ANT302 Midterm Review
ANT302 Midterm Review ANT302
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Crystal Sandoval on Monday January 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANT302 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Aime Hoisseman in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Intro to Cultural Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 01/25/16
ANT 302 Review Midterm Beaver Overthinking Dam The Onion Article 0 Dam is celebration of beaver culture 0 Got him thinking about the woods Type of wood to use favorable one Etc 0 How dam building alters the ecosystem The Body Biology and Food in Cultural Anthropology 1 Public Documentary on Childhood Obesity a Made a comparison between ethnicity and obese rates i 1 Hispanic for every 4 African Americans is more likely to be obese ii 64 Hispanic v 23 African American and the rest white b Made comparison between social class and obese rates i The poorer the person the more obese one will be because their lifestyle has to be accommodated to what they can afford ii McDonalds meal is 1 versus a healthy meal which is much more c The mother is usually the one at fault because she is the one who cooks and feeds her children d A lot of people are uneducated about the amount of sugar fat etc is found in their foods e Not even grocery stores are not providing produce that does not have preservatives 2 quotChildhood Obesity Epidemic Health Crisis or Social Constructionquot Moffat Tina 2010 Medical Anthropology a Obesity in relation to poverty and school environment b Is the obesity quotepidemicquot socially constructed i Spector and Kitsuse Constructing Social Problems 1987 social problems are constructed and that39s useful in and of itself to analyze how they are constructed regardless if they are true or not ii Media played large role in the cultivation of this quotepidemicquot to place issue of the publicpolitical agenda Article not focusing on media39s role though iii IOTF International Obesity Task Force 2008 created to inform world about the urgency of the problem and to persuade govt that the time to act is now iv quotGlobesityquot the world began to follow in research and in addressing the issue v 21St century quotobesity epidemicquot recognized as official and legit medical and societal problem c The use of the word quotepidemicquot i Epidemic is used as a metaphor to create general chaos and moral panic ii quotfat panicquot iii If childhood obesity is epidemic then it must be a disease 1 Medicalization is then associated with it g h a Obesity falls under the lifestyle model like AIDS it is one that invokes that personal choices and risky behavior leads to it Who is to blame i Mothers usually blamed not the kids 1 Children are being raised in a toxic environment because mothers are the ones who feed them and drive them everywhere ii Corporations 1 Produce of high value is not always being served to lower income families Obesity is measure by BMI but hard to know what it is in kids because of the constant change they undergo as a whole i We have forgotten what 39normal39 kids look like because normalization is an ongoing thing Lower SES more minorities and more obesity due to less resources amp high quality food Higher SES more whites and less physical activity Obesity is real problem affecting real people and there should be a different term used versus quotobesity epidemicquot 3 The Raw and Rotten Punk Cuisinequot Clark Duncan 2004 Ethnology a b Black Cat Caf hangout spot for punks and their kindred spirits i Meat and dairy products were excluded vegetables with peanut sauce tofu scrambles and other began creations were entrees ii It39s a haven where people who want to live their lives away from bullshit of corporate oppression and abuse of power by government Being punk means critiquing privileges and challenging social hierarchies i Contemporary punks inspired by anarchism which is understood as a way of life favoring egalitarianism and environmentalism and are against sexism racism and corporate domination c Punk cuisine i Claude Levi Straus cooking food differentiates us from animals and how we make culture and civilization 1 Tripolar gastronomic system raw cooked and rotten ii Punks believe industrial food lls a person with norms rationales and moral pollution of corporate capitalism and imperialism iii Punk cuisine is best discussed as a cultural mechanism responsible to its own logic and how punks perceive the normative culture iv Like quotrawquot food because its wild organic and uncultured as compared to industrializedrotten and processedcooked 1 Punk food attempts to break free from the fetishism of food as commodity 2 They prefer selfmade homegrown stolen food 3 Industrialized food production is seen as hallmark of monoculture which means that societies around world are devoured and homogenized by consumerism v Mainstream food is epitomized by corporate capitalist quotjunk foodquot d Punk as genderpower i Play genderpower relations in their diets 1 Recently become more committed to anarchist egalitarian principles ii Body is a place where hegemony is made and resisted iii Food is disciplinary order where woman are taught to diet and manage bodies 1 Vegetarianism for many punks is a feminist practice 2 Meat with prestige caloric content and proximity to physical violence is associated with masculinity a For some it39s a way to challenge feminism and reassert masculinity e Punk Veganism f I Struggle to make food and animal products overtly political carried out by bands and zines which comment on animal rights industrial food and veganism ii Veganism and vegetarianism are strategies that punks use to combat corporate capitalism patriarchy and environmental coHapse 1 Eating animalbased products not only unhealthy but participated in bondage and murder of animals Staling YuppieNatural Foods i Americans reached point where food as essential has been sublimated under ideology of food as selfgrati cation and consumer identity ii Punks would steal food from places that exempli ed the punk culture thus when stolen they would be puri ed to the punk culture instead of the norms 1 This would be the same for dumpster diving but the addition was the fact of knowing that people were hungry around Seattle and they were throwing food away g Punk food practices helped shape community symbolize values and foster group solidarity ex Foods Not Bombs distribute free food to homeless and hungry 4 Mexican Genomic and the Roots of Racial Thinking John Hardigan 2013 Cultural Anthropology a Social constructionist stance Informed by concern with assailing ideological notions that racial identities are both legible in and xed by our biology Map of Mexican genome humans the other map plants considered to represent national patrimony maize beans and avocados quotracebasedquot characterization in US more re ective of a view that identi es quotMexicaquot principally as racial category lNMEGEN39s missioncontributing to healthcare of Mexicans and construed as quota cornerstone of the Mexican strategy to develop a national platform in genomic medicinequot Point that was a homerun hit by Cesar Lara Alvarez i Potential for race to mater lay with inclusion of indigenous groups in the project of subsequent phases of population sampling How INMEGEN analyzes the genetic structure of Mexicans i quotadmixturequot is the starting point and founding assumption ii There39s not a similar polar opposition of white and black in Mexico 1 This highlights the social and historical factors in uencing the shape of national genome Is the quotMexican Genome Projectquot a racial project i Yes but the work of INMEGEN does not resemble racial genetic project in US quotMaize Genomequot in LANGEBIO Provided insight into maize genomic diversity via ancestral population that was cultivated in different distinct quotrazasquot landraces i 2 sides to maize genome 1 millions of years old most familiar with and dependent on and 2 product of human tinkering over last 9000 years They use the word quotrazaquot to characterize nonhumans in this instance plants Designation of race not about nature in the way Anglo theorists typically assume racial think to operate instead the ineluctable blend of culture and biology in the practice of domestication challenges idea that naturalization is key component to racial thinking 5 The Gender of Brazilian Transgendered Prostitutes Don Kulick 1997 American Anthropologist a b Those who are penetrated are not men but those who penetrate are i Penetrating the man is a symbol of masculinity In Latin America gender is categorized as men and notmen women and those who like being penetrated are placed in this category Travestis are those who enjoy anal penetration in Brazil i Large numbers of these travestis in the larger cities mainly visible at Carnaval 1 Many are discriminated and avoid going out into the streets 2 As young as 10 or 12 years old boys selfidentify as travestis and begin ingesting or injecting themselves with female hormones to change physical appearance a Hormones are inexpensive easy to obtain and fast working b After hormones start changing penis they inject silicone into bodies mainly in their butts thighs and hips d Roberta Close most beautiful woman in Brazil mid 19805 and a travesty e Clear distinction that they are woman just like them i This means that they like the physical appearance of a woman but do not desire to be one ii In addition to taking feminine forms they get more money for prostitution f Every travesti values their penis i They have maridos which are men who take the penetration and do not give it 1 Also are nancially supported by travesty ii Required to be men so cannot notice comment on or concern with the penis of the travesty even during sexual activity iii If becomes interested in the penis travesti cuts him off g Homem man in gender system is that travesties draw and invoke is that a man will not be interested in another male s penis lf does so relinquishes status of man becomes a viado h Travestis enjoy sex with their clients and if the sex is so good they will even pay client i Don t necessarily have to have sex with clients to earn money 1 Most money received is from robbing clients i Males do not become travesti because they were sexually abused or for economic gain j Travesti language refer to biological males by using feminine pronouns and adjectival endings ex She was furious i Clients referred to as she sometimes ii Males are referred to as he or she depending on the actions they do k Gender versus sex i In Brazil gender is mindset and sex is the actions performed during penetration 1 If penetrates then a man If penetrated then a woman or quotnotmenquot ii In US gender and sex associated but sex determined by their gen ab Woman and males who enjoy penetration share a gender but travesti are not women because they don39t share same roles goals or social status as women i They share the same desire in attraction to opposite sex Cultural Anthropology Religion Belief Systems 1 Online documentary on Santeria 2 quotWhere obscurity is a virtuequot The Mystique of Unintelligibility in Santeria Ritual Kristina Wirtz 2005 Language and Communication a Santeria ceremony Santiago de Cuba i Two men 1 lead singer and 2 possessed by Yemaya led it ii Sang and talked in Lucumi while people tried to guess what was saying b Yemaya female oricha deity th Lucumi the Santeria s esoteric ritual language believed to be a divine language it derives from Yoruba spoken by rst gen Africans from Southwest Nigeria and Benin Unintelligibility cannot be assumed to be a straightforward category i Unintelligibility means to a lack of smantic content and has been applied to such phenomena as vocables glossolia archaisms and other forms of relexi cation xenoglossia and sacred languages or registers ii Ethnographystudy and systematic recording of human cultures To say a text is unintelligible does not mean that it has no meaning Austin39s notion of quotperformativityquot highlights how people use language to effect and not only describe Bloch argues ritual speech registers constrain ritual participants39 roles thereby deploying traditional authority i Unintelligibility can also be construed as resource for participants to construct multiple interpretations and to contest authority Urban argues that discourse has a dual nature as quotan object of the senses as well as the intellectquot which suggests that speech is possessed of a quotthinglike qualityquot Complexity in how unintelligibility is rendered meaningful by ritual participants The ritual context i Tambores celebrate the saints39 day of their principal oricha they39re festive occasions ii Alters for the dead are created and a celebration is thrown iii Many people become possessed by their principal oricha iv Subidor someone who has he experience and ritual preparation to readily receive the oricha when succumbed experienced senior santeros take charge and lead the possessed person to alter or private room 1 Subidor not only receives a trance but will allow possessing oricha to speak through them Some santeros keep notebooks with vocabulary lists or consult published photocopied Lucumi glossaries i Because of the association to Spanish words it is considered intelligible to at least those with suf cient knowledge ii Much of these words are unrecognizable though so thus being unintelligible 3 metapragmatic factors brie y describe Lucumi s historicity translatability and secrecy i Santeros link ritual jargon as divine language and a historical link to ancestors ii Santeros can index religious authority by demonstrating ability to excavate meanings within unintelligible texts iii Highly knowledgeable Santeros circumspect revealing too much of Lucumi knowledge because secrecy is important to santeros39 orientation toward religious knowledge m Santeros acknowledge that orichas are the archetypal uent speakers of divine language n Songs are directed to particular orichas in order to offer praises amp incentives that will draw their attention i Ritual songs highly unintellible in formal terms santeros metapragmatically frame ritual songs as intelligible ii The translation of the songs isn39t exact because people can39t decipher word by word but the general meaning of the song is known through bits of the phrases iii Because of this Lucumi is seen to be intelligible to those uent iv Unintelligibility introduces ambiguity and possible hidden or exible meanings 1 An example of such is translation of quotiya miquot meaning mom or mistress o Orichas speech calls for unintelligibility because orichas grope for words and often gesture as if they are struggling to make themselves understood i Voice quality pitch and volume all contribute to unintelligibility through phonological distortion ii Unintelligibility may be produced by morphological changes such as affixation attenuation and reduplication p Translators rely heavily on context clues especially gestures and paralanguage because of the urgency and dif culty of understanding the message q Unintelligibility can be produced through a range of semiotic and metasemiotic devices 3 Sacred Sites Contested RitesRights Contemporary Pagan Engagements with the Past Jenny Blain and Robert Wallis 2004 Journal of Material Culture a Archaeology39s attempt reach sympathetic interested public spiritual frequenters of prehistoric sites are a prime target audience interested in heritagenot only intellectually but as part of spiritual or imaginal landscape b Paganism the most evident spiritual quotmovementquot associated with heritage sales it comprises a variety of allied associated paths or tradition which can be seen academically as sets of discourses and practices given adherents standpoints from which to engageOften spiritually with the natural and social world i Increasing number of contemporary pagans have been engaging with quotsacred sitesquot and most leave little impact of their pilgrimage to sites 1 Instead they leave votive offerings amp don39t change sitdamage it irreparably c Sacred Landscapes are approached in 2 ways i Assumed that peopeby Pagans and academics conveyor inscribe sacredness in the landscapes ii It is perceived that places and landscapes are inherently sacred d Pagan worldviews include spirits goddesses and gods and quotnaturequot as an entity or an animist perception of many otherthanhumanpersons Best known paths or traditions are Wicca Druidry Heathenry and Goddess Spirituality i Druids seen by today39s media as classic quotStonehenge worshippersquot ii quotNew agequot travelers own set of relationships with sacred places ranging through pagan quotpartyingquot and quotpilgrimagequot orientations and relating to economic and social conditions as well as choice of freedom e Sites hold meaning or they invest meaning in sites as part of paganisms identity and investing of meaning also a way of creating identity central and important to the individuals or groups concerned i Scared sites derive from its use by indigenous communitiesNative Americans who attempt to repatriate land human remains ad artefacts deemed sacred f Pagan relations with sites are not singular or monolithic They range from adhering to heritage movement quotpreservationquot agendas to claiming particular and individual reasons for whatever engagements seems appropriate at the time i quotRitual litterquot Offerings like owers candle light holders etc ii quotTaggingquot drawing on stone with chalk symbols like pentacles g Pagans have volunteered as guardians of sites h Sites do not necessarily offer Pagans beliefs but they become rather components of stories i New indigenes constructed identity relating to how landscapes through narratives in which stones and spirits have agency and which humans and spirits exist in state od mutual dependency i One effect is to further marginalize and trivialize quotspiritquot discourses j Tension between authorities and pagans are present when sites open to tourists usually during the Summer Solstice events in Averbury k Stonehenge has opened to public recently but 3 main issues were i Impact of huge numbers of people on tightly focused sites ii Vast amount of litter iii Ongoing debate and monitoring this event as a party v spiritual event 1 Can drink and party in a spiritual event but it depends how its constituted in speci c groups and circumstance and discourses surrounding it Sacredness is constructed not given Buddhism Science and Market The Globalization of Tibetan Medicine Craig R Janes Anthropology and Medicine a Tibetan medicine offers 3 kinds of therapy i Advice to proper diet and behavior ii Various 39external39 treatments including moxibustion cupping acupuncture iii Herbal medications b Tibetan medicine has been able to engage increased Western interest in Eastern spirituality and holistic healing i Offers different type of treatment traditionalmedicines Tibetan dietary supplements full of herbal ingredients ii IT is composed of 4 Medical Tantras or Gyu Shi 3general and memorized and other not as important because its longer and less relevant text Medical pluralism the interaction of therapeutic practices in a given context i White says it39s a political process where relationships or power and meaning are played out between diverse therapeutic practices In the process of using resources like medicines techniques therapies and knowledge there are quotsecondary effectsquot1 good health 2 economic prosperity for medicals Globalization structures content of primary medical resources confers legitimacy to certain technologies and sets the ground rule which healers in charge of deploying such technologies Political and economic dimensions of globalization structure reward systems to which states institutions and therapist adapt Cultural dimensions of globalization enter local context through multiplestranded ows of people images and ideas and contribute to rede nitions of identity suffering and body praxis among patientsconsumers in Tibet and West ln Tibet practice of medicine constrained by Chinese visions of modernity Tibetan medicine pushes different paths and meets psychological aspects of health that biomedicine fails to provide 1993 provisions of social services in China 3 impacted Tibetan medicine i Direct state funding of health care decline 50 cut to state appropriated budget of major Tibetan medicine hospitals ii Health care decisions decentralized to prefectures and counties iii Relaxation on regulations governing medical entrepreneurship led to rapid development of robust medical pluralism in towns and cities throughout region 1 Led to people opening up own businesses and practices iv This resulted in the regionallocal impactneoibera health reform to 1 reduce public expenditures on health care and 2 develop competitive private markets Efficacy a shift that considers health and public health as much a product of nancial investment as an application of a particular array of knowledge i In this case traditional medicine has advantage because low cost and ef cient alternatives to biomedicine ii Medical efficacy potential for medicine to be a successful commodity Important component of the quotausterity regimesquot and macroeconomic reform packages is that it imposes on poor countries a radical decentralization of services to local communities and blunting state power with respect to local community activities Common theme is that nation state engages with global modernity and refashionsreproduces the apparatus within its boundaries but it has become politically irreverent ex 39retreat statequot went from modern social institution to an alternative social structure including mass communication and nongovernment structures Important to distinguish state as bureaucratic apparatus and state as producer of ideology to understand role Chinese state played in regulating Tibetan medicine 3 channels in the body i Thought to correspond to 3 mental positionsduk sumdesire hatred ignorance 3 summary points relevant to problem of globalization i State controls content of education in traditional medicine ii These exercises in fashioning a scienti c basis of Tibetan medicine worked out in an educational system that early on set students in conversation with biomedicine science and political theory iii Social organization of Tibetan medical practice seriously limits degree to these theoretical elements inform medical practice Tibetan medical practices usually give advice regarding diet or hospitalization if severe i Tibetan medicine accessibility is highly a problem in rural areas ii Dif cult to understand the true ability to cure because embedded trad practices 1 People have faith and hope this alternative works for severe illnesses Characteristics of new pluralismstructured by emergent con guration of relations among biomedicine the state and the consumercitizens i Emergence of economics as dominant discipline in global health policy underlying values of equity social justice community participation and quothealth for allquot have been replaced with valuations of cost utility ii States play role in controlling content of what counts as traditional medicine iii Western desires release medicine to global marketplace thus only for privileged 5 39In God39s hands Pentecostal Christianity morality and illness in a Melanesian Society Richard Eves 2010 Journal of Royal Anthropological Institute a b God punishes those who sin and to be cured the patient must be strictly virtuous Christianity especially Pentecostal version complicates unravel and recast relationship between self morality illness and healing Explanation of the origin of evil i Deuteronomy Says that God plays a vengeful role sparing no sinner39s life 1 Ex AIDS given to punish 33 ii Book ofJob illnesses sent by God to blameless people to test strength of faith In Lelet strong link between Christianity and biomedicineChristianity and healing Biomedicine large in Lelet they assimilate biomedical explanations into own understandings of illnesses i They discriminate between illness type and type of therapy to be appHed 1 Exogenous peculiarly Westernex Tuberculosis 2 Endogenous Indigenous treatment appropriate for illnessesexsorcery Christianity in Papua New Guinea believed that illnesses linked to God and he would send these illness to punish or warn against sin Western medicine sent to cure illness but could also be cured by confession prayer promise of reformation etc Lelet believe prayer and medicine go hand in hand they pray when sick as well as the whole congregation when sick and use medicine too For person who was helpless before God 3 steps for sancti cation i Feel the moment that one is being blessed by the Holy Spirit ii Salvation is conditional on faithaso requirement in Pentecostal heaHng iii Attainment of salvation ultimately depends upon will of individual The death of Paul story i Pig belonged to John Pig broke from leash and Paul and Mary killed and ate it John asked around if anyone seen it including couple Everyone said no Later on Paul and Mary felt ill Paul dies and Mary gets super sick almost dies Paul later sues Mary for accusation of sorcery ii The whole town speculated about how sorcery and guiltfault was in play Different beliefs of asuafault blame or mistake saying it39s one39s fault i Urapmin Ander that is to be feared since it is cause of human sickness ii Melpa Illness arises from situationscon icts that produce anger and frustration between people Pentecostal conversion believed to transform spirit into state of perfect virtue having un awed reaction to God Leaving behind one s old life and taking on a new life i When converting they do it in front of public to have a higher motivation ii Ways people confession in public areas hidden speech 1 Ex Curing a kid when sick confess rede ne your faith happy Categorize illnesses then give therapy Biomedicine therapies work better with prayer quotWater of lifequot Symbolizes blood ofJesus and can cure all af ictions Salvation the saving of humanity from penalty of sin has extended to present times 0 To achieve salvation and health individual must scrutinize and monitor behavior and thoughts to ensure heshe is in virtuous state Introduction to Anthropology 1 What do anthropologists do a Ethnographyparticipant observation Systematic hanging out over long period of time b Publish our data as ethnographiesarticles or books c Can also make lms art etc 2 Important concepts a Contextual holistic evolutionary and comparative b Relaxivity Ability to think about our own biases and positions c Cultural relativism All cultures operate with an internal ogicreativism is not automatic acceptance d Ethnocentrism Feeling your own culture is superior to others 3 Informed consent human subjects review and general ethics a quotDo not harmquot motto of cultural anthropologists Anthropologists 1 Darwin and Wallace a Simultaneously working out mechanism of evolution through natural selection b Darwin got noticed for concept on the origin species 1859 c Evolution change over time d Natural Selection is a result of interaction of environment and traits which are selected for or against e 19505 Darwanian is paired with genetics to create modern synthesis 2 Herbert Spencer a Source for quotsurvival of the fittestquot as social process b Lays out evolutionary process for development of societies from simple to complex c Humans39 environment take a part of social organism i Often used as justi cation for lack of care for disadvantaged 3 Karl Marx 18181883 a Focus on economic processes of burgeoning capitalist economies b Use value v exchange vaue i Patagonia ex 400500 jacket sold yet how do sales continue to grow marketing and advertising are exchange value for a sale ii Things that appeal to an individual is how anthropologist study marketsales c Culture as created by con ict between social groups i Ex jefferson Davis statue removal natural sciences v liberal arts campus carry all a certain type of culture in which their stance is represented d Alienation is a major theme i Ex Amazon forced people to work long hours and thus not allowing interaction between workers instead was more cutthroat environment 4 Durkheim 18581917 a Sociologist who wrote suicide and elementary forms of the religious life created understanding of social facts i Things that are true because we feel them to be so 1 When a car breaks down we talk to it ii We often don39t know they are there until we violate themsocial facts individuals are subject to coercive power 1 At grocery store eat grapes and you quottaste testquot how much is too much for a quotfreequot sample iii Culture is about stabilization 1 How to get people to a certain keel 2 Stabilizing mechanisms laws a Anthropologists mind red light oor it yellow lightspeed up They study this 5 Malinowski 18841942 a Psychological functionalism cultural institutions exist to help people meet needs b Argonauts of Western Paci c i Kula trade networks in Tribriand lslands ii Release of eld notes in 1967 also made him famous iii Father of modern social anthropology c Video i How create relationships ii All humans essentially equal 6 Lewis Strauss 19082009 a Structuralism cultural phenomena may be particular but they arise out of universal psychological process including binary thinking b Culture composed of patterns of arbitrary symbols as in language i Think of ags France ii Names iii Logos Longhorn v AampM c quotprimitivequot mythologies are closer to universal processes than Western beliefs i So close to nations and so pure ii Really what it39s like to have own identity 7 Franz Boas 18581942 Father of American anthropology Papa Franz Cultural linguistic and physical studies Worked in Artic and PNW Salvage ethnology especially with Kwakiutl and Tlingit Repudiated quotsocial Darwinismquot racism and eugenics in personal and professional lives Historical particularism environment psychology and history are important but history most of all g The individual is shaping history and culture h Rigorous data collection is key 8 Edward Sapir 18841939 a Student of Boas father of American linguistic anthropology Duncp h b Continuing the focus on understanding of Native American literatures though that language not translation c Also worked against cultural determinism of Kroeber39s superorganic theory of culture though a focus on the individual 9 Ruth Benedict 18871948 a Patterns of Culture 1934 theorizing the temperaments of societies as Dionysian v Apollonian types cultural determinism 10Margaret Mead 19011978 a 1st to show American model of adolescence isn39t universal Coming of Age in Samoa b Adolescents have sex at relatively young ages in other parts of the world and wasn t a big deal c Most publicly knownRedbook columnist i Help women who were becoming more independentaway from their husbands 11Mary Douglas 19212007 a Purity and Danger 1966 humans are ritua beings b All societies are organized by relatively few ordering principles like degree of individualism and hierarchy regardless of technology etc c Dirt is quotmatter out of placequot Lord Chester eld 12Benjamin Lee Whorf 18971941 a Student of Sapirsee quotSapir Whorf hypothesisquot which is none of those things b Linguistic relativity Languages encode concepts differently ie Hopi conceptions of time and have varying degrees of impact on worldview thought etc i An action suit not a straightjacket Nick En eld 13Clifford Geertz 19262006 a Interest in culture as a dynamic symbolic process quotwebs of significancequot 1973 b Ethnography is thick description with attention to meaning c quotDeep Play Notes on the Balinese Cock ghtquot men are identi ed with their cocks 14Renato Rosaldo 1941 a quotGrief and a headhunter39s Ragequot written after his wife Michelle a feminist anthropologist died in the eld while they were studying ongot of the Philippines b Poet salsa dancer scholar of Latin at issues Additional Notes 1 Biological and social views on race a Where do we get idea of race i Idea of Victorian eld guide ii High school football team example b What is the distinction that anthropologists make here i Racism is more complex that people make it ii Race is more changeable depending on the society iii Created out of social relationships 1 Various outcomes or dangerous outcomes c Why are they interested in genomic stuff i Interested in the idea of indigenous maize ii Mexicans and American race ideas differ 1 Mexican view it as uid and Americans view it as is static 2 Heterogeneity 2 Social Constructivism a What Hardigan comes to understand is shaped by a lot of cultural context i Has to reform his work ii Wasn39t able to understand at rst b Idea that obesity gender things to do with the body all of those scienti c evidence exist within a context tells you what39s interesting about hem who gets to investigate these ideas i Knowledge is gained from a social process 3 Gender a Travestis Based their gender by penetration b Anatomical sec i How you were raised compared to what you identify with more c Symbolic site of contestation i Gender could be contextual based upon who is looking at you 4 Obesity a Is childhood obesity and epidemic b What are we fearful of i Catching obesity ii Giving it to our children iii Social pressures iv Educationally medically economically morals c Why would you argue it is not an epidemic i Make sense on a certain level but can lose sight of distinction d How does this happen i Trauma socioeconomic status cultural and environmental in uence ii Portion sizes availability 5 Punk Veganism a Go against mainstream and white dominance through eating raw food b How does gender play into i If you eat meat then you are masculine v if you don39t eat meat it is holding you back from your masculinity ii Food systems are orientated c Cleanliness i If you are too sanitary you have given in 6 Religion a Not an isolated concept it is interwoven Tibetan medicine b Marketable commodity i What do people think in the West think they are getting 1 Balance 2 Something deeper than biomedicine ii What do people think in China 1 Government has eradicated the ethnicreligious parts of it so it is more standardized like a science opposite of what the west wants iii How could you experience illness among the Leet 1 You have sinned 2 How do you know which treatment to choose based on iHness iv Secrecy and openness 1 If you39re Pentecostal you have to repent your sins in the open
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