CPO2001 Midterm Study Guide
CPO2001 Midterm Study Guide cpo2001
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by taylorscheffing on Monday January 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to cpo2001 at University of Florida taught by sebastian elischer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Political Theory in Political Science at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 01/25/16
Introduction Chapter 1 0 How to Make Sense of the World 0 Through the study of comparative politics 0 Analytical concepts theories that guide research 0 Methods ways to study and test theories Ideals values and beliefs about preferred outcomes 0 Doing Comparative Politics 0 The comparative method means of drawing comparisons across countries 0 Inductive reasoning and the singlecase approach 0 Deductive reasoning and the comparative approach 0 Correlation does not mean causation An apparent relationship between two events doesn t mean one is cause and the other effect 0 For example two variables might in fact both be in uence or caused by a third rather than each other 0 Limits of the Comparative Method 0 Difficult to control variables Limited number of cases countries wars transitions Barriers to conducting research languages access Selection bias can skew research and results which cases events actors Endogeneity difficulty of determining what is cause and what is effect new take on chicken and egg problem 0 How Best to Gather and Analyze Data 0 How best to gather research 0 Quantitative method gather numerical data for statistical analysis Look for patterns test ideas 0 Qualitative method carry out intensive study of cases through archival research interviews 0 Benefits and Drawbacks 0 Qualitative Method 0 Benefits 0 Intensive study of cases to acquire deeper grasp of political context Drawbacks 0 Result is often only description rather than comparative analysis 0 Quantitative Method 0 Benefits Can look at a number of cases Can control variables more easily More scientific Drawbacks Data may be skewed or incomplete 0 Research driven by what data is available rather than vice versa Political Institutions as a Lens 0 One approach to studying comparative politics is centered on understanding institutions 0 Defined as organizations or patters of activity that are self perpetuating and valued for their own sake Institutions are embedded in people s lives as legitimate norms or values 0 They are rules norms values that give meaning to our actions 0 Politics is full of institutions such as 0 Army and Police Legislature 0 Taxation 0 Institutions need not be a physical entity Why Study Institutions 0 Institutions set the stage for political behavior 0 They generate norms and values 0 Allow for certain kinds of political activity and not others 0 How they are constructed will shape how politics unfolds 0 Integrates early approaches to the study of political science but also works to emphasize explanation not just description 0 Institutions must balance e iciency and inclusion representativeness Defining the Sate 0 Sovereignty ability to carry out actions independently of intemalexternal cahllengers 0 Max Weber monopoly of violence over a given territory 0 State is an institution that wields force to ensure order within and resistance to threats from outside 0 The state creates standards through which public goals such as freedom and equality can be achieved Laws and regulations Property rights Health and labor protections Social welfare How is a regime different from a state 0 Regimes serve as the fundamental rules and norms of politics 0 Longterm goals regarding freedom and equality 0 Where should power reside How should it be used 0 Regimes define the character of the state 0 Democratic or authoritarian but also different kind of regimes within each category USA vs UK or Iran vs North Korea 0 Can trace the differences between regimes in constitutions but also in informal practices and rules Regimes as Institutions 0 Often institutionalized 0 Not easily changed rigid sticky 0 Regime change generally occurs as a result of dramatic events revolutions or crises such as removal by war regime change Iraq 0 Sometimes not institutionalized leader operates as she or he sees fit L Etat c est moi Castro Kim J ong 11 etc 0 Regime change can occur after the charismatic leader leaves the scene 0 May also be the result of upheaval revolution revolt etc What is Government 0 The leadership in charge of running the regime within the state 0 May be democratic or undemocratic may be entrenched strong weak durable rigid exible etc 0 Comparatively weakly institutionalized compared to the state and the regimeremoved by public by force my morality What is a state What is a regime What is a government And how are they different from eachother The Advantages of States 0 States are a relatively new occurrence but now dominant form of govemanceorganization Why Encouraged economic development as way to gain revenue fight rivals 0 Encouraged technological innovation or application for same reason gunpowder cartography 0 Homogenization of peoples within territories common language customs identity a nation 0 States Regimes and Political Organization 0 The regimes within states create governments which re ect the underlying choices made about the balance between freedom and equality 0 Political organization is necessary within states and regimes to 0 Make and enforce rules 0 Provide mechanism to solve con ict 0 Set collective goals 0 Differences between states come from how these things are accomplisheddetermined 0 Consensus or Coercion All regimes must determine the character of political organization is it the result of public consensus bottom up or elite coercion topdown 0 Consensus social contract between rulers and ruled Hobbes state of nature 0 Coercion rise of state and institutions created inequality and harmed social balance Rousseau noble savage 0 Both may be true depending on time and place Legitimacy 0 Defined as a value where someone or something is recognized or accepted as right and proper 0 Confers authority and power 0 Legitimate behavior is seen as right thing to do from a sense of reciprocal responsibility 0 Consensus over coercion Forms of legitimacy according to Weber 0 Traditional 0 Charismatic 0 RationalLegal CentralizationDecentralization 0 Comparing states how much power does a state have and where does that power reside 0 Federalism vs unitary organization axis of centralization 0 Strongweakfailed states axis of durability 0 Legitimacy public support or lack thereof Federalism vs Unitary States Federalism significant powers devolved to the local level by constitution not easily taken away 0 Examples of powers taxes education security local police militia 0 Examples of federal states United States Germany Russia Canada Mexico 0 Unitary most powers reside with the central government 0 Power resides with central government Can devolve powers to local level but also take them away if it chooses 0 Examples of unitary states Britain Japan France Sweden Strong vs Weak States 0 Strong states are able to carry out basic tasks expected of them security public policy basic goods and services 0 Weak states less able to fulfill tasks and may face rivals organized crime guerrilla movements other states 0 Failed states have lost most of their ability to monopolize force and provide services Capacity and Autonomy 0 Capacity ability of states to get things done fulfill tasks Autonomy ability to act free from direct public interference 0 Too high a level of autonomy and capacity leads to authoritarianism too low a level can lead to state failure 0 Both capacity and autonomy can my according to the issue at hand a state might have autonomy or capacity in one area but not another WeberThe State 0 Definition of the state 0 monopoly of violence over a given territory 0 States are founded on three forms of legitimacy 0 Traditional 0 Charismatic 0 Legalrational 0 States require power use of force territory fixed borders a people external recognition Traditional Legitimacy 0 Valid because it has always been done this way Accepted over a long period of time Historical myths and legends Continuity between past and present Highly institutionalized Charismatic Legitimacy 0 Opposite of traditional 0 Charisma as the force of ideas 0 Embodied in a single individual 0 Weakly institutionalized RationalLegal Legitimacy 0 Based on neither rituals nor force of ideas 0 Based on laws procedures 0 Rules are key how did someone come into power 0 Strongly institutionalized Herbst Weak States 0 Defining a weak state focus on Africa 0 Failure to fully consolidate meaning 0 Weak institutional structures government 0 Weak identification with state citizens 0 Failed expectations 0 Previous general expectations that modern states would strengthen over time 0 Historical causes for the occurrence and endurance of weak states Shifting norms and roles of international actors 0 Broader implications inability to effectively integrate weak states into international community Utility of War 0 Crisis allows for heavy handed government policies 0 Increased extractive state power example taxes during times of crisis existential threat 0 Establishment of administration and bureaucratic institutionsresources that endure when con ict is over 0 Promotion of nationalism us against them Extermination and absorption of weak states by stronger states 0 In the past weak states did not endure 0 Expansion and conquest served to minimize number of weak states Implications International community must adapt to new reality 0 With external support weak states endure long after they would have in the past 0 The decline in expansionist existential con ict as a result of international intervention permits weak states to endure 0 Today s weak states in Africa are unlikely to ever develop into strong states 0 No ability to impose extractive policies effectively taxes 0 Limited central administration bureaucracy 0 Weak national identity localized links are stronger RotbergFailed States 0 Defining a failed state 0 Internal violence not controlled by the state uprisings rebels revolts etc 0 Limited geographic state control means that state does not have unique coercive power in much of the state s territory warlords local militia private armies criminal organizations 0 Limited or nonexistent extractive capacity taxes 0 Reduced or nonexistent ability to provide core services to citizens safety roads and infrastructure education health etc Causes and Consequences 0 Failed states are created Evolve from weak states 0 Usually the result of human actions corruption demagoguery failure to institutionalize state 0 Some environmentalsocial contributors can include disparate terrain regional isolation and violent or unresolved ethnicreligious cleavages 0 Consequences 0 Failed states can lead to collapsed states complete power vacuum 0 Create environments where lawlessness can ourish terrorists pirates drug cartels etc 0 Associated costs expand well beyond the borders of the failed state regional instability KrasnerMyths The origin of sovereignty and the modern state 0 Westphalia was important but not exactly as advertised 0 State effectively relinquished control over religion 0 Many new challenges are actually old or new versions of old issues 0 The changing meaning of sovereignty Ideals versus reality Sovereignty within supranationalism The role of citizenship vs noncitizens Economic sovereignty is changing The enduring difference between strong states and weaker states in terms of effective autonomous sovereignty Society Ethnicity and Ideology Society 0 A broad term that refers to complex human organizations 0 Collection of people bound by shared institutions that define how human relations are conducted 0 All societies are different relationships between people and between people and the state Ethnicity 0 Any specific attributes and societal institutions that make one group of people culturally different from others Language religion geography customs history and others Ascription an identity assigned at birth largely fixed No master list what differentiates groups in one place may not be important in another Serbia religion Canada language 0 Ethnicity as a social construct not inherently political National identity 0 National identity binds people through common political aspirations such as sovereignty National identity is inherently political ethnicity of ethnic identity is not Defined as a sense of belonging to a nation and a belief in its political aspirations A demand for greater freedom for a group and greater equality visavis other groups 0 Often but not always develops from existing ethnic identity National identity to nationalism 0 Nationalism as a pride in one s people and belief in sovereign destiny 0 Seek to create or preserve ones own nation political group through an independent state 0 Ethnic identity without a national identity 0 Yes various ethnic groups that do not have a national consciousness 0 National identity without ethnic identity 0 Yes United States India Great Britain Canada etc Citizenship 0 Individuals or groups relationship to the state 0 Swear allegiance to the state 0 State provides benefits 0 People have obligations in return Citizenship and ethnic and national identity 0 Ethnicity is fixed but citizenship is not 0 Citizenship can be changed by individual or state 0 Citizenship is a potentially more inclusive concept than ethnicity or national identity 0 The three are often connected and ethnic group forms the nation and the represent the citizens of a country Patriotism and Nationalism 0 Patriotism requires the existence of a state 0 Citizenship gives rise to patriotism 0 Defined as pride in one s state 0 Symbols of state wrapped up in patriotism 0 Nationalism requires the existence of a people 0 United by a common identity national identity 0 Desire to gain sovereigntyindependence moves national identity toward nationalism Nations States and Citizenship 0 Nationalism promoted by states and elites topdown 0 The idea that people would fight and die for abstract concept like national identity was a paradigm shift 0 But population also began to demand rights from state bottomup 0 Citizenship becomes important political identity as nationstates formed Ethnicity and Nationalism as Sources of Con ict Why national and ethnic con ict 0 Ethnic con ict struggle between groups to achieve economicpolitical goals at other groups expense superiority 0 National con ict struggle between groups for political independent sovereignty 0 Violence a common tool 0 What is the starting point of ethnicnational con ict 0 Top down elite led way to consolidate power 0 Bottom up mass led stemming from long standing friction 0 Artificial states can lead to bottom up con ict 0 Each suggests a difference response to restore peace How to resolve con ict 0 Integrating groups assimilation 0 Separating groups 0 Greater decentralization of power to give different groups more autonomy 0 Devolution Political Attitudes and Ideologies 0 Ethnic and national identities as group identities 0 Political attitudes and ideologies as individual identities 0 Both deal with issues of freedom and equality Political Attitudes 0 Views regarding the necessary pace and scope of political change Radicals seek revolutionary change violently if necessary Liberals seek evolutionary change 0 Conservatives seek little or no change of system Reactionaries seek to restore previous order violently if necessary 0 Remember that context matters 0 A radical in China versus a radical in the USA 0 A conservative in Poland post 1990 Liberalism Individual political and economic freedom Weak state with low autonomy controlled by people Higher inequality Liberal democracy Liberalism is not the same as liberal political attitude Differing meanings of liberal in North America and elsewhere Communism 0 Low individual political freedom 0 Belief that struggle over resources breeds inequality 0 High equality as the goal 0 Strong state with high autonomy Social Democracy 0 Seeks to balance individual freedom and collective equality 0 Role for relatively strong state to manage this 0 More common in Europe welfare state Fascism 0 Low individual political freedom 0 But also inequalitybased on superiority of some over many 0 High autonomy and capacity to direct nation and vanquish enemies Anarchism 0 High focus on individual freedom 0 Also emphasis on equality 0 Belief that states are the problem not the solution 0 Seek stateless society to ensure both freedom and equality Fundamentalism 0 Ideologies emerges as rivals to traditional religions 0 But of late ideologies have waned in power lost appeal 0 Reemergence of faith in political context on its own and in conjunction with ideologies Fundamentalism ideology that seeks to unite religion with the state to make faith the sovereign authority Fundamentalism Attitudes and Ideology 0 Fundamentalism does not have one singular political ideology or orientation 0 Often focused on theocracy rule by faith 0 Emphasis on freedom and equality may be very different depending on kind of fundamentalism 0 Attitude may also differ depending on the context Not necessarily violent but can be Hobsbawm The Age of Revolution 0 The historical context of the modern nationalist movements 0 Impact of the industrial revolution 17601830 0 Emergence of the middle classes 0 Role of the empire in Europe recognition of otherness 0 Shift from national identity based on religion to one based on something else 0 Cultural identity created through expansion of literacy and the production of literature 0 Lack of involvement of the peasant classes left out of shared social consciousness Hobsbawm Cont 0 The importance of expanding educational systems and increased literacy rates 0 Universities as centers of nationalist sentiment identity 0 Shift from local and regional patois to a shared common national language 0 Impact of language on communication and organization and shared group identity 0 Rise of modern nationalist movements embedded in Western Europe 0 Comparatively little in Eastern Europe 0 Even less in Latin America or Asia during this period Fearon and Laitin Ethnicity Insurgency and Civil War 0 Previous studies link between ethnic violence and the end of the cold war 0 Assumption that changes in international system created space for civil unrest and a rise in ethnic con ict 0 but statistically intra state con ict has been growing over time with no clear impact of the end of the cold war 0 What has changed is duration meaning that con icts lasts longer and over time this leads to more active con icts Previous work assumed that higher levels of ethnic diversity would be associated with high levels of ethnic con ict 0 Diversity does not necessarily mean tension grievances 0 Grievances and tension do not necessarily lead to con ictviolence Fearon and Laitin Cont 0 Insurgency leads to intra state con ict Insurgency does not require substantial or deeply entrenched grievances among groups or sub groups 0 Nor does it require large numbers who support the movement 0 Small numbers of locally informed and embedded activists can be effective insurgents 0 Combating insurgency requires an effective state 0 Economic development and generally high levels of wealth facilitate effective states 0 Governments with effective administrative capacity and the ability to reach through out the territory deter insurgency movements 0 Minimizing diversity is not an effective strategy Baldwin and Huber Ethnic Diversity and Public Goods Provisions 0 The core goal is to explore the relationship between the ability of the state to provide public goods to citizen and the existencelevel of inequality between different groups 0 Standard measures of ethnic diversity 0 Ethnolinguistic fractionalization ELF group based 0 Cultural fractionalization CF language based 0 Between Group Inequality BGI Goods based Extent to which there is a proportional distribution of wealth Use of proxies for wealth in Africa Average income between ethnic groups Baldwin and Huber Cont 0 Level of diversity within a state is not linked to level of group inequality within the state 0 Low and high group inequality can occur in both highly plural and only semiplural states 0 Some variation based on which measure of diversity used ELF or CF 0 Group inequality weakens the state 0 Reduces the ability of the state to provide needed public goods 0 This effect is strongest in states that are less developed 0 Weaker states are more susceptible to violence Economies and Politics 0 Political economv how politics and economics are related and how each affects the balance between equality and freedom 0 What role do states play in managing the economy Components of Political Economy Markets and Property 0 Markets interaction between forces of supply and demand Creates value for goods and services Decentralized 0 Property ownership of goods and services Property rights what can I do with my property 0 States regulate and protect markets and property Components of Political Economy Public Goods and Social Expenditures 0 Public goods used by society not privately owned 0 Because some goods do not function well in the marketplace 0 Examples roads national defense 0 Social expenditures often defined as quotwelfarequot 0 State provision of public benefits 0 Examples education healthcare transportation 0 Redistributive power placed in the hands of the state 0 Often controversial who benefitswho pays 0 Taxation 0 Used to pay for public goods and social expenditures 0 Taxation varies in who is taxed and how much is taxed Money In ation Hyperin ation and De ation 0 Money is a medium of exchange Legitimacy backed by the state 0 Central banks control its supply typically through interest rates 0 Actions closely tied to in ation and unemployment Two Extremes Hyperin ation in ation of more than 50 a month for 2 months in a row 0 Government prints money to cover basic expenditures 0 De ation too many goods chasing too few dollars Liberalism and Liberal Politics 0 Related to ideology of the same name 0 High priority on individual political and economic freedom less on equality Argues that a weak state and strong capital markets foster democracy 0 US and other former British colonies 0 Best state is a weak one 0 Limited regulations 0 Fewer public goods 0 Lower taxes 0 Free trade Laissezfaire allow economy to function as it wishes 0 Greater tolerance for inequality and poverty Social Democracy and Social Democratic Policies 0 Balance between individual freedom and collective equality Accepts private property and markets but seeks to regulate 0 Many European countries fall into this category 0 More public goods than in liberalism less tolerance for inequality poverty 0 Trade and competition under state management 0 Outright ownership of some industries by state seen as acceptable or necessary 0 Neocorporatism state labor and business set policy in concert not through con ict such as strikes 0 Most common in Europe high autonomy and high capacity Communism and Communist Policies Emphasis on collective equality over individual freedom Property markets viewed as instruments of exploitation USSR and Eastern Europe until 198991 Cuba North Korea No private property nationalized No 39free39 markets controlled by state No unemployment full employment policies Trade restricted minimized 0 Wide range of public goods 0 Extremely high autonomy but often lacks capacity Mercantilism and Mercantilist Policies 0 Predates modern ideologies associate with earlier empires 0 Modern mercantilism associated with fascism 0 Can be found today in nondemocratic and democratic settings 0 State views market as tool of international power Japan South Korea India and other developing countries Private property along with national ownership Active industrial policy state directs production parastatals Small welfare state Tariffs and other trade barriers 0 Neither individual freedom or collective equality emphasized rather state power relative to other states 0 More authoritarian than democratic Political Economic Systems Comparing Outcomes I 0 Gross Domestic Product GDP 0 Defined as total production in a country irrespective of who owns it 0 GDP limited in that it does not take into account costs of living in different countries 0 Purchasing Power Parity PPP 0 PPP looks at GDP in terms of buying power 0 In countries where costs are low GDP is increased when adjusted for PPP In countries where costs are high GDP is lowered when adjusted for PPP Political Economics Systems Comparing Outcomes II 0 Gini Index 0 Measures relative wealth and inequality within the state perfect equality0 perfect inequality100 0 What percent of the population owns what percent of the country39s total wealth 0 Higher inequality in liberal countries than social democratic ones 0 Higher inequality in poorer than richer countries 0 Human Development Index HDI 0 Emphasis on povertydevelopment over inequality 0 Not focused on wealth but rather outcome of that wealth quality of life literacy and education life expectancy and health 0 Strong correlation between GDP and HDI 0 Happiness 0 Pursuit of happiness main motivation for human behavior 0 Relative versus absolute happiness 0 quotEasterlin paradoxquot happiness stagnates above certain economic threshold Future of Political Economy 0 World has become more liberal over time increased economic liberalization 0 Neoliberalism retumresurgence of liberal policies and institution 0 Decline of communism rollback of social democratic institutions and policies 0 End of economic history Liberalism39s triumph Inherent limitations of liberalism Future challenges or opportunities Adam Smith The Wealth of Nations 0 The greatest improvement in the productive powers of labor is the division of labor Why 0 Subdivision of complex tasks leads to specialization in simple tasks 0 Much more efficient in terms of personnel and time 0 Leads to the industrialization of simple tasks 0 Division of labor is not quotnaturalquot Where does it come from 0 Selfinterest 0 Regulation of commerce 0 Cannot increase quantity of industry beyond domestic capital 0 Directs and diverts of industry for better or worse 0 There are individual and domestic quotnatural advantagesquot in the production of goods 0 The quotinvisible handquot Douglas North Institutions 0 Institutions are the humanly devised constraints that structure political economic and social interaction Informal constraints ie tradition customs taboos norms 0 Formal constraints ie constitutions laws property rights 0 Used to increase production and reduce uncertainty and transaction costs 0 Provide incentive structure to economy shaping industry 0 Why are institutions necessary 0 Wealthmaximizing individuals cooperate when they have the ability to have multiple interactions between them possess complete information smalll number of players 0 Conversely cooperation is difficult When not repeated information is lacking and With a large number of players 0 Institutions facilitate human cooperation but incremental evolution scale and distance are issues Smallcloser groups need institutions less largerfurther groups need them more 0 Result is economies and institutions of scale 0 Different levels of specialization and institutional evolution in path dependent trajectory past provides future constraints and structural character 0 We need to study institutions to understand economic performance and change
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