Bio 112: Test 1 Study Guide
Bio 112: Test 1 Study Guide 20144
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Oliviaf on Monday January 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 20144 at College of Charleston taught by Dr. Janech in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 115 views. For similar materials see Evolution, Form, and Function of Organisms in Biology at College of Charleston.
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Date Created: 01/25/16
Exam I Study Guide Spring 2016 Biology 112 Janech Guide yesII iust a guide Laes not mean that it guarantees success that is up to you and how hard you work to go beyond what is here and really master the material Development of C critical thinking skills is key HAPTERS11 13 25 261 263 271 272 273 314 24 game 37 some Bioskill13 9 B25 Figgres 316 p 583II 319 p 587II amp 3123 p 596 I assume that you will know basic definitions so they are not included here 1 2 P 10 11 12 13 What are the two contrasting characteristics of scientific culture Competition and collaboration What are the two parts to a scientific theory A pattern and a process Specifically what are each of these parts in the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection The pattern of evolution would be descent with modification and makes two predictions species change through time and species are related by common ancestry The process of evolution is natural selection What is evolution Change in allele frequencies in a population over time What is a population Group of individuals of the same species living in the same area at the same time How are the two related Evolution occurs on a population not on individuals What is natural selection Process that occurs when individuals with certain characteristics produce more offspring than individuals without those characteristics What does it mean to say a trait is heritable A trait is heritable if it can be passed on to offspring What does a phylogenetic tree show It visually represents evolutionary relationships between species How do you know where the common ancestor is Common ancestors are represented by nodes What is a node A node is a point within the tree where a branch splits into two or more branches Who was Wallace One of the theorists who proposed the theory of evolution Who was Darwin He collaborated with some of Wallace s theories and ending up publishing these ideas in 1859 What is the evidence for species having changed through time Change over time fossil records vestigial traits and current examples and common ancestry What is a vestigial trait A reduced or incompletely developed structure that has little to no function but is clearly similar to functioning organs or structures in closely related species What is an example of one Monkeys and primates have tails but humans have a coccyx that is too small to help with balance or support What is the difference between natural selection and artificial selection Natural selection is when traits are beneficial to a current environment are selected for within a natural population Artificial selection is when humans select desirable traits within a domestic population What is the evidence that species are related by common ancestry Geographic relationships and homology What does homology mean Similarity in species descended from common ancestors Morphology The shape and appearance of an organism s body and its component parts Why aren t we overrun with living things Predators and competition Why was Thomas Malthus important to Darwin Thomas Malthus published a book that studied human populations in England and stated Since many more individuals are born than can survive a struggle for existence occurs as people compete for food and places to live What is Darwinian fitness The ability of an individual to produce surviving fertile offspring relative to that ability in other individuals in the population What are its two components 1 Natural resources are limited 2 Individuals must compete against others and those that are better adapted are more fit 14 15 What are Darwin s 4 postulates 1 Individuals in a population vary in their phenotypes 2 Some of this variation is heritable genotypes and can be passed on to offspring 3 More offspring are produced than can survive so only some individuals in the population survive long enough to produce offspring and among the individuals that produce offspring some will produce more than others and 4 Individuals that inherit alleles favorable in a particular environment are more likely to survive and reproduce causing these alleles to increase in population How do they relate to evolution and natural selection Evolution by natural selection occurs when 1 heritable variation leads to 2 differential reproductive success Why does it matter that organisms survive AND reproduce If the organism survives but doesn t reproduce the dominant allele will die with the organism It must be passed on to its offspring and so on to make a difference Beak size shape and body size in finches and moths and birds relate back to those examples be able to readuse graphs 16 What does it mean to say that there is not predisposition to evolution and that evolution is not perfect Adaptations are not conscious answers some alleles and traits work well and others don t Be able to describe each of the patterns of natural selection give an example of each and draw representations of the first three if necessarv 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 What is sexual selection A type of natural selection that favors individuals with traits that increase their ability to obtain mates acts more strongly on males What does this have to do with sexual dimorphism Sexual dimorphism are any traits that differ between male and females Traits that may be for males could be used to help attract females such as bright feathers HardyWeinberg What are the 5 assumptions Random mating no natural selection no genetic drift no gene ow and no mutation y do we care Models are used in biology to describe how something reacts in an ideal situation a perfect world for ease of study Why is it easier to work with a model system The numbers are more precise and will always add up to 1 or 100 What do p and q represent P Frequency of the dominant allele Q Frequency of the recessive allele What is a genotype frequency The amount of times a characteristic is present What is an allele frequency The amount of times an allele is present Why is pq1 always true The number of dominant alleles and recessive alleles cannot go past 100 All of the alleles must be counted for You will NOT need a calculator for the exam What is a species An evolutionarily independent population or group of populations Generally distinct themselves from others in appearance behavior habitat ecology etc Be able to describe each of the 3 ways that we define species Biological species concept reproductively isolated from each other and no gene ow morphospecies concept based on morphological size shape features and phylogenetic species concept based on evolutionary history reproductive isolating mechanisms and how they relate and examples of each Prezygotic isolation temporal bred at different times ex Trees release pollen different times habitat ex Parasites exploit their hosts and leave their og habitat behavioral ex Female fire ies ash lights to attract males gametic barrier egg and sperm are incompatible ex Amino acid sequence prevents sea urchin sperm from fertilizing eggs and mechanical ex Bees cannot pollinate some plants be the oral tube is too long Postzygotic isolation hybrid viability hybrid offspring die as embryos ex Only 6 of ringnecked dove s eggs hatch and hybrid sterility hybrid offspring are sterile as adults ex Some meadowlarks produce infertile offspring when they mate When does the Biological species concept not work In fossils or asexuals What are some of the downfalls of determining species based on morphology alone Features used to distinguish are rather subjective morphology can vary species can be polymorphic growing conditions age geography and sex and different species may appear similarcryptic What is a monophyletic group An evolutionary unit that includes an ancestral population and all of its descendants but no others Be able to basically read a phylogenetic tree what information does it give you The ancestral background of a species Why are synapomorphies important They can be identified on the genetic developmental or structural level 25 What are three ways that species can form in the first place Physical isolation allopatry habitat isolation sympatry and polyploidy mainly just plants How does each occur Physical isolation can occur via dispersal or vicariance Habitat isolation begins via disruptive selection Polyploidy begins when a mutation in meiosis or mitosis results in the doubling of the chromosome number Remember word roots can be good to help remember this stuff What is dispersal The movement of individuals from their place of origin to a new location What is vicariance The physical splitting of a population into smaller isolated populations by a geographic barrier What does each lead to Geographic isolation 26 After physical isolation new species form as a result of genetic isolation due to what Hybridization 27 What is the significance of an island chain that arose volcanically versus one that is part of the mainland but just separated by rising sea levels to species living there This species will most likely not be seen anywhere else in the world based on their isolation and possible inability to get to the mainland What does the term endemic have to do with this Endemic native to a specific area ex Deer in Florida Keys The species living on the island are native to this area but will not be seen on the mainland or anywhere else in the world 28 What is sympatric speciation Disruptive speciation The divergence of populations living within the same geographic area into different species as the result of their genetic isolation How might it occur Through polyploidization or disruptive selection What is an example of it Finches in Galapagos eat different types of seed moths who are white are better at hiding therefore survive 29 What are the two types of polyploidy Autopolyploidy and allopolyploidy How do they occur Autopolyploidy occurs when a mutation doubles the chromosome numbers and all the chromosomes came from the same species Allopolyploidy occurs when individuals are created when parents of two different species mate and create offspring with two different sets of chromosomes How do humans take advantage of this It is used to make certain types of crops coffee apples bananas sugar etc Why is reproduction prohibited with other regular plants It usually produces sterile offspring 30 What are the 3 main categories of plants Seedless vascular plants seed bearing plants gymnosperms and owering plants angiosperms What features separate them Reproduction and ability to live on land Be able to name one example of each Seedless vascular ferns Gymnosperms gingko cycads and pines and Angiosperms Sabal palmetto What is so special about vascular tissue Their special cells that conduct water and give nutrients to the plants Why is Arabidopsis thaliana such a good model plant Angiosperm easy to grow 6week lifecycle What are its nearest relatives 31 Where do aspirin salicin codeine taxol steroids and morphine come from Table 311 p 580 32 What is the alternation of generations A life cycle involving alternation of a multicellular haploid stage gametophyte with a multicellular diploid stage sporophyte What is the major difference between the sporophyte and the gametophyte Sporophyte is diploid and gametophyte is haploid 33 Why do mosses and ferns still need water for repro The sperm has to be able to swim What is special about gymnosperms and angiosperms that they are freed from this Pollen What is the most common type of plant Angiosperms 90 fruit What are some developmental synapomorphies that all land plants share How about reproductive synapomorphies 34 What does indeterminate growth mean They never stop growing Why is this a good thing for plants to have If something is lost they lose a fruit or limb it will grow back What are the basic parts of a developed plant embryo Ground tissue epidermal tissue and vascular tissue How many embryonic tissue layers are there 3 Where are the meristems The places in the plant that can turn into any cell the plant may need similar to stem cells Why are these areas SO important They specialize in whatever cell the plant may need so the plant is never in need What is meant by the morphological diversity and phenotypic plasticity of roots What is meant by the morphological diversity and phenotypic plasticity of shoots 35 Double fertilization Sperm splits twice and fertilizes egg and polar nucleiendosperm Make sure that you know all of the basic vocabulary definitions for the terms listed on your Assignment 1 sheet Study Tips Go to 81 Use different colored pens for note taking in class DraW stuff Make posters and put them up Where you see them often Flashcards be sure to MAKE YOUR OWN since you are studying While you write Try to explain the concepts to someone else talk about it out loud and teach it to them ReVieW notes 2 hours of study for every 1 hour of class recommended Different amount for each person DO NOT WAIT until the night before Make a concept map and talk yourself through how things relate
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