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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren Baker on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CJ 100 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Douglas Klutz in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 558 views.
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Date Created: 01/24/16
CJ test 1 study guide If something is in red he specifically said we needed to know it Media In uence 6 Media giants control 90 of what we read watch or listen to Since the early 1990 s the crime and murder rates have decreased by over 50 Age Demographics One of the best explanations of how crime rates change over time Media Sensationalism the tendency to present info about crime in a way that provokes public interest and excitement usually at the expense of accuracy Trial by Media When the media reaches a verdict in a case before the jury does Ex OJ and Casey Anthony Role of Public Opinion Mass media in uences public opinion and public opinion in uences political leaders World Incarceration Rates We have the highest jail rate LIB OR Scandal London InterB ank Offered Rate This was when Financial institutions mortgage lenders and credit card agencies set their own rates relative to LIBOR ex If a credit card company owed their customers money at the beginning of the month the interest rate would be low But then in the middle of the month when the customers owed them the interest rate would sky rocket Civil Suits class action lawsuits by individuals cities and municipalities etc White Collar Crime Whitecollar crime A full range of frauds committed by business and government professionals Cost US somewhere between 300 700 billion annually Major white collar crimes include MF Global Bernie Madoff Enron Edwin Sutherland 1st person to publish on this subject in 1940 Father of White Collar Crime Ponzi Scheme When you take new investment money to pay out the existing investors Physical costs of white collar crime Killed injured or ill because of no safety regulations Defective products and false advertising Sutherland s Views Said white collar crime had 2 distinct criteria 1 Crime had to be committed in the course of their occupation 2 Crime is undertaken by a Person of respectability and high social status Exposure to a Criminal Culture Normative when behaviors seem normal after time Resistance to breaking the law in the workplace can prevent you from moving up in the company Engaging in shady deals increased profit Embezzlement Fraudulent conversation of another property by a person who39s in a position of trust like an agent or employee eX accounting embezzlement TaX Evasion Perpetrator attempts to avoid paying taxes eX filing taX forms with false info Monev Laundering Criminal act of filtering illegal obtained money though a series of transactions designed to make the money seem legit eX The mob members would usually own a dry cleaners so it looked like thats where their money was coming from Bankruptcy Fraud Concealing assents to avoid having to forfeit them eX transferring them to someone else name Insurance Fraud Any duplicitous act performed with the intent to obtain an improper payment form insurer 3 types Hard Fraud wrecking a nice car burning down your house Soft Fraud Common if your house actually burns down you say your old computer was a new one exaggerating how much jewelry you had Life insurance fraud fake your own death so your family gets the money Counterfeiting Someone copiesimitates an item and then selling it of real eX fake purses watches Insider Trading Trading of another company s stocks or other securities by individuals with access to confidential or non public info about their company Bribery Correct solicitation acceptance or transfer of value in exchange for official action MUST PROVE QUID PRO PRO eX police pulls you over and says give me 50 and you wont get a ticket Credit Card Fraud Form of identify theft involves an unauthorized taking of another s credit card info 1 Application fraud credit card companies mail something and someone else gets it and buys things with that new card 2 Account takeover when someone takes your nameaccount and start buying things Phone and Telemarketing Fraud Communicate with potential victim via landline phony fundraising targets tragedies and natural disasters Cons Target elderly young ineXperienced people Bernie Madoff He seemed legit was on Wall St for 50 years Went down in 2008 Lots of people charities went down because they invested in him MF Global John Corzine CEO Right before bankruptcy Wall St wrote that they were reliable He placed a bet on the European stock market and it didn39t do well He took money out of the clients accounts instead of just company money The Constitution The supreme law of the US First 3 articles establish the separation of powers legislative executive judicial The Bill of Rights The first 10 Amendments Designed to limit the power of the federal government First Amendment Congress shall make NO LAW respecting RELIGION abridging FREEDOM OF SPEECH or PRESS may PEACEFULLY ASSEMBLE and may PETITION THE GOV Known as freedom of expression Trial by Media Sheppard v Maxwell supreme court overturned conviction because media publicity had prevented a fair trial Second Amendment The right to bear arms A well regulated militia necessary to the security of a free state keep and bear arms shall not be infringed District of Columbia 1 Heller 2008 protects an individuals right to possess a firearm in federal enclaves McDonald 1 Chicago 2010 2nd amendment applies to individual stats under the 14th amendment Third Amendment Quirting troops forcing people to house troops in their home Forth Amendment The right against UNREASONABLE SEARCHES and SEIZURES and NO WARRANTS SHALL ISSUE unless upon PROBABLY CAUSE Warrant Written court order instructing that a certain act be carried out have to be specific Probable Cause legal justification for an arrest search or seizure based on sufficient reason Search Warrants Authorities have to go before a neutral judge or magistrate and demonstrate probable cause Exclusionary Rule Prohibits courts from using illegally obtained evidence 5th Amendment Protects you against giving evidence against yourself via confession Protection against yourself Miranda Rights Double Jeopardy Doctrine Prevents authorities from trying you twice for the same court Guarantees due process guarantee of fairness 6th Amendment Guarantees criminal defendants the right to a fair trial Ensures that defendants are brought to trial soon after they39re charged speedy trial Trials are held in public Trials have a fair and impartial jury 7th amendment Only amendment dealing specifically with civil court Right to a jury trial in civil cases 8th Amendment Protection against Excessive bail Excessive fines Cruel and unusual punishment 9th Amendment Provide exibility in the constitution Just because a particular right is not mentioned does not mean it doesn t apply Unenumerated rights Ex Your right to privacy 10th Amendment States rights not specifically mentioned in the constitution essence of federalism Division of state and government power Vocab Criminal Justice Society s response to crime Involves 3 components Law enforcement police local state and federal judicial corrections Crime An INTENTIONAL act omission in violation of the criminal law committed without defense or justification and penalized by the government Criminology Study of why people commit crimes Media Sensationalism the tendency to present info about crime in a way that provokes public interest and excitement usually at the eXpense of accuracy Trial by Media the media reaching a verdict in a case before the jury does Deterrent Proactively preventing criminal activity LIBOR Rate The average Interest rate estimated by major banks LIBOR Scandal Financial institutions mortgage lenders and credit card agencies set their own rates relative to LIB OR Civil Suits Class action lawsuits by individuals cities and municipalities etc Class action lawsuit When a bunch of people come together in civil court to give themselves a better chance of winning WhiteCollar Crime full range of frauds committed by business and government professionals Ponzi Scheme When you take new investment money to pay out the eXisting investors FRAUD Edwin Sutherland the first person to publish on this subject in 1940 White collar criminality Normative behaviors that seem normal after time TaX Evasion Perpetuator attempts to avoid paying taxes Money Laundering Criminal act of filtering illegally obtained dirty money through a series of transactions designed to make the money seem legit clean The constitution the supreme law of the US Warrant Written court order instructing that a certain act be carried out Probable Cause legal justification for an arrest search or seizure based on sufficient reason Search Warrants Authorities have to go before a neutral judge or magistrate and demonstrate probable cause Exclusionary Rule Prohibits courts from using illegally obtained evidence Double Jeopardy Doctrine Prevents authorities from trying you twice for the same court
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