LIN3041 -- Intro to Linguistics -- Exam 1 Study Guide
LIN3041 -- Intro to Linguistics -- Exam 1 Study Guide LIN3041
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gabrielle Isgar on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to LIN3041 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Gretchen Sunderman in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 94 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Linguistics in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 01/24/16
Exam 1 LIN3041 Study Guide Chapter One Language A Preview Linguistics the study of how language works Human beings are especially equipped for language 0 Evolution has created a special capacity for language in humans that is not found in any other species 0 Even especially equipped for perception of speech Organ Survival Function Speech Function Lungs To exchange carbon dioxide and To supply air for speech oxygen Vocal To create seal over passage to lungs To produce vibrations for speech cords sounds Tongue To move food to teeth and back into To articulate vowels and consonants throat Teeth To break up food To provide place of articulation for consonants Lips To seal oral cavity To articulate vowels and consonants Nose To assist in breathing To provide nasal resonance during speech Native speakers those who have acquired it as children in a natural setting Creativity the presence of systematic constraints that establish the boundaries within which innovation can occur 0 We can be innovative in our language but there are still rules Linguistic competence the ability to produce and understand an unlimited number of utterances including many that are novel and unfamiliar Grammar the mental system that allows human beings to form and interpret the sounds words and sentences of their language aka Universal Grammar Claims of Modern Linouistics Generaity all languages have a grammar Parity all grammars are equal 0 There is no such thing as good or bad grammar The analysis of language must re ect the way it is actually used not someone39s idealized vision of how it should be used Descriptive vs Prescriptive o Linguistics is descriptive not prescriptive 0 Its goal is to describe and explain the facts of languages not to change them Universality grammars are alike in basic ways 0 All languages have more consonant sounds than vowel sounds Any language that has an f sound certainly has an 5 sound as well 0 All languages have a vowel that sounds like the quotahquot in father Mutabiity grammars change over time Exam 1 LIN3041 Study Guide lnaccessibiity grammatical knowledge is subconscious Chapter Five Syntax The Analysis of Sentence Structure Syntax the way to combine words into sentences Universal Grammar UG the system of categories operations and principles that are shared by all languages The syntactic component of any grammar must include at least 2 subcomponents 1 Lexicon mental dictionary provides a list of the language39s words along with information about their pronunciation their category and their meaning 2 Computational system operations that combine and arrange words in particular ways a Merge combines elements to create phrases and sentences b Move transports an element to a new position within a particular structure Categories of Words 4 most studied syntactic categories NounN Verb V Adjective A Preposition P The 5th and least studied Adverb Adv Lexical categories aka content words nouns verbs adjectives adverbs and prepositions Nonlexical categories aka functional categories determiners auxiliary verbs conjunctions and degree words Lexical Examples Categories Noun N FSU dog courage Verb V Decide stay like Adjective Adj Large bad ugly Preposition P Around about above Adverb Adv Slowly quietly now Nonlexical Examples Categories Determiner Det The a this these no Degree word Deg Too so very more quire Auxiliary Aux Modal Will would can could may must should Nonmodal Conjunction Con Behave Andorbut Exam 1 LIN3041 Study Guide How can we determine a word39s category Meaning Nouns usually name entities including individuals and objects Verbs designate actions sensations and states Adjectives designate a property or attribute of the entities denoted by nouns Adverbs denote properties and attributes of that designated by verbs ln chon Categor ln ectional af x y N Plural 5 Possessive 5 V Past tense ed Progressive ing Third person singular 5 A Comparative er Superlative e5t Distribution Categor Distributional property y Noun Occurrence with a determiner Verb Occurrence with an auxiliary Adjectiv Occurrence with a degree e word Phrase Structure Transitive verb takes a direct object ride Intransitive verb has no direct object arrive The Blueprint Examples A car the wheat Has gone will stay Very rich too big o It is often suggested that a typical phrase can be broken down into three parts 1 A head 2 Aspeci er 3 Acomplement Exam 1 LN3041 Study Guide All arranged in accordance with the blueprint or X39 schema Head the obligatory nucleus around which a phrase is built 0 Although phrases usually consist of two or more words a head may form a phrase all by itself AP rs I I r quotl i 3 v A l l l Che ll books he Speci er Ni V l l E book ntver ovalcoi 1 V A synonymcuts Cori Case is Cowlmm a Che Y1 j l P l DC 3 l l r l C wa certain 11m In l I Complements Complements provide information about entities and locations whose existence is implied by the meaning of the hea Structure of a phrase consisting of a specifier a head and a complement Phrases can consist of just a head and a complement with no specifier I Vi V rm roomor Exam 1 LN3041 Study Guide Sentences 39 The Ila rest unit of syntactic analysis 39 Typicalllly cansist elf a subject typicallly an MP and a VP Ilinked tegether by an abstract categcnlry duhbed ll er Infll fer infllectien that indicates the sentence s tense i serves as the head cf tlhe sentencer talking the VP as its cempllernent and the suhjlect as its specifier Pst Past J F wenismsquot p64 17 P re r25 Medef uai aries such as can Willi and must 39 Treated as instances cf the ll CHtE g lr f in centelmperary Ilinguistics Tests fer Phrase Structn re Censtituents syntactic units found tn tree structures The Substitutian Test eyidence that phrases are syntactic units canaes frern the fact that they can often be replaced by an elleimlent such as they it er de se i INlP replaced by they er it 39 VF replllaceci lby dc se 39 PP repllacecl hy there The Meyement Test indicatian that a prepcsitianall phrase ts a canstituent is that it can he messed as a single unit ta a different pesitien within the sentence The Celerdinutinn Test a greup ef wards is a censtitnent if it can he jlefined te anetheir greup cf werds by a ccwnjunctien such as and er cir hut Earn plleme nt D ptiens Suhcategeriz etien refers ta infermaticin abeut a wards complement Iapticuns 39 Ilnfclrnnatien hellps ensure that llesicall iterns appear in the apprepriate types elf tree structures Cnmpi39ement eptiens or what e ward needs c 1it39erhs c Dther categeries c Earn pllernent Elauses Exam 1 LN3041 Study Guide 1i ui39erhe Gemplllememt Optimum Sample llileael Example Merle Win They wen IMP Take il teeik the piills AP Fee She fellt very Said PF39m Ge They werlt te the eterea NP INHP Lend liemt a puenetil te her NP PPR Take She teek the heelk te him MP PiF39y r Bake we helicer a ea ke fer mern NIP PPM Beiilid He hei It a gazebe in the yard F39Ptu F F39aimut Talllk Ii talllked te diaell ahueiut it iNiF39 PlP mrPF39wyh Dperr We eperred the dieer fer nally with a erewhar Mounts Cemplllememt Uptiem Sample llilea Example Merle Car The ear iFtP r liy39ileimery Miernehy ef a friemdi IP F39nf Pith Preeerrtatien The ypreaerrtatieri let a medail te the Wilinit39iiE39if39 PIPwith PiFtatmm rgumeht Jim argument with Amy abeut peliitiee Adjectives Gemplllermemt Optimum Sample llilead Example Merle Tall Very tall PiFtatmm Curieue Cerieiue abeut Germany PPM Dhyieee Uhyieee te them PP y Fell t eharnher twill ref eeerete llrepeeitiene Cemplllememt Option Sample llilea Example Merle Away They get away IMP Ih ll39ll the haeeimient PP Dewn Dewn in the Seuth Exam 1 LN3041 Study Guide Een Iplement Elauees 39 All hlunnan languages allew sentencelike cehstructiens te functien as cemplemente Example Tlhe teacher knews thatfwl39letherfifthe students will 3355 I c 39 quot C Cemplementizer wercls such as that whether and if 39 Telke an lF39 cemplernent wlhiclh ferms the P eernplernentizer phraee Some verbs permit CP complements Complemen Sample Example ts heads CP Believe know They believe that Eric left think remember NP CP Persuade tell They told Mary that Eric had left convince promise PPto CP Concede They admitted to Mary that Eric had left admit YesNo Questions Should that guy go Can the cat climb this tree 0 The auxiliary verb occurs at the Exam 1 LN3041 Study Guide beginning of the sentence rather than in its more usual position after the subject That guy should go The cat can climb this tree beFoi39E move 2 V6 Merge creates tree structures by combining categories in a manner consistent with their subcategorization properties and the X39 schema Move can Wildith these tree structures by moving an eliement from one position to another Derivation the process by which a syntactic structlu re is fo rmedi by the move ancil merge operations Deep structure formedi by Merge in accordance with the X39 schema and subcategorization Surfoce structure resuits from applying whatever other operations are appropriate for the sentence in question he Move Do llnsertion insert Interrogatwe cilo Into an ernptijir Ii position Wh Movement Which Determiner The students liked the movies Do the students like the movie 39 What Noun Those bircils sing Do those birds sing I o c a a Z 2 i r quot D9 bi Oho Exam 1 LN3041 Study Guide U39niversal Grammar and Parametric 1variation Parameters the set of options that US permits for a pa rticuilar phenomenon Verh Raising Verila Raising transformation Move v to Brought about hv the Move operation inversion Movement from to C Some Additionail Structures Coordination Coordination the grouping together of two or more categories with the help of a conjunction such as and or or o Exhibits severall important properties 3 of which wiilil he considered 1 A category at anvr leveil can be coordinated Zr Ii39he categorvr of he coordinate structure must he iden ticali to the categorvr of the ellernents heing conjoined 3 Conjoined categories are usualiliv of the same type they most both he Ni F s or quotUs or P5 and so on Modifiers Modifiers words and phrases that denote properties of heads Passives Active sentences the subject denotes the aent or instiator of the action denoted hv the verb A thief stolle the painting Passive sentences IF39he painting was stolien th a thief Has 3 hey characteristics 1 Passive constructions involve a major reduction in the importance of the agent 2 Some other NP usuailiv the direct olbject of the correspondin active sentence functions as slubject in the passive sentence 3 Verhs that cannot occur with a direct olbject NP in an active sentence tvpicalillv cannot occur in a passive sentence NIP Movement Move NP into the subset position
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