COM 305 Final Exam Notes
COM 305 Final Exam Notes COM 250
Popular in Introduction to Political Communication
verified elite notetaker
BIO 2200 (Microbiology, Dr. Thomas Roberts)
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Communication Studies
This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Adri Lazarus on Monday January 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COM 250 at a university taught by Dr. Jennifer Brubaker. in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views.
Reviews for COM 305 Final Exam Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 01/25/16
COM 305 FINAL EXAM REVIEW FALL 2015 The nal exam will cover the chapterslectures below There are 65 questions that are a combination of MultipleChoiceTrueFalse The exam will take place on Blackboard on December 9 from 300 600 Once you log on to take the exam you will have 100 minutes to complete the exam however the exam will close at 600 pm To insure that you have a good connection to Blackboard only use a PC or a laptop and use Google Chrome and NOT Internet Explorer What is ethos pathos and logos Ethos the perceived character intelligence and goodwill of a speaker Logos logical proof the use of arguments and evidence in a speech 0 Aristotle notes speakers who consider logos must necessarily consider syllogisms and thenymemes Pathos emotional proof emotions drawn from audience members What are the ve Canons of Rhetoric Aristotle39s Canons of Rhetoric are invention arrangement style delivery and memory Invention the construction or development of an argument that is relevant to the purpose of a speech 0 Topics are aids to invention that refers to the arguments a speaker uses 0 Civic spaces are metaphors suggesting that speaker have quotlocationsquot where the opportunity to persuade others exists Arrangement pertains to a speaker39s ability to organize a speech 0 Introduction part of an organizational strategy in a speech that includes gaining the audience39s attention connecting with the audience and providing and overview of the speaker39s purpose 0 Body part of an organizational strategy in a speech that includes arguments examples and important details to make a point 0 Conclusion part of an organizational strategy in a speech that is aimed at summarizing a speaker39s main points and arousing emotions in an audience 0 Style use of language to express ideas in a speech Ex Word choice word imagery and word appropriateness o Glosses outdated words in a speech Instead of glosses use metaphors o Metaphor a gure of speech that helps to make the unclear more understandable Page 1 of 13 0 Delivery the nonverbal presentation of a speaker39s ideas Including eye contact vocal cues pronunciation enunciation dialect body movement and physical appearance 0 Memory a speaker39s effort in storing information for a speech Having a basic understanding of material and techniques What is a syllogism enthymeme Syllogism is a set of propositions that are related to one another and draw a conclusion A syllogism is a deductive argument which is a group of statements premises that lead to another group of statements conclusions Enthymeme is a quotsyllogism based on probabilities signs and examples and whose function is rhetorical persuasionquot What are the main parts of a syllogism Major premise Minor premise Conclusion What are the three types of rhetoric Forensic Rhetoric speakers prompting feelings of guilt or innocence from anaudience Attorneys Epideictic Rhetoric a type of rhetoric pertaining to praising or blaming Ceremonial speaking Deliberative Rhetoric a type of rhetoric that determines an audience39s course of acUon Political rhetoric What has been the strength of Aristotle39s Rhetoric Aristotle calls rhetoric the available means of persuasion That is a speaker who is interested in persuading his or her audience should consider three rhetorical proofs logos pathos and ethos Audiences are key to effective persuasiveness and rhetorical syllogisms requiring audiences to supply missing pieces of a speech are used in persusion What is the basis of rhetorical sensitivity from lecture Page 2 of 13 Conceptualizes life as a drama Burke39s theory compares life to a play and states that as in a theatrical piece life requires an actor a scene an action some means for the action to take place and a purpose What are the two key variables to Dramatism The theory allows a rhetorical critic to analyze a speaker39s motives by identifying and examining these elements Further Burke believes guilt is the ultimate motive for speakers and dramatism suggests that rhetors are most successful when they provide their audiences with a means for purging their guilt Substance the general nature of something Identi cation when two people have overlap in their substances Division when two people fail to have overlap in their substances Consubstantiation when appeals are made to increase overlap between people increasing the identi cation with each other GuiltRedemption Guilt tension embarrassment shame disgust or other unpleasant feeling Order or hierarchy a ranking that exists in society primarily because of our ability to uselanguage The negative rejecting one39s place in the social order exhibiting resistance Rejecting ones place in the social order Victimage the way we attempt to purge the guilt we feel as part of being human Two types of victimage are morti cation and scapegoating Morti cation one method of purging guilt by blaming ourselves Scapegoating purging guilt by blaming others Redemption A rejection of the unclean and a return to a new order after guilt has been temporarily purged What are the ve parts of the Dramatistic Pentad Burke39s method for applying dramatism a method for applying his theory toward an understanding of symbolic activities The ve points include the act the scene the agent agency and purpose The Act one prong of the pentad that which is done by a person The Scene provides the context surrounding the act The Agent the person performing the act Page 3 of 13 Agency the means used to perform the act Ex Message strategies storytelling apologies and speech making Purpose the goal the agent had in mind for the act Attitude the manner in which the agent positions himself or herself relative to others after labeling the points of the pentad and fully explicating each the analyst then examines the dramatistic ratios or the proportions of one element relative to another What has been a criticism of the Dramatism Parsimony scope and utility Parsimony Burke39s theory is too unclear and obtuse to be useful Scope too broad to explain the whole of human experience with symbolic interaction This is an extremely broad and ambitious goal What has dramatism been criticized for not covering Utility the theory would be more useful if it addressed gender and culture more expansively What are the strengths of Dramatism Dramatism provides us with a theory that models the big picture It allows an analysis of human motivations and behavior and its focus on language as the critical symbol system makes it especially attractive to communication researchers The Narrative Paradigm promotes the belief that humans are storytellers and that values emotions and aesthetic considerations ground our beliefs and behaviors Paradigm indicates that Fisher39s thinking represents a major shift from the thinking that had supported most previous theories of communication The term paradigm refers to an effort to formalize and direct our understanding of the experience of all human communication What are two assumptions of the Narrative Paradigm Humans are naturally storytellers Decisions about a story39s worth are based on quotgood reasonsquot Good reasons are determined by history biography culture and character Rationality is based on people39s judgments of a story39s consistency and truthfulness Page 4 of 13 c We experience the world as lled with stories and we must choose among them What is narrative rationality Key concepts that form the core of the theoretical framework narration narrative rationality which includes coherence or probability ad delity and the logic of good reasons Narration an account to which listeners assign meaning Narrative rationality a standard forjudging which stories to believe and which to disregard Narrative rationality operates on the basis of two different principles coherence and delity What is the difference between narrative coherence and delity Coherence judging the internal consistency of a story ultimately determines whether or not a person accepts a particular narrative or rejects it Coherence is based on three speci c types of consistency structural coherence material coherence and characterological coherence Structural coherence refers to the ow of the story Material coherence refers to the congruence between one story and other related stories Characterological coherence refers to the believability of the characters in the story Fidelity a principle of narrative rationality judging the credibility of a story truthfulness or reliability of the story The logic of good reasons presents a listener with a set of values that appeal to her or him and form warrants for accepting or rejecting the advice advanced by and form of narrative Good reasons provides a method for assessing delity What are some criticisms of the Narrative Paradigm Scope and testability utility logical consistency and heurism Scope and Testability too broad mainly focuses on Fisher39s claim that all communication is narrative Utility less than useful due to what they consider its conservative bias The Narrative Paradigm may not easily allow access to marginalized or less popular stories in the culture Logical Consistency failing to be consistent with some of the claims that Fisher makes The narrative approach does not actually provide a more democratic Page 5 of 13 structure compared to the hierarchical system espoused by the rational world paradigm nor does it completely offer an alternative to that paradigm What are the three assumptions of the AST 0 The media establish an agenda and in so doing are not simply re ecting reality but shaping and ltering reality for the people Media s concentration on the issues compromise their agenda and in uence people39s agenda 0 The public has the possibility to in uence medias agenda What is the difference between a public agenda and a media agenda 0 Media agenda priority placed on issues discussed in mediated sources 0 Public Agenda result of media agenda interacting with what the public thinks What role does uncertainty play in AST 0 A factor explaining why people seek guidance from the media agenda Refers to how much information a person believed they already possess about an issue What is priming Cognitive process whereby the media present what in uences people to think afterwards in processing additional information What historical incidents are related to the AST 0 NY Times What is the agenda of the quotDreamworlds 3quot video What are the two main components of AST Surveillance the process of newspeople scanning the information that is in the environment and deciding which of the many events deserve attention 0 Correlation the way the media direct our attention to certain things Where do most newspapers get their quotnewsquot Releases NES conferences What are the four types of media quotframingquot 1Selection 2Emphasis Page 6 of 13 3Exclusion 4Elaboration Who are quotinterest aggregatorsquot political demands of groups and individuals are combined into policy programs What is a criticism of AST with respect to scope Sometimes too large What does SOS attempt to explain and understand 0 Society threatens deviant individuals with isolation The fear causes individuals to assess the climate of opinion 0 Public behavior is affect by public opinion What is the essence of SOS Theory 0 Our opinions change periodically What is a quotquasistatistical sense or organquot 0 Personal estimation of the strength of opposing sides on a public issue The quotTrain Testquot tests what Assesses the extent to which people will speak out What is a quotlast minute swingquot Groups at the end of the spiral willing to speak out at any cost What two types of people do not care about the 505 The quothard corequot have already lost so The quotavantgardequot love to be different How is conformity related to 505 0 People will conform and change their opinions in order to not feel isolated or alone How has 05 been criticized Lack of logical consistency Page 7 of 13 What are the basic assumptions of UGT Audience is active and its media use is goal oriented Initiative in linking need grati cation to a speci c medium of choice rests with the audience member 0 Media compete with other sources for need satisfaction 0 People have enough selfawareness of their media use to be able to provide researchers with an accurate picture of that use 0 Value judgments of media content can only be assessed by the audience What is a parasocial interaction 0 When one party feels like they know another but the other has no idea the rst exists What are the ve needs grati ed by the media Utility lntentionality Selectivity Activity Activeness What is the active audience 0 A variable concept focused on an audience engaging with the media on a voluntary basis What is surveillance in UGT A category of grati cation coming from media use What does UGT give people credit for vs AST What is the violence index How does it relate to CT Yearly content analysis of primetime network programming to assess the amount of violence represented how much violence was actually present on television Correlate annual increases in the amount of violent TV content with amount of real world violent crime What are the three assumptions of CT 0 TV is essentially and fundamentally different from other forms of mass media 0 TV shapes our society s way of thinking and relating The in uence of TV is limited What is mainstreaming Page 8 of 13 Tendency for heavy TV viewers to perceive a similar culturally dominant reality to that pictured on media than actual reality What is resonance A behavior that occurs when a viewer s lived reality coincides with the reality pictured in the media What is the difference between rst and secondorder effects First order effects refer to learning facts a method for cultivation to occur Second order effects refers to learning values and assumptions from the media According to CT what type of effect does TV have on people CT is based on a worldview that is cultivated by TV a mean world that becomes a selfful lling prophecy with political social and cultural discourse TV content is based on industries and elites so we are seeing their view What are the quotThree 35 of Televisionquot Blurring traditional distinctions are blurred Blending reality is blended into a cultural mainstream Bending the mainstream reality bene ts the elite What is at the heart of CS with respect to Marxism Theorists believe that the media39s messages were constructed and delivered with one goal in mind capitalism money frames each message What are the two main assumptions of CS 0 Culture pervades and invades all facets of human behavior 0 People are part of a hierarchical structure of power What is the basis of the term hegemony The domination of one social group over another The study of the question why do so many people assent to and vote for political arrangements which palpably work against their own happiness and sense ofjustice What does the quotTheatre of Strugglequot refer to Page 9 of 13 The competition of various cultural ideologies they compete in society and are temporary states of con ict As attitudes and values on different topics shift in society so do various ideologies associated with said topics What would this theory say about nes and municipal violations What is counterhegemony When people use hegemonic behaviors to challenge the domination in their lives Suggests that audiences are not necessarily willing and compliant The goal is to understand history from other lenses Researchers try to be a voice for the muted What is a criticism of CS Founded on the principles of criticism with an emphasis on underrepresented groups in society Issues with logical consistency utility and heurism What is the essence of MET Society can39t escape the in uence of technology Society evolves as technology evolves The laws of media demonstrate that technology affects communication through new technology What are the three assumptions of MET Media infuses nearly every act and action in society 0 We can39t escape media in our lives 0 Media xes our perceptions and organizes our experiences 0 Media ties the world together What is the essence of the global village Why is it so important today Media ties the world into one great political economic social and cultural system The notion that humans will always be connected by continuous and instantaneous electronic media What are the four Epochs or Eras of McLuhan39s Media history What was is the dominant aspect of each media era These epochs in media history correspond to the dominant mode of communication of the time Media acts as extensions of the human senses and communication is the primary cause of social change Tribal facetoface contacthearing when oral tradition was embraced and hearing was the paramount sense Literate phonetic alphabetseeing when written communication ourished and the eye was the dominant sense organ Page 10 of 13 0 Print printing pressseeing the age when gaining information through printed word was customary and seeing continued to be the dominant sense 0 Electronic computerseeing hearing touching when electronic media pervades our sense it allows people across the world to be connected What is the digital divide Why is it so in uential today What is meant by the term quotThe medium is the messagequot The medium communication channel has the power to change how we think about ourselves others and the world It is our unawareness of the medium that makes a message all the more important What is hot media Cool media What are examples of each Hot media highdef COM that demands little involvement from a listener viewer or reader Low audience participation meaning is provided Ex a movie Cool media lowdef COM that demands active involvement from a viewer listener or reader High degree of participation has to be lled in by the audience Create meaning through high sensory and imaginative involvement Ex TV cartoons What is technopoly We live in a culture in which technology dominates our thinking and behaviors Technological toos serve to take over the culture in which they thrive We trust that technology will bring us safety and salvation and trust in current media with heavy reHance What is the time space bias Space more than physical includes social situations and the in uence COM has Why is the heuristic value of MET so important today MET is applicable to the 21St century because it provides a comprehensive understanding of the theory as it related to the past but also allows us to research topics such as humancomputer interaction Technology has allowed us to make connections but we are rarely communicating The forms and biases of our media technologies impact our everyday lives New technologies are presenting authentic human connections Page 11 of 13 What is the concept of face a metaphor for the public image people display What is facework actions used to deal with face needswants of self and others What is negative face Positive face desire to be autonomous and free from others desire to be liked and admired by others What is solidarity facework accepting another as a member of an ingroup How did the father in quotOh Saigonquot manage his face What is the difference between an individualistic and a collectivist culture lndividualistic focus on individualcollectivistic focus on group What is power distance Refers to the fact that in any interpersonal transaction there will be an inequality of power Countries w a high power distance index the emotional distance between subordinates amp bosses is large subordinates are unlikely to approach and contradict bosses directlyCountries w a low power distance index prefer to consult with their superiors and do no mind disagreeing with boss and don39t expect to be told exactly how to perform their job What is uncertainty avoidance Refers to the amount of uncertainty individuals will tolerate in their daily lives The extent to which members of a culture feel threatened by uncertain or unknown situationsConstant uncertainty can create tensioncause excitement What is the difference between a masculine and a feminine culture Masculine culture Those in which gender roles are clearly distinct Prefer to resolve con icts by shows of power and aggressionWinLose mentality Page 12 of 13 Feminine culture Gender roles overlap and individuals may enact behaviors that could be classi ed as either traditionally feminine or masculine Prefer to resolve con icts by negotiation and compromise What are the ve ways con ict is managed across cultures avoiding staying away from disagreements obliging satisfying the needs of others compromising a behavior that employs giveandtake to achieve a middle road resolution Dominating using in uence or authority to make decisions integrating collaborating with others to nd solutions Page 13 of 13
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'