3 weeks of notes for first test
3 weeks of notes for first test 485
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This 25 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dejia Braxton on Monday January 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 485 at West Virginia University taught by Robin Bowen in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Professional Ethics in forensic science in Education and Teacher Studies at West Virginia University.
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Date Created: 01/25/16
What is Ethics ch1 01172016 What is ethics 0 A guided philosophy 0 Principles that govern an individualgroup Discipline dealing with what s good and bad quotarbitrary rules that de ne appropriate behavior in personalprofessional lifequot 0 speci c to various groups 0 standards for behaviors Morals personal guidelines values Ethics broader guidelines for groups 0 Accounts for individual morals Legitimate expectations of one another 0 Guidance on how to live 0 Protect individuals rightsmorals Model of morality psychological process consistent with behaving morally applies to standards and codes of conduct moral sensitivity should address any issues moral reasoning legitimate expectations moral commitment actions have consequences moral perseverance obligationsduties of protagonist gtUUl 39 Framework for decisions inherent good gt noninherent good noninherent evil gt inherent evil 0 select highest good lowest evil Moral career how a person changes in terms of moralityethical behavior no universally accepted morals can be broken down in stages 1 Contingences social pressures 2 Moral experiences which values to follow 3 Apologia resolving feelings between what happened and what should ve happened Morality based on triad of life 0 faith 0 health jusUce 0 peace and order 0 liberty and security 0 ful llment and happiness Guide to moral life treat everyone decently Golden rule Norms not all standards of conduct are considered ethics Law actions are illegal but not unethical Types of ethics applied quotmost concerned withquot moral theory in a particular context study of ethical dilemmas choices standards normative behaviors that are morally rightwrong Context of ethics personal objective testingquestioning social based on conditionsenvironments eld speci cs quotmost concerned withquot 0 Criminal Justice creatingupholding law Forensic science objective testing combines personalsocial context balance We learn morals from the time we re kids culture religion family nationality informal education may have downfalls Formal education needed most classes are general and more philosophical nature of the eld should be addressed not intended to teach right from wrong include discussionsscenarios Steps to study ethics 1 awareness of issues appearance vs reality critical thinking skills encourage openness prevent quotbadquot solutions good intentions become personally involved use our ability to respond to situations see the quotbig picturequot 4 recognize how the system works abusing authority force others to do something checks and balances system Discussinq ethics inform people negotiate the outcome gain further perspective use neutral descriptive terms be speci c and clarify MerriamWebster ooNo UL the study of ideas about knowledge truth the nature and meaning of life a particular set of ideas about knowledge truth the nature and meaning of life a set of ideas about how to do something or how to live Egyptians boys in the ruling class 3000 years before Christian era advice on how to live happily avoid unnecessary trouble and advance one s career lists of precepts threat their people justly and judge impartially aim to make their people prosperous share with those who don t have or who have less treat humble and lowly people with kindness not laugh at the disabled Religion ethical question came before religion foundation of similarity attitudes toward work desires for success respect for authority compassion for others some ethical theories are taught in the Bible Ethics in the Bible ruler must be just path to justice is the shining light through knowledge justice shall be delivered is its joy to do justice the just shall be protected form evil the just shall increase in faith all things should be done with charity Torah Hebrew teaching everything created in the world is for the purpose of carrying out the Torah foundations ofjewish belief system stems from knowledge that the Lord is GOD Who created the world Islamic basis every human being is called to command the good and forbid the evil in all spheres of life moral responsibility to submit to God s will and to follow lslam as stated in the Qur an Buddhist39s Ethics broader than religion way of life philosophy philosophy means quotlove of wisdomquot lead a moral life 0 be mindful and aware of thoughts and actions 0 develop wisdom and understanding foundation Pa ncasila no killing stealing lying sexual misconduct or use of intoxicants principles look at whether actions are likely to be harmful skillful mind avoids harm and suffering remorse anguish and guilt cultivate calm and peace Greeks birthplace of Western philosophical ethics code of moral correctness quotVERITASquot the truth was the focal point SocratesgtPlatogtAristotle Socrates most info about him his life his teaching were passed down form his disciples dramatic accounts not historical works Plato most reliable source though his accounts changed over time Selfawareness to identify moral characteristics Search for wisdom about right conduct Dialectic 0 Method of examining statements by pursuing their implications 0 Soul is a combo of waking consciousness and moral character Holding knowledge and virtue to be identical so no man knowingly does wrong Evil could only be committed in error when a person values the wrong things 0 Long term effects of actions are more important than short term gain 0 Importance of morality internal well being of the individual not society oFirst to recognize need to de ne ethical concepts and attempt to establish a universal standard 02 interrelated functions 0 establishment of the purpose of the phenomenon that is being examined 0 demonstration of the goodness of the phenomenon by ful lling what is it What good is it How do we know Devised by Aristotle Still used in most American law schools Plato Student of Socrates Mathematician writer of philosophical dialogues founder of Academy of Athens rst higher ed institution 0 Just exists in the individual when 3 elements of the soul act in harmony o nteect o Emotion o Desire 0 Republic 0 Most famous dialogue o quotis it always better to be just than unjustquot 0 meaning ofjustice and impact on happiness 0 how to live a good life People ought to be a re ection of the ethics of their government 4 cardinal virtues of human nature 0 temperance o wisdom o courage o jusUce o the rst 3 should conclude in justice divided people based on intelligence strength and courage o producers o auxiliaries o guardians 0 all three classes must exhibit moderation Producers 0 Not overly intelligent strong or brave o Professions include farming building 0 Overwhelming majority or people 0 Corresponds to the desiring part of the soul Auxiliaries 0 Average intelligence strength and courage o Professions include military and policing 0 Courage de nes this group 0 Corresponds to the spirited part of the soul Guardians o Extraordinarily intelligent virtuous and brave 0 Best suited to run the state aristocracy 0 Very small rare group 0 Wisdom is displayed in their lives and government 0 Corresponds to the rational part of the soul Goodness is measured by his ideal Aristotle student of Plato and rival of in uence on Western philosophy agreed that a life of virtue was rewarding and bene cial disagreed that in order to be good a person must have knowledge of the principles of goodness all living things have inherent potential and its their nature to develop that ultimate goal of humans should be to develop their reasoning powers human nature would show what one ought to do in a given situation need to exercise the knowledge of good each item practice or individual has a distinct ultimate goodness generally man knows what he ought to do in an ethical dilemma desires and judgments in harmony to result in happiness morally weak and strong is based on behaviors not desires more realistic than Plato character centered ethics practical application happiness is achieved through right actions Socrates universal standard individual focus not society outcome based no man knowingly does wrong Plato political order determines moral problem solving Aristotle human nature is good but people need to act on it morality is based on behaviors not desires practical application Natural Law principles of human nature sets the standard for conduct and laws considered an ideal quotunwritten lawquot that is the same for everyone peoples good downside humans have free will and do not always obey the law not made by human beings based on the structure of reality same for everyone at all times unchanging rule or pattern that is available for humans to discover a means by which human being can guide themselves to their good Thomas Aquinas Christian philosopher 0 Eternal law of God 0 Humans use the power of reason 0 Application to a particular social situation 0 Fundamentals of natural law to follow given by God naturally authoritative over human knowledgable to all right action is action that responds to the good variety of ways action can be defective can creat general rules but also allow for interpretation morally binding IF 0 reasonable 0 made by a person wan appropriate authority 0 directed towards common good 0 disseminated 0just john Locke English philosopher 0people are free and equal yet insecure in freedom oto t into society surrender only right that are necessary for security and common good 0difference between knowledge and belief a knowledge direct awareness of facts a belief taking some position to be true St Augustine 0doctrine 0 learn from others but only God can teach us to be ethical 0people are unethical without divine assistance 0people who don t believe in a supreme being cant be ethical Karl Marx o morality as a social construct 0 dependent upon environment 0 one s sense of goodness justice or liberty is relative impacted by social status Stoicism ethics of freedom from passion moral fortitude 0tranquility philosophy of tranquility amp indifference to pain Fear and envy false judgments False judgments no moral and intellectual perfection quot master of my own fatequot When a person is on the right path they are good When a person is on the wrong path they are bad Bad luck is your fault Life based on research Hedonism Ethical systems that advocate feelings of happiness are the goal of conduct 0 Increasing pain wrong 0 Increasing good right Ethics of the pursuit of pleasure Virtue School ethics of knowledge and moral character re ected in teachings of Socrates Plato and Aristotle behavior is based on knowledge 0what guides us what kind of person we are Religious School based on the love of God and beliefs 0St Augustine and Thomas Aquinas are actions good or bad 0 Not judged by consequences 0 Determined by will of GOD 0 Good is the inherent state of nature 0Moral choices based on bene t for person or society Natural School ethics of egoism and power 0Thomas Hobbs and Friedrich Nietzsche based on the Golden Rule belief in life creativity health and realities humans are aggressive with a desire to dominate life affirmation honest questioning of whatever drains life s energies war against all 0 no ethical pretense 0society cant prosper because no one can rely on each other constant fear of your neighbor 0 come together to create societal norms Utilitarianism persons actions and institutions are measured by how well they promote happiness 0 Jeremy Bentham father of criminology and John Stuart Mill 0ends justify the means 0peasuregood painevi 0actions should have the greatest good 0 not a sacri ce of desire to act in society s best interest Ethics of duty and reason possibility of human knowledge assumes active participation of the mind 0 Immanuel Kant standard of rationality called the quotcategorical imperativequot Deontological human intention duty obligation rue based DutyReason formulas 1 act by maxims that should become a universal law 2 treat humanity as an end an never only as a means 3 all maxims ought to correspond with all possible ends Existential school ethics of moral individualism and freedom of choice 0jeanPaul Sartre 0 Man was condemned to freedom from authority but will have to face the authority to become moral 0 Absence of divine entity 0 Human constructs its own ethic o Relies on authenticity of experience 0 Simone de Beauvoir owomen s rights 0 start life in the world already endowed with meaning 0 limited in decision making by our situations 0 meaningful life requires a reconsideration of purpose social justice 0 society of free citizens with basic rights cooperating 0ohn Rawls 0Political power only acceptable when done so that citizens are free and equal a Power only used in reasonable ways associating people places and things involved in criminal activity assist in investigating utilizes science to nd answers 0 answer questions in court through reports and testimony roles Officers sworn CS personnel civilian or sworn Lab analysts civilian Federal Doctors 0 Legal professionals How to become a forensic scientist ideals profession needs to be trusted as a truth 0 high stakes in justice system 0 larger impact 0 data collection 0 in cases when issues arise better understanding consistency o policies procedures methods guiding principles of FS 0 professional should be technically competent and use reliable methods honest about quali cations and area of expertise honest about data and basis for exams conclusions and opinions objective in review of evidence and testimony learning about FS 0 degree programs 0 BS 0 MS 0 PhD Forensic Science Education Accreditation Commission FEPAC 0 Ethics are a component doesn t need to be a class training 0 minimal opportunities 0 range of 0 needs 0 jurisdiction 0 disciplines casework speci c 0 new techniques 0 new instruments 0 too expensive labs don t have the budget learning ethics in FS 0 reading writing discussing general in nature quotsafequot environment 0 use questioning goals 0 shape thought about proper conduct 0 avoid future issues 0 open line of communicationawareness why teach ethics in FS 0 CYA Teach rightwrong To avoid issues 0 Codes of ethics don t cover everything 0 Provides a person with tools 0 To question evaluate recognize issues 0 Discuss situations with different perspective mentoring o mentortraining o trusted friend advisor or teacher 0 administrators of scienti c integrity O O O responsible for guidance role model combo of formal and informal lessons formal topic speci c informal how the topic relates to the job mentors should be O 0000 0 demonstrate and teach style and methods share talents evaluate and critique trainees performance foster the socialization of trainees familiarize trainees with guidelines promote career development downside O O O O O quotburdenquot one more thing lack of time lack of availability lack of interest informal lessons become more about negative lessons cut corners socialization beat the system incompetence quotlacking necessary abilityskillsquot 0 not legally quali ed inadequate to or unsuitable for a particular purpose lacking the qualities needed for effective action unable to function properly why is ethics important 0 Learn standards and guidelines 0 Basis for personal and professional behaviors o Boundaries o What isisn t acceptable 0 Consequences Professional cultures in uence one another 0 Awareness of differences 0 Potential impact 0 Decrease pressure 0 Prevention 0 Recognizing issues or potential issues Understanding what to do Learning from mistakes Not allowing mistakes to grow COO standards 0 quality assurance 0 codes of ethics 0 management 0 general ideals of science 0 no universal standard for ethics Scienti c working groups SWG subject matter experts collaborate to determine best practices set standards purpose improve processes 0 goals competency relevant roles and disclosure Competence varied training and experience 0 inconsistent 0 creates public uncertainty who decides o Other professionals 0 Judges expert 0 Jury believable o Selfdetermined less credible Pressure 000000 0 Accuracy Efficient Speed needed Training budget time availability Complete objective analysis Reasonable Straight forward Disclosure what about the irrelevant data tendency what about a procedure that was not written down should reports contain opinions how extensive should reports be CSI Effect 0 jurors expecting scienti c evidence blind trust of evidence presented general public thinking they know more than they actually do may slow crime scenes unrealistic expectations for processing time test doing what is requested and necessary downside of extra steps time money consumables not doing the extra steps could missing something o FSquots must be balances Relevancy test must be appropriate to the issues of the caseinvestigation 0 ex someone running a test to appear like a more thorough job was done results may appear more signi cant 0 test must be available for review Roles need to be determined to not duplicate efforts 0 lab analysts conduct research test and experiment 0 investigators evaluate circumstances issues and evidence 0 different jurisdictions may have different de nitions
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