PSYS 371 Exam 1 Study Guide
PSYS 371 Exam 1 Study Guide PSYS 371
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This page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha Taylor on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYS 371 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Jim Rohrer in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Applied Behavior Analysis in Psychlogy at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 01/24/16
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 For the purposes of Applied Behavior Analysis define Behavior a Behavior is any muscular glandular or electrical activity of an organism De ne Behavior deficits a Not enough of the Target Behavior Give an example of Behavior deficits a If a professor recommends studying for 2 hours out of class for every hour you spend in class but you only study 30 mins there is not enough of the target behavior studying Define Behavior excesses a Too much of the Target Behavior Give an example of Behavior excesses a If we keep the target behavior as studying if you study all night long and don t get enough sleep before the test so you end up doing poorly on the test because you didn t sleep There was an excess of the target behavior What is Behavior Modification a The principles behind behavior modification i Strong emphasis on defining problems in terms of behavior that can be measured ii Using changes in the behavioral measure of the problem to measure effectiveness of intervention iii Treatment techniques ALWAYS alter the environment b Don t need to memorize the words and definitions but we do need to know the difference between them i Naming the behavior that you want to change in words that can be identified and measured Example Kid gets in a fight principal does not think it is a good thing kid stood up for his classmates and himself so he thought it was a great thing ii You need to know where you start so you can measure whether the change you make is effective c What is environment How is Behavior Modification different from Applied Behavior Analysis a For ABA the environment includes everything that may in uence a particular behavior i The physical surroundings ii The context of the situation iii The behavior of others iv The thoughts and or emotions of the individual or individuals involved in the particular behavior b For BM For our purposes environment means ANYTHING that effects that individuals behavior It also includes things like someone else is in the room that is making that person is nervous or they have to pee really bad or they had a fight with someone this morning so they can t concentrate In regard to ABA what do we mean by environment a To what degree does the immediate environment affect WHEN ampor WHY vou perform that particular behavior b Why do you wear the clothes you wear Is it weather Are you going on a date Is there nothing else clean c Figure out why now Why are they getting treatment now No person wakes up and says I m a raging alcoholic and need help now d What do you do in certain situations but not all the time and why is there a difference Cussing like a sailor with a friend but not at home with family e Sometimes there is not a clear answer why you do something 9 Cite an example of environment effecting behavior a Since it is ALWAYS the environment surrounding a specific behavior that leads to the performance of that behavior then it follows that changing the environment will ALWAYS change the behavior b Making your bed at home when your mom is there but not when you are at school The mom effects the environment and the action of you making your bed 10 What is the relationship between environment and stimuli a The environment effects the stimuli and can change it 11 What do we mean by overt behaviors a Can be seen or any senses 12 Give an example of an overt behavior a Hitting b Walking c Swearing 13 What do we mean by covert behaviors a Cannot be seen or recognized by any other senses 14 Give an example of a covert behavior a Thinking b Plotting 15 In ABA what do we mean by outcomes of behavior a The outcome is not the behavior 16 Give an example of a behavior outcome a The kid with the green hair His green hair is NOT his behavior but it is an outcome of his behavior b Your A or F is NOT your behavior but your grade is definitely an OUTCOME of your behavior 17 In ABA what do we mean by summary behaviors a They are generalizations Summary behaviors are not the same as outcome behaviors Summary behaviors are your generalization based on your past but outcome behaviors are different 18 Give an example of a summary behavior a A 4th grade LD class b Housewives of New Jersey 19 Are summary behaviors the same as labels a Labels are mental shortcuts you have a notion of what is going to happen based on experience and you assume that it will follow the same path Yes and no 20 What are some problems associated with labels a If you assume something you may have a bias View on it 21 In ABA how do we de ne stimuli a Stimuli STIMULATES b What stimulates YOU i What exactly does stimulation mean to you c What is it in your immediate environment that stimulates your behavior i NOTE THE DIRECT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE STIMULANT amp THE ENVIRONMENT d What gets you going This is important because we get this idea when we are working with other people that it is only one thing that stimulates the behavior but in reality it could be many things that stimulate that same behavior 22 Give an example of a stimuli a Getting A s on your transcript stimulates you to studying and read the material in class 23 Cite an occupation that might use behavior modification and how a Speechlanguage therapy 24 Cite another example from a different profession a Parenting 25 Cite a third profession that would use behavior modification a Business marketing 26 In behavior modification the two most important characteristics are 0 Strong emphasis on defining problems in terms of behavior that can be measures 0 Using changes in the behavioral measure of the problem as the best indicator of the extent to which the problem is being helped How do these two characteristics translate into practical application for the ABA therapist 27 What is target behavior a The behavior that you are assessing or looking at when measuring a stimulus 28 Give an example of a target behavior a How many times a person swears during the course of the day 29 The four phases of a behavior modification are Intake Baseline Treatment Follow up Which is the least important and why Follow up because it is not even mentioned in the powerpoint I m not sure about this question Make sure to pay attention during the study session on Friday 30 What is indirect assessment a Information gathered from OTHER sources 31 Give two examples of an indirect assessment a Interview with client b Questionnaires c Role Playing d Info from other professionals e Client SelfMonitoring 32 What is direct assessment a Behavior that Iyou ie the therapist actually witnesses myselfhimselfherself 33 Give an example of a direct assessment a If I myself were watching a Video and recording what I saw from the Video Like we did in Assignment 2 where we had to watch a 1015 min Video and assess it 34 What is reactivity a When someone changes their behavior because they know their behavior is being monitored 35 Give an example of reactivity a When you are being watched you change your behaVior Even if you are the one watching yourself If you are trying to stop biting your nails so you decide to write down every time you bite them you will automatically decrease the amount of times that you do so because you know you have to write it down 36 How does reactivity effect baseline procedures a The problem with this is that your behavior will change for a little while but then you will think it is no longer a problem because you have been writing it down and you probably don t do it as much You may start to see it as being no longer a problem so you stop trying to stop the problem The behaVior goes back to normal after that 37 Give an example that illustrates how baseline procedures need to consider reactivity a If a person really doesn t know they are being watched reactivity can be avoided But stealth observation rarely happens in this field because you need informed consent b If a clientperson is aware at all that you are assessing them reactivity will occur Being aware that this is a factor will help you reduce the effects it has on your results c Time really does affect reactivity and so does comfort level Assessment takes time but before you try to help someone with a problem you need enough time to do so d Pretests and protests being evaluated on how much you approve 38 Why is it important to keep accurate data during a baseline a Accurate baseline assessment is key i Should it be done ii Can it be done iii Who should do it iV What is best treatment strategy V Is it working to change targeted behavior Vi Accurate reporting graphing is both promptreinforcer Vii Reporting data may change behaVior wout more treatment Viii What kind of information are you trying to collect Is it reasonable to collect it in that way Who should be collecting ix Need to find a way to record data that a person will actually do There will be a lot of selfrecording during this process so it needs to be something they are comfortable with and something that you can get valuable information out of 39 Why is it important to keep accurate data throughout a program a Accurate reporting graphing is both promptreinforcer 40 What is Topography a The form of a behavior b Everything involved in the whole set of actions included in the behavior 41 Give an example of topography a Brushing teeth i Get brush hold brush wet brush ii Get toothpaste open toothpaste apply toothpaste to brush iii Etc etc etc 42 Give a second example of topography a Making a peanut butter sandwich i Get bread get peanut butter get butter knife etc etc etc ii Also need to consider where to get the items as well As if the person has no idea how to even retrieve the items or where to find them 43 What is Frequency Give an example of frequency a When working with people who are quitting smoking tells you that they cut down to one cigarette a day Wife comes and says he s ben smoking 30 times a day in reality he had been smoking the same cigarette 30 times throughout the day Takes a few puffs at a time and then puts it out and saves it Both are right in this situation but you have to be specific about what you are measuring number of cigarettes are the amount of times you smoke a day 44 What is Duration Give an example of duration a How long is the behavior for You have to define what you mean by that Keep the record of the number or times and the duration of each of those times to see if there is a pattern established or not 45 What is Intensity Give an example of intensity a The hardest one to measure The force of the thing it is a difficult skill set to teach intensity Working with a girl who is autistic she is a screamer and she screamed a lot She started how with 100 screams a day and we are working towards reducing the screaming She eventually got down to 5 scream a day but it doesn t mean it is better When she screamed 100 times a day it was only for a few seconds but now that she is only screaming 5 times a day she was screaming for a hour straight Was she getting better because the number of scream went down No it wasn t actually progress 46 What is Stimulus control a What is it in the environment that is stimulating the behavior Make sure to know an example 47 What is Latency Give an example of latency a The time between the stimulus and responsebehavior b Example a little kid falls and scrapes his knee He continues to play with friends for a few hours without it bothering him but as soon as he gets home and see mom he starts crying because he has a boo boo c We do this as well if we have a stressful day all day but we are nice to everyone we see until we get home and then we are hell on wheels 48 What is Quality Give an example of Quality a The quality of the behavior i How well How competently How close to perfectly is the behavior performed b One of the mistakes we make is that we don t build in quality as a measure enough in a plan c We have to find a way to build in the quality expectations from the beginning It is hard to explain i Learning to sweep the kitchen oor at a minimal level compared to sweeping it completely and well ii Need to explain as expectations from the beginning because the person you are trying to train will not understand what is expected of them if you reward an initial response They may think that the reward means they don t have to improve the task 49 What is Continuous recording Give an example of continuous recording a What is it i Recording every single occurrence of the behavior b Pros and Cons i Thorough Cumbersome Costly Not practical c Procedures i Video Recording Pros and cons d Example Recording every time someone says a phrase during a TV show 50 What is Timesampling recording Give an example of timesampling recording a What is it i Sampling behavior at specified and varied times to capture the behavior and nonbehavior in a variety of environments b Pros and Cons i Most likely to be validreliable Can be timeconsuming Needs to be over a significant timeframe c Procedures i KEY WHEN d This is more intentional than interval measurements because you pick out specific times you are doing the measurements e Ex If you are watching bullying behavior rather than just doing random and hoping for the best you start off by doing morning noon and night measurements As you start to see patterns that is when you can change your baseline When you start to see the pattern of bullying seems to happen on MWF afternoons but happening less on TR mornings You would do more base lining on MWF afternoons to record the behavior but also do TR mornings to figure out why they aren t doing it f Figuring out why a person is not doing a behavior is sometimes more important than figuring out why they do the behavior 51 What is IOR a It is increasing the same observations of everyone Increasing the reliability of recording the behavior We do this by training the recorders so everyone is at least on the same page You may not get every single detail but you have similar enough responses 52 How would you increase 10R 3 Observationrecording exercise
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