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Medical Microbiology 108

by: Lindsey Webster

Medical Microbiology 108 Bio 108

Marketplace > Ferris State University > Science > Bio 108 > Medical Microbiology 108
Lindsey Webster
GPA 3.5
Medical Microbiology
Anne Spain

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About this Document

Exam 2 study guide!
Medical Microbiology
Anne Spain
Study Guide
medical, micro, Biology, Science
50 ?




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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lindsey Webster on Monday January 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 108 at Ferris State University taught by Anne Spain in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Medical Microbiology in Science at Ferris State University.


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Date Created: 01/25/16
BIO 108 Exam 2 Study Guide Bacteria grows by binary fission by separation of a single cell into 2 identical daughter cells Growth Curve 0 Lag Phase Little or no cell division occurs Cells are adjusting to their surroundings preparing for cell division 0 Logexponential Phase Period of active cell division and exponential growth of the population 0 Stationary Phase Nutrients become limited and the number of cells that are growing equals the number of cells that are dying 0 Death Phase Cells cannot withstand their own waste Direct Measurements directly counts the numbers of cells in a culture Serial Dilutions and Plate Counts 0 Advantages Provides accurate count on viable cells 0 Disadvantage Requires time Direct Total Cell Count 0 Simple staining and microscopy to directly count cells Indirect Measurements measures features that are only proportional to cell number Turbidity measurements using a spectrophometer 0 more cellsgt less light passes throughgt higher turbidity Protein Assays 0 measure total amount of protein Dry Weight Analysis weight of a sample Without water Growth Requirements psychrophile Cold loving 4 optimum temp Mesophile Moderate temperature 2040 degrees C Thermophile Heat Loving 5060 degrees C Hyperthermophile Love extreme heat 75 C Psychrotroph Cold tolerant Acidophile Optimum pH of 35 Neutrophile Optimum pH of 68 Alkalinophile Optimum pH of gt8 Acid Tolerant Nuetrophile that tolerates under acidic pH value C O H N P S are found in the 4 major classes of macromolecules l 2 9 lipids proteins carbohydrates nucleic acid Protein and Nucleic acids are the 2 most abundant macromolecules found in cells Carbon Found in all 4 classes heterotroph eats organic matter Autotroph Makes its own organic carbon form C02 Oxygen Found in all major classes of macromolecules 0 Obligate Strict Aerobe require 02 for growth 0 Obligate Strict Anaerobe Don39t require 02 can grow without 0 Facultative Anaerobe Grow only in the absence of 02 0 Aerotolerant Don39t use 02 for growth but are not harmed 0 Microaerophile Grow only at low levels of 02 Nitrogen Found in DNA and RNA 0 Proteins and Nucleic Acid 0 Phosphorus is found in nucleic acids lipids and ATP 0 Sulfur is found in proteins ATP 0 Function Major energy Holds a lot of energy 0 Structure Similar structure to nucleotide but has 3 P04 groups Pentose Sugar Nitrogenous Base Catabolism Vs Anabolism Catabolism 0 Breakdown of complex molecules into more simple molecules 0 Mostly exergonic reactions 0 Release energy that can be used to make ATP Anabolism 0 Biosynthesis of complex molecules from simple complex 0 Made up mostly of endergonic reactions 0 require energy Exoenzymes enzymes that are secreted outside the cell usually because substrates are too large to enter Endoenzymes Enzymes that catalyze chemical reactions inside the cell most CHZYIDGS are endoenzymes Amylase digests starch Cellulase digests cellulose Lipase digests lipids Collagenase digests callogen Streptokinase digests blood clots Oxidization and Reduction The C6H1206 gets oxidized to 6CO2 Electron Donor 6H20 gets reduced to 6H2O Electron Acceptor Aerobic Respiration Glycolysis 0 Glucosegt 2 Pyruvategt Next pathway 0 2 ATP formed 0 2 NADH formed Pyruvate oxidation and the TCA cycle 0 2 ATP formed 0 8 NADH 2 FADH2 formed Anaerobic Respiration Nearly identical to aerobic respiration except 0 something other than oxygen is used 0 alternate Electron acceptors N03 SO4 Fe3 0 Iron Reduction Fe3gt Fe2 O Sulfate Reduction SO4gt H28 0 Nitrate Reduction NO3gt N2 Fermentation Glycolysis No TCA No ETC 0 Instead an organic intermediate is reduced78 Lactic Acid Fermentation 0 2 ATP made 0 Ending Result is Lactate Ethanol Fermentation 0 Ending result is ethanol Bacterial Genomes and eukaryote genomes are different by 0 Bacterial genomes are singular circular chromosomes and human ones are multiple linear chromosomes 0 eukaryote in nucleus and bacterial is in cytoplasm The size ranges of genomes6 0 Human genomes are 1000X larger in nucleotide length and has approx 5X more genes 0 Bacterial genomes are smaller but more efficient DNA Replication Copying of a chromosomes during growth DNA Polymerase Enzyme that makes a polymer of DNA Transformation When one cell takes up DNA from its surroundings Transduction Uptake and incorporation of Viral DNA Conjugation Direct transfer of plasmid DNA from one cell to another through a sex pilus


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