Farmer anyone who practices agriculture by managing and cultivating livestock andor crops Genetics The science of heredity and the variation of inherited characteristics 0 Genetic code the set of rules by which information encoded in genetic material is translated into proteins by living cells 0 Green revolution Dramatic improvements in grain production in developing countries during the 1960 s and into the 1980 s because of technological innovation and application 0 Heredity the transmission of genetic characteristics from parent to offspring o Huntergatherer Huntergatherer people supported their needs by hunting shing and gathering edible and medicinal plants Livestock revolution large increases in supply and demand of livestock and animal products worldwide at the end of the 20th century and into the 21st century 0 Meat the esh of animals used for food 0 Meat science the science of handling distributing and marketing meat and meat products 0 Nutrition the study of nutrients and how the body uses them 0 Nutrient density a measurement of the nutrients provided in a food compared to the calories it contains Omnivore an animal that eats both plant and animal based feeds Physiology the study of the physical and chemical processes of an animal or any of the body systems or cells of an animal 0 Per capita per unit of population by or for each person 0 Renewable resources Resources that can be replaced of produced by natural ecological cycles Undernourished Receiving inadequate nourishment for proper health and growth Key Concepts 0 Animal Science specialties include genetics heredity breeding biometry nutrition physiology health ethology meat science dairy science and biotechnology Not only do animals provide food they provide other products such as wool hair feathers and hides 0 Draft animals are vital to many countries because without them food production in underdeveloped countries could come to a halt Animals are used in research to bene t animal health and in some cases human health Summary of Chapter 1 Animal science began with the rst domestication of animals thousands of years ago Today the animal science industry is an important eld that specializes in genetics breeding nutrition physiology health behavior meat and dairy product science and biotechnology As you can see Animal Science is a vast and vital eld Animals are used for so many different things including food work research and companionship Agriculture animals are becoming more important in helping to feed the world and it is important to know about this eld that helps feed us and the rest of the world Chapter 2 The Value of Animals to Humanity Vocabulary to know Compost decayed organic matter used for fertilizing and conditioning land 0 Draft to move loads by drawing or pulling A draft animal is one that is used to draw or pull loads 0 Essential fatty acids fatty acids required in the diet 0 Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations FAO The largest autonomous agency within the United Nations system FAO works to alleviate poverty and hunger by prompting agricultural development Ghee clari ed liquid butter 0 Metric ton approximately 11 US tons Equal to 1 million grams or 1000 kilograms o Nutrients chemical substances that provide nourishment to the body Essential nutrients are those necessary for normal maintenance growth and functioning 0 Nutrient density A measurement of the nutrients found in a food compared to the caloric content Poultice A soft moist mass held between layers of cloth usually warm and applied to some area of the body 0 Pesticides any agent or poison used to destroy pests including fungicides insecticides herbicides and rodenticides Stover parts of plants left after grain harvest 0 Recombinant DNA DNA molecules that have had new genetic material inserted into them A product and tool of genetic engineering 0 Xenotransplantation the transplanting of animal organs into humans Key Concepts 0 Pig meat is the most produced meat in the world followed by chicken and then beef Cow milk makes up approximately 83 of the world s dairy Other animal contributions to society include draft work pest control cultural uses ecological and research Summary of Chapter 2 Agriculture animals help humans by consuming nonedible resources and producing human food Animals also provide many other things besides consumption purposes Such as work research and byproducts that are useful in every day life New animal products are constantly being developed Chapter 9 Beef Cattle Vocabulary to know Al stud company that markets semen from highquality males Beef Cycle historic uctuation in beef cattle numbers that occur over roughly 10year periods Breeds revolution period of great expansion in numbers of breeds of beef cattle Breed animals that have been selected for certain characteristics and that breed true for those characteristics British breeds Hereford Shorthorn and Angus Breeding soundness exam examination to determine the physical capacity of an individual to breed Composite breed a breed developed from two or more previously established breeds Estrous cycle time from one estrus to the next Estrus period of sexual receptivity in the female Eutrophication promotion of excess growth of one organism to the disadvantage of other organisms in the ecosystem Expected progeny difference EPD a prediction of the difference between the performance of an individuals progeny compared to all contemporaries for the progeny Finishing phase grain feeding period just prior to slaughter Grain fed beef meat from cattle that have undergone a signi cant grain feeding Heritability a measure of the amount of phenotypic variation that is due to additive gene effects Leastcost ration a ration formulated to meet the animal s nutritional needs at the lowest cost from the feeds available Natural as de ned by the USDA a product containing no arti cial ingredients or added color and is only minimally processed Minimal processing means that the product was processed in a manner that does not fundamentally alter the product Performance testing evaluating an individual in terms of performance such as weight gain or milk production Stocker calf weaned calf being grown prior to placement in a feedlot for nishing Seed stock brood stock intended for future production Small grains grains such as barley wheat and oats Key Concepts The beef industry is the single largest money generating commodity in all of agriculture in recent times The purpose of the beef cattle industry is to make use of resources that would otherwise go to waste predominately grass that would otherwise go to waste and to produce beef and beef by products Beef cattle are weaned sold to stocker and then a feed lot to be nished and slaughtered Texas is a huge beef cattle production region the biggest in the US followed by Kansas Nebraska and Colorado Nutrition in cattle is about maximizing the use of forages When reproducing the main goal is to get one calf per year from each producing female Summary of chapter 9 Beef cattle are ruminants so they can digest food that is inedible to humans including resources that would otherwise go to waste The US is a huge beef producer and consumer with a gross annual income from beef at 45 billion Beef cattle production differs from most other livestock production because there are multiple distinct phases involved which are usually owned and managed by different people The cattle industry is facing many changes and challenges and its future will depend on how well it can meet and face these challenges Chapter 10 Dairy Cattle Vocabulary to know Babcock cream test test for determining the fat content in milk Bovine somatotropin a hormone produced by the pituitary gland of the cow Injections of BST increase milk production in most cows Condensed milk milk with water removed and sugar added Contagious capable of being transmitted from animal to animal Crossbreeding mating animals from different breeds within a species Diversi ed farm farm with multiple incomegenerating enterprises Embryo transfer collecting the embryos from a female and transferring them to a surrogate for gestation Genomics the study of how the genome DNA of any species is organized and expressed as traits Genetic markers biochemical labels used to identify speci c alleles on a chromosome Gomer bull bull rendered incapable of mating naturally Herd health program a comprehensive and herd speci c program of health management practices Pasteurization controlled heating to destroy microorganisms Posilac commercially available BST Silo structure in which silage is made and stored Somatic cells cells in the body other than gametes Key Concepts Dairy products provide nearly 11 of all yearly cash receipts from agriculture Dairy is third in animal industries behind beef and poultry and eggs The purpose of the dairy industry is to make use of resources that humans can t consume and to produce food that humans can use milk cheese Until 1850 there were no specialized dairy breeds Dairying is among the least concentrated of all major farm enterprises in the United States The Dairy Herd Improvement Association DHIA was established in 1965 provides herd owners with management and production information Holsteins produce more milk while Jerseys have a higher milk fat Jerseys and Holsteins are the most common dairy breeds Summary of Chapter 10 The Dairy industry is worth approximately 26 billion The purpose of the industry is to provide high quality food from resources that humans can t use The dairy industry is dispersed evenly across the country because it is more cost effective to produce milk near human populations that will consume it The dairy industry is growing technology is improving and the industry is getting larger because it is an increasingly important industry Organizations such as the DHIA help provide information for making management and reproduction decisions Herd health is incredibly important because dairy cows produce a high volume product and must stay healthy to continue producing Chapter 12 Swine Vocabulary to know 0 Ad libitum having feed available at all times 0 Back fat the fat on a pig s back highly correlated to total body fat and often measured and used as a means of selection Barrow a castrated male hog Biosecurity procedure designed to minimize disease transmission from outside and inside a production unit Boar an intact male hog kept only for breeding purposes 0 Chronic continuing over a long period or having a gradual effect 0 Closed herd a herd into which no new animals are introduced 0 Complete diet diet formulated to meet all the nutritional needs of an animal Creep an area where young nursing animals can have access to starter feeds creep feeds are the high quality feeds made available to young animals Crossfostering moving young from their dam and placing them with another female for rearing Endemic commonly occurring or widespread within a herd or other group 0 Farrow in swine the term used to indicate giving birth 0 Feed ef ciency the mount of feed required to produce a unit of gain A 31 ratio means that 3 units of feed were needed to produce one unit of gain Feeder pig generally thought of as a pig weighing between 3090 pounds 0 Finishing the process of growing a pig to market weight 0 Functional foods foods enriched with nutrients that may not be inherent to the food Gastric ulcers area in which the inner lining of the stomach is lost and deeper layers are exposed to potential damage from stomach acid 0 Generation interval in a herd the average age of the parents when their offspring are born Gestation the period when the female is pregnant 0 Gilt any female pig that has not yet given birth Heterosis the superiority of the crossbred animal as compared to the parents breeds 0 Nursing pig a pig still nursing the sow 0 Nursery pig an early weaned pig of light weight that is housed in special environmentally controlled nursery facilities 0 Nutrient dense food a food that has a variety of nutrients in signi cant amounts 0 Optimal growth when optimizing growth such factors as cost of the ration environment labor and other nonfeed inputs are considered Monogastric class of animals that do not have a rumen Humans are monogastrics monogastrics require a better diet than ruminants do Palatability the acceptability of a feed or ration to livestock o Pig meat the meat from a hog pork 0 Pork quality assurance plus a voluntary educational program introduced by the National Pork Producers Council as a tool to enhance the quality of pork sold to the world s consumers STAGES Swine Testing and Genetic Evaluation System A series of computer programs that analyze performance data of purebred swine and their crossbred offspring Show pigs pigs bred for exhibition usually by 4H and FFA students Sow female pig that has given birth Subclinical without readily observable clinical signs or outward indications of disease TQA Trucker Quality Assurance Program is an educational program for all involved in the transportation process of swine Wean the process of removing pigs from the dam to prevent them from nursing Key Concepts o The swine industry is a large part of US agriculture being the fourth most important money generator in agriculture 0 The purpose of the swine industry in the US is to use surplus grain production and highquality by product feeds to produce meat Pigs were domesticated around 8000 BC 5 primary types of swine operation farrow to wean nishing farrow to nish purebred or seed stock and integrated corporate production Swine are produced in all 50 states Iowa having about 25 of the nation s pigs 0 The location of a swine industry will likely be determined by these 6 factors availability of feed state regulations technological advances availability of transportation labor availability fossil fuel availability Asses Isolate and Stabilize are the most important when dealing with disease assess the animals health isolate if affected and then treat the sickness Summary of chapter 12 The annual income from the pork industry is approximately 14 billion The purpose of the swine industry is to produce meat from the millions of tons of excess grains and available byproduct which helps to moderate the uctuations in grain prices The swine industry requires a high initial cost with facilities equipment and technology Modern consumers want lean pork and today s hogs are much leaner than they used to be Modern swine production systems require high reproductive rates from swine Swine are usually about 3 pounds at birth and about 12 pounds by weaning and 250 at slaughter Weeks 13 Lecture Notes Week 1 Biology the study of life at a cellular level Zoology The science of animal life includes invertebrates taxonomy ecology anatomy and evolution Animal Science The study of 2 classes of mammals Companion animals 0 Livestock and poultry Animal Science is the study of the entire animal which includes immunology nutrition genetics bacteriology biochemistry and physiology Domestication 0 Dogs were rst domesticated in approximately 14000 BC Livestock were domesticated from 9000 to 200 BC 0 Why were animals domesticated For food clothing tools ect Lecture 2 Domestic Animal Populations in millions Chickens 17859 Cattle 1357 Sheep 1089 Ducks 1094 Swine 930 Goats 840 Turkey 473 Buffalo 178 Horses 59 0 Approximately one sixth of our calories come from animal products 0 Approximately one third of our protein comes from animal products 0 Animals consume a third of the grain supply worldwide and about half of all organic matter containing cellulose Cellulose is essentially the structural part of plants 0 Conversion how animals convert grain and cellulose to body mass milk eggs 0 Feed ef ciency weight of feed inproduct out orfeedgain Ef ciency Poultry and swine monogastrics are most efficient based on Total feed consumptiontotal human food produced Cattle sheep and goats ruminants are most efficient based on Total human usable foodtotal human food Improvements in ef ciency 1862 Morril Act Land Grant Colleges 0 This act provides money to buy land to have schools where you can study agriculture OSU is the land grant college for Oregon 1887 Hatch Act Agriculture Experiment Stations at Land Grant CoHeges Provided federal money to the university for Agriculture research created a way to introduce new information to classrooms 1914 Smith Lever Extension Service 0 Provides information to the producers Current food supply is adequate distribution is poor which causes approximately 800 million people to eat inadequate diets Methods that increase efficiency include hormones antibiotics density Grasslands account for 30 of global land base 0 For every 100 units of human food produced from crops 37 is byproducts not edible for humans 0 The human population is expected to increase by 33 Week 2 Beef Cattle Problems in the Industry 0 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Mad Cow Disease 0 In uenza bird u swine u Food Safety Salmonella Campylobacter Listeria E coli Regulations 0 Government Manure Management Horse Slaughter Antibiotic resistance 0 Retailers Animal Welfare production audits Finely textured beef trim pink slime and cage free eggs Beef Cattle Protein production meat 0 Red meat is the primary production Veal is young cattle meat fed milk only and restrained Usually slaughtered at around 4 months There are 3 Primary Areas of Production 1 CowCalf sells calves 2 Stocker cattle are put on pasture to gain 3 Feedlot cattle are fed concentrate and finished Domestication One of the earliest domestications was in 9000 BC Cattle may have come from quotChattelquot meaning possession Species of cattle originally 1 Bos Taurus domestic cattle 2 Bos Primigenius Aurochs wild ox of central Europe 3 Bos lndicus Aurochs large 67 feet at the withers were hunted to extinction around 1627 AD Celtic Ox smaller stature short horns crossed with Aurochs Bos lndicus humped tropical cattle Zebu or Brahman with no wild ancestors resistant against heat disease and parasites oppy ears a large hump and dewlap o Other animals that are related to cattle Bantang Bison Buffalo Yak Ox Zebu Gayal Musk ox Cattle were originally used as draft animals and called oxen an old steer with horns Historical Aspects As the population increased so did the demand for land and work so people moved West Cattle runs began cattle were produced in the South and needed to get to the North East for processing Railways to Chicago and Kansas City from Texas were created but the cattle had to be run from Texas to the railway towns Trends Beef Production 2014 World 573 million US 112 million Brazil 79 million There has been a decline in operations over the past 10 years The top 8 Agriculture Commodities 2014 Cattle Dairy Greenhouse VVheat Hay Grass Potatoes Poultry P gt P Pquot39gtS l l 39 011516 Beef Cattle Continued Breeds of Cattle 0 Some breeds of cattle have been known since the Middle Ages but trait selection didn t begin until the late 18th century 0 Original selections were based on the needs of the farmers so breed societies began Most modern breed trace back to Europe breeds were imported to the US in the early 19th century 0 US breed development began in the early 20th century and imports of exotic breeds from Europe in the 60 s70 s Limousin Simmental MaineAnjou Charolais In Today s Industry 0 There are 50 breeds of cattle used today most in small numbers 0 Most important breeds are Angus Hereford Simmental Charolais Limousin Angus and Hereford are the primary beef breeds Two ways to Group Origins and Traits Origins British Continental Bos lndicus Traits Maternal Dualpurpose Terminal Bos lndicus Origin British Angus Hereford Red Angus Shorthorn Continental Chianina Charolais Limousin MaineAnjou Simmental Long Horn Bos lndicus Brahman Brangus Brahman x Angus Simbrah Santa Gertrudis Traits Maternal Angus Hereford Shorthorn Terminal Charolais Chianina Limousin Main Anjou Dual Saler Simmental Texas Longhorn o Introduced in approximately 1500 with the Spaniards By 1900 nearly extinct and were replaced by Angus Hereford and Shorthorn 1929 there was a Federal program to save the Longhorn Longhorns had valuable genetics hardiness and lean meat Choosing a Breed All breeds have good and bad points and genetic variation 0 Selection of the best traits is more important than the breed itself 0 Choose a breed that will perform well in the region Favorable Aspects of Beef Cattle Ranching Uses marginalpoor land with minimal labor needed 0 Low investment in facilities and low quality feed can be used 0 Variety of forages can be used and suitable for part time ranching Unfavorable Aspects Cost of foundation stock is high and price spread high Requires miles of fencing and water source must be available 0 Slow expansion and liquidation slow propagation and grazing regulations Purebred vs Commercial Purebreds are registered breeds commercials are crossbreeds Purebreds make up most of the breeding industry while crossbreds make up most of the market industry Production Operations Cowcalf production of calves sell weaners buy calves to grow nish calves dairy industry produces calves so cows lactate beef industry produces calves for grow out 0 Breed heifers at about 1314 months and about 65 of adult weight 600800 poundS 0 Plan for the rst calf at 24 months gestation period of 283 days9months Vocabulary to know Creep feed rst feed fed while still nursing o Freemartin sterile female that is the fraternal twin of a bull calf EPD expected progeny difference proves sires Dark cutter meat darkened by stress prior to slaughter Beef check off producer initiated quottaxquot 1head for marketing Fed cattle steersheifers fed concentrates prior to slaughter Stocker heifer or steer destined for slaughter Veal a calf four months old or younger when slaughtered milk fed Parturition calving Polled naturally hornless cattle Ox steer with horns used for draft purposes Week 3 Beef Cycle Open 82 days long calving rebreeding lactation 1st trimester 95 days long conception lactation 2nOI trimester 94 days long maintain pregnancy wean calf 3rOI trimester 94 days long prepare for calving calf is 400600 pounds at the time of weaning Time of Calving Calving period depends on forage for cow but usually in the sp ng Open period harvested feed until pasture grows Proper cycling increases pro ts calving annually increases pro ts 0 50 of body weight gain in calf is from milkpasture No extra labor with cow and calf on pasture Early Calving 0 Lifetime production of cow increases by 1 from early calving get an extra calf out of this cow bene t 0 Negative poorer conception rate and increased calving problems 0 About 10 of heifers won t take to insemination and heifer weight will be reduced for 45 years Calf weight at weaning is reduced by about 2550 pounds Weaning Normal weaning occurs at about 7 months 0 Early weaning is typical in the dairy industry but not in the beef industry 0 In beef weaning occurs at about 35 days to 5 months Advantage may t into management schedule allows rebreeding of cows Feeding Early Weaned Calves Creep feed quotbaby foodquot prepared diet 0 Late weaned calf goes through quothungry calf gapquot due to being larger and not getting enough milk for the calf s size and the decrease in the cows lactation Veal Production Calves are raised for about 6 months or about 420 pounds 0 Milk fed or milk replacer and restrained Usually Holstein bull calves available from dairy industry Heifers can be used but growth rate is slower Sale of Calves Cowcalf rancher keeps replacements 500600lbs Sell remainder of calves usually at an auction 0 Most common type of auction is an oral auction but today you can buy on the internet Buyer of Calves Stockers buy calves to raise on pasture grass fed 0 Allow the calves to grow to about 9001000 pounds ADG of 15 2lbs they stay for about 150 days Back Grounding Lots quotmiddlequot feed lots 0 Growth rate of about 225le ADG Diet consists of about 70 forage and 30 concentrates Increased cost feed labor facilities Feed Lots 0 1520 forage 8085 concentrate o Cattle remain here for 110140 days 0 Weight is less important than external fat 0305 in 0 Must change diet gradually to allow microorganisms in rumen to change as well 0 Why use a feedlot The cattle get to the wanted weight and fat content earlier 152 years old Meat Quality 0 Basic consideration fat content 0 Top 3 cuts Prime Choice Select 0 Fat affects avor texture and quality 0 Other lower cuts standard commercial utility cutter canner Calf Management 0 Identi cation castration dehorning vaccination Identi cation ear tags branding hot cold uid microchip tattoo Castration removal of testes or rendering them non functional the purpose of this is to improve meat quality and eliminate aggressive behavior castration occurs around four months or younger Methods of castration include surgery burdizzo elastrator chemical injection 0 Dehorning Horns are a boney core with a keratin covering methods of removing them include hot iron cutter and chemical removal Vaccination main concern are respiratory viruses such as shipping fever Also clostridial disease where a bacteria produces a toxin that antibiotics are too slow to treat Hormones implants cost about 2 each returns 4080 in gain 20 increase in ADG 58 decrease in feedgain Hormones affect the pituitary gland causing faster growth There has been concern about the increased estrogen in human food but there is only a 06 x 10quot9 increase in the estrogen levels Intro to Dairying 012216 Dairy milk production primarily cows sometimes goats buffalo and pigs Sheep horse and pig milk used outside of the United States Mankind rst used milk around 9000 BC Columbus brought cows to the West Indies on his 2nCI voyage the rst cows were brought to Jamestown in 1611 Most cattle came to the US in the 18th and 19th centuries Most milk was produced as quottown milkquot before WWII milk that was produced at a small dairy near town so it could be delivered before it perished Development Foundation stock to US from Europe beginning of modern breeds Early producers pooled milk for chees beginning of cooperative Condensed milk developed 1856 more stable product Centrifugal cream separation 1878 improved product development Babcock developed milk fat test 1892 still used today Pasteurization homogenization refrigeration 1929 2007 45 million of farms of cowsherd 5 milkcow 4000 lbs time for 100bs 314 hours total US production 100 billion lbs marketing consumer Other major improvements 0 Rural electri cation 0 Bulk handling 0 Improved transport 0 Arti cial insemination Per Capita Usage 0 Milk 181lbsyear Cream 3121lbsyear Cheese 314 lbsyear Favorable Aspects of Dairying Stable Ag business 12 variation 0 Ef cient food producers Steady income unlike beef industry 70 thousand 131 20500 lbs 16 hours 186 billion lbs wholesale 0 Dairy cows consume a lot of unsellable forages 0 Maintain soil fertility with manure Steady employment for help 0 Most stable farm enterprises Unfavorable Aspects 0 High capital investment 0 Need trained management and help 0 Many government regulations 0 247 enterprises no time off 0 Low hourly income Perishable products 0 High investmentcommitment Common dairy breeds Holstein highest producer most common from Holland 1500bs Jersey 2nCI most common high test milk from se ofJersey 1000bs Guernsey moderate milk test from Isle of Guernsey 1000bs Brown Swiss only 155 ever imported to US from Switzerland 1500bs Ayrshire good on pasture from Scotland hobby farms 1200bs Milking Shorthorn not common from England high expectations 1500bs Red White not common from Holland red mutation of Holsteins 1500bs Holsteins make up 88 of dairy cows Jerseys make up 10 Lab Information Lab 1 Beef Cattle Lab Current Faculty Management Clubs and Research Soap Creek Ranch Steer a Year Young Cattlemen s Association Research feed supplement effect on embryo transfer Management Methods and Breeds Spring calving retained ownership Breeds Angus Charolais Crossbreeds Production Challenges Feed costs Mudrain Elk or deer destroying fences eating feed Records and Data Kept Average Daily Gain ADG Birth weight Weaning weight Quality and yield grades Cow Maintenance Cost per year Approximately 600 per cow Temple Grandin designed a curved chute to reduce stress when handling cattle Vocabulary to know Bull intact male Cow mature female that has had a calf Cowcalf operation that specializes in raising calves Stocker grass fed calves post weaning Seedstock producer produces breeding stock such as ovum and semen Steer castrated male Heifer pre birth female Feedlot cattle fed grain and nished Polling dehorning removing horns from non polled cattle Backgrounding weaned calves fed forage and concentrates prior to going to the feedlot Management facts to remember Age at harvest is 1418 months average weight is 12001300 pounds Average carcass weight is 750800 pounds dressing percent 60 63 Gestation length is 283 days or 9 months Age at rst parturition is 2 years and 3 years at second parturition 23 of body weight in feed consumed per day Beef breeds Angus Hereford Wagayu Maine Anjou Charolais What are the four compartments of the ruminant stomach Abomasum Omasum Rumen and Reticulum Lab 2 Dairy Cattle Current Faculty Farm Management Clubs and Research Seth Spencer management Research Dr Bobe nutrition Clubs dairy club Breeds Used Jersey and Holstein Different Types of Milking Parlors Parallel cows are closer sanitation is difficult RotaryCarousel milking procedures are more consistentefficient but there is a high investment Herringbone better visual contact with udder but a slow milker Production Challenges Mastitis and other disease Feed costs Waste management Typical records and data Pounds of milk Milkfat Cow maintenance cost per year Approximately 800 per cow Dairy Breeds Ayrshire Guernsey Jersey Holstein Brown Swiss Vocabulary to know rBST Bovine somatotropin a hormone produced by the pituitary gland a lactation hormone Byproduct feed secondary feed products cottonseed hulls Homogenization treatment that prevents cream layer from separating from the liquid milk Gomer bull bull rendered incapable of mating naturally used to detect cows that are in heat Silage feedstuff prepared by compacting and storing in airtight conditions silo Concentrate high energy or high protein feeds consisting primarily of the seed of the plant but without stems or leaves Somatic cell leukocytes and epithelial cells indicate presence of infection or injury Scours diarrhea beet pulp Management Facts to remember Age at rst lactation in a Holstein and a Jersey is 2 years old A mature Holstein cow is 1400 pounds and a mature Jersey cow is 1000 pounds Holsteins produce about 80 pounds of milk per day and Jerseys produce about 50 pounds of milk per day 0 When Holsteins are lactating they consume 100 pounds of feed daily and Jerseys consume 80 pounds 0 When Holsteins are dry they consume 55 pounds of feed per day and Jerseys consume 46 pounds 0 Lactation length is 305 days and gestation length is 283 days Fluid milk is 87 water 47 lactose 37 fat 33 protein and 06 minerals Important Critical Thinking Questions 1 Why do dairy cattle consume more feed than beef cattle Dairy cattle are growing a calf and lactating so they are expending much more energy than beef cattle 2 What is pasteurization Pasteurization is the controlled heating of milk to destroy potentially harmful microorganisms for human consumption 3What is the difference in milk composition between Jerseys and Holsteins Jersey milk is high in fat quality while Holstein milk is largely produced quantity 4What is the dry period The dry period is between 4560 days long it s a nonlactation period prior to parturition Anatomy to Recognize Beef Cattle sheath steers or navek heifers k m 34 g V m 39 ig r Sm mym Jan 3 Itquot quot quot 39 Eu 2 Dairy Cattle W1 L er Hquot a p I 3133 Swine
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