NSC 170 Exam 1 Study Guide
NSC 170 Exam 1 Study Guide NSC170
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by AmysNotes on Monday January 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NSC170 at University of Arizona taught by Jennifer Ricketts in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 97 views. For similar materials see Nutrition and You in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 01/25/16
Chapter 1 Exam 1 Study Guide List factors that in uence food choices explain how these differ from past generations 0 Taste and culture I Most important consideration At least 10000 taste buds in your mouth A culture39s cuisine is greatly in uenced by environment Climate Soil conditions Native plants Animals Distance people live from rivers lakes or the sea 0 Social customs and trends I A way to bond with others Thanksgiving Eating dinner with others increases size of meal by over 40 More people there the more you eat I Others in uence what you eat and how you eat Popular trends Food manufactured changes 0 Advertising I 10 billion annually on food advertising 700 million spent on the marketing of breakfast cereals candy and gum 500 million spent on advertising carbonated soft drinks Estimated 200 billion of household purchases are in uenced by children 12 and under and what they watch on television 40 of commercials during Saturday morning cartoons are for sweets and treats Commercials for vegetables and fruits are almost nonexistent Got Milk Campaign introduce when dairy declined in 1994 Sales increased by nearly 15 billion pounds 0 Cost time and convenience I 11 of American households experience food insecurity Time to prepare food is limited Research shows women especially those working want to spend less than 15 minutes preparing a meal Supermarkets are selling heatable foods Cooking is unnecessary and time consuming Convenience Walking back to dorm pizza stand 0 It smells and looks good and you39re tired and don39t want to cook so you buy a piece of pizza 1970s individuals spent 25 of their total household food budget on eating out Now its 40 0 Habits and emotions in uence not only what you eat but when you eat I Cereal and orange juice in the morning It s a habit to grab I Going to get food after a work out after studying after school etc every day I Anxiety before a big test Bad break up 0 Eat I Individuals celebrate by going out to eat I Food is used to express emotions o Differ from past generations I Nutrition science has begun to significantly in uence our food choices quotYou are what you eatquot is a modern term quotYou are what you don39t eatquot described past generations 0 People were concerned with health problems created by nutrition de ciencies o Rickets vitamin D de ciency I Cure discovered in cod liver oil 0 Laws were passed requiring the enrichment of re ned grain products with several vitamins including thiamin and mineral iron Dietary Reference Intakes developed and became the standard Convenience food became more popular 0 Diets high in saturated fat and dietary cholesterol I Results in heart disease BalancedDiet Pyramid De ne a nonnutrient and explain their role in the diet 0 Nutrient compounds found in the foods that sustain your body processes There are six classes Chapter 2 of nutrients carbohydrates fats lipids proteins vitamins minerals and water Phytochemicals plant chemicals that are thought to play a role in protecting your body against chronic diseases Alcohol can confer health bene ts if consumed in very small amounts but its not a nutrient and in excessive amounts can pack on pounds harm your liver and increase your risk of suffering a traumatic injury or an accidental death Explain how nutrition in uences disease and how nutrients may in uence gene expression 0 O A chronic lack of even one nutrient will impact your body39s ability to function in the short term Good nutrition plays a role in reducing the risk of four of the top 10 leading causes of death in the United States I Heart disease I Cancer I Stroke I Diabetes Plays a role in in preventing other diseases and conditions that can reduce your quality of life Eating right will help better manage body weight which in turn will reduce risk of developing obesity diabetes and high blood pressure Gene expression processing of genetic information to create a speci c protein I Certain dietary components can in uence different people39s genes in different ways creating speci c responses in your body that are unlike those in another person I Nutrition genomics can help determine the recommended combination of types of fats for different people based on an analysis of each person39s genetic make up List the 6 nutrient categories identify the main roles of each and identify which provide energy 26 27 o Carbohydrates I Macronutrient I Energy I Provide majority of daily calories 0 Protein I Macronutrient I Energy I Growth maintenance support or structure I Regulate body processes I Macronutrient I Energy I Growth maintenance support or structure I Regulate body processes 0 Vitamins I Important for metabolism I Micronutrient I Growth maintenance support or structure I Regulate body processes 0 Minerals I Important for metabolism I Micronutrient I Growth maintenance support or structure I Regulate body processes 0 Water I Growth maintenance support or structure I Regulate body processes List the basic principles of a wellbalanced diet 0 All important nutrients over the course of a day 0 Dietary compounds I Fiber Isn39t digested Whole grains fruits and vegetables have a lot of fiber I Phytochemicals Disease fighting properties 0 Supplements are available for individuals who restrictions or higher needs Chapter 3 Define the scientific method including the basic steps 0 Scienti c method a process of experimental steps scientists use to generate sound research ndings I Observe and ask a question I Formulate a hypothesis I Conduct an experiment A Hypothesis supported B Hypothesis not supported 0 Revise or formulate a new hypothesis Explain the differences between observational and experimental studies 0 Observational studies involves looking at factors in two or more groups of subjects to see if there is a relationship to a certain disease or another health outcome 0 Experimental studies involves at least two groups of subjects One group the experimental group is given a specific treatment and another group the control group isn39t Define the gold standard in the experimental model 0 Doubleblind placebocontrolled study I A study designed and conducted in such a way that neither the study participants nor the experimenters know to whom a treatment is given Describe how to obtain the current and accurate nutrition advice 0 Registered dietitian RD I A health professional who has completed at least a bachelor39s degree in an accredited university of college in the United States has completed a supervised practice and has passed an exam administered by the American Dietetic Association I Qualified to provide medical nutrition therapy Assess a patient39s medical history and current health needs nad develop a treatment plan I Page 37 0 Public Health Nutritionists I Undergraduate degree in nutrition I Cannot become a RD 0 Licensed Dietitian I An individual who has met specif1c educational and experience criteria that a state licensing board has deemed necessary to be considered an expert in the field of nutrition A registered Dietician meets all the qualifications to be an LD Chapter 4 Define malnourishment and provide examples 0 Malnourished the longterm outcome of consuming a diet that doesn39t meet nutrient needs I Undemutrition a state of malnutrition in which a person39s nutrient andor calorie needs aren39t met through the diet Define each of the following and differentiate each from the other Dietary Guidelines for Americans the DRI s and MyPlateMyPyramid 0 Dietary Guidelines for Americans provide broad dietary and lifestyle advice 0 Dietary Reference Intakes provide recommendations regarding your nutrient needs o MyPlateMyPyramid a food guidance system that helps you implement the recommendations in the DRIs and the advice in the Dietary Guidelines MyPyramid provides personalized food choices from among a variety of food groups to help you create a balanced diet For each of the above explain the role each plays for the public List the different categories of the DRl and explain what they represent 0 Estimated Average Requirement EAR I Average amount of a nutrient that is known to meet the needs of 50 of the individuals in a similar age and gender group I Starting point to determine the amount of a nutrient individuals should consume daily for good health 0 Recommended Dietary Allowance RDA I Based on the EAR but it is set higher I It represents the average amount of a nutrient that meets the need of nearly all of the individuals in a similar group 0 Adequate Intake Al I If there is insufficient scientific information to determine the EAER for a nutrient the RDA can39t be developed so the AI is determined instead I Next best scientific estimate of the amount of a nutrient that groups of similar individuals should consume to maintain good health 0 Tolerable Upper Intake Level UL I Highest amount of a nutrient that is unlikely to cause harm if the amount is consumed daily I The higher the consumption above the UL the higher the risk of toxicity 0 Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range AMDR I Carbohydrates should comprise 45 65 of your daily calories I Fat should comprise 203 5 of your daily calories I Proteins should comprise 103 5 of your daily calories Explain the big picture of the Dietary Guidelines 0 4647 Define and describe the DASH diet 0 Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension I Diet based on an eating style that has been shown to lower a person39s blood pressure significantly Chapter 5 Define a food label and explain how they came to be 0 Serve three important functions I Tell you what39s inside of the package I Nutrition facts panel which identifies the calories and nutrients in a serving of the food I List daily values DVs which help you determine how those calorie and nutrients will fit into your overall diet 0 Help consumers make informed food choices the Food and Drug Administration FDA regulates the labeling of all packaged foods in the US labeled with I The name of food I The net weight weight of food in package excluding the weight of the package or packing material I The name and address of the manufacturer or distributor I A list of ingredients in descending order by weight with the heaviest item first I Nutrition information including total calories calories from fat total fat saturated fat trans fats cholesterol sodium total carbohydrate dietary bers sugars vitamin A vitamin C calcium iron I Serving sizes that are uniform among similar products I An indication of how a serving of the food fits into an overall daily diet I Uniform definitions of descriptive label terms such as light and fatfree I Health claims that are accurate and sciencebased if made about the food or one of its components I The presence of any of eight common allergens that might be present in the food including milk eggs fish shellf1sh tree nuts cashews walnuts almonds etc peanuts wheat and soybeans Differentiate between the Nutrition Facts Panel components and the Daily Values 0 Nutrition Facts Panel I Serving size listed in grams and household measures I Calories and calories from fat I Total fat saturated fat and trans fat I Cholesterol I Sodium I Total carbohydrate dietary fiber and sugars I Protein I Vitamin A vitamin C calcium and iron All additional nutrients must be listed too 0 Daily Values I Established reference levels of nutrients based on a 2000 calorie diet that are used on food labels Define and describe nutrient claims health claims and structurefunction claims 0 Nutrient content claims a claim on a food label that describe the level or amount of a nutrient in the food product I Uses terms like ee fatfree yogurt high high fiber crackers low low saturated fat cereal reduced reduced sodium soup extra lean extra lean ground beef 0 Health claim a claim on a food label that describes a relationship between a food or dietary compound and a disease or healthrelated condition I A food or dietary compound such as fiber I A corresponding disease or healthrelated condition that is associated with the claim I Three types Authorized health claims Health claims based on authoritative statements Qualified health claims 0 Structurefunction claim a claim on a food label that describes how a nutrient or dietary compound affects the structure or function of the human body I Examples Chapter 6 quotBuilds strong bonesquot quotFiber maintains bowel regularityquot More limited than health claims they cannot state that nutrition or dietary compound has any bene cial effect in preventing or treating a disease or condition List the organs in the GI tract including accessory organs explain how each contributes to digestion and absorption 0 GI tract the digestive tract extending from mouth to anus Mouth begins breaking down food into small components through chewing Esophagus transfers food from the mouth to the stomach Stomach mixes food with digestive juices breaks down some nutrients into smaller components Smaller intestine completes the digestion of food and absorbs nutrients through its lining Large intestine absorbs water and some nutrients passes waste products out of the body Sphincters LES pyloric ileocecal keep swallowed food from returning to the esophagus stomach or small intestine Accessory organs liver gallbladder pancreas release bile enzymes and other chemicals to help break down food or direct digestive activity 0 Purposes are to break down food into its smallest components absorb nutrients and prevent microorganisms and other harmful compounds consumed with food from entering the tissues of the body Differentiate between mechanical and chemical digestion 0 Mechanical involves chewing grinding and breaking food apart in the mouth so that it can be swallowed comfortably The muscular activity and rhythmic contractions or peristalsis that move food through the GI tract and mix it with enzymes are also part of the mechanical digestion 0 Chemical involves digestive juices and enzymes to break down food into absorbable nutrients that are small enough to enter the cells of the GI tract blood or lymph tissue Differentiate between digestion and absorption 0 Absorption the process by which digested nutrients move into tissues where they can be transported and used by the body39s cells 0 Digestion is the forerunner of absorption Nutrients leave GI tract and move to other parts absorbed List other body systems that work with the digestive system for digestion and absorption 0 Nervous system Stimulates appetite o Circulatory and Lymphatic Systems Distribute nutrients Blood is the body39s primary transport system shuttling oxygen nutrients and many other substances throughout the body Blood picks up nutrients absorbed through the lining of the small intestine and transports them to the liver then to the cells of the body Lymphatic system picks up lymph that has seeped into tissues filters it and returns it to the bloodstream Fats and fatsoluble vitamins travel in lymph from the GI tract to blood Eventually drains in heart 0 Excretory System I Passes urine out of body Identify which organ is involved with which digestive disorders only the disorders in your text explain why the disorder occurs which nutrients might aggravate this disorder which nutrients might alleviate this disorder 0 Mouth and Esophagus I Gingivitis gum swelling bleeding oral pain I Periodontal disease severe in ammation of the gums caused by infection or by plaque that accumulates on the surface of the teeth causing teeth to loosen or partially separate from the gums and jawbone I Heartburn a burning sensation originating in the esophagus usually caused by the re ux of gastric contents from the stomach into the esophagus 7 of population experience daily heartburn 253 5 adults have occasional system Caused by hydrochloric acid owing from the stomach back into the esophagus or even the throat Chronic heartburn Gastro esophageal Re ux Disease GERD o Stomach I Stomachache eating too much too fast I Stomach ugastroenteritis in ammation of the stomach or intestines caused by viruses or bacteria I Peptic ulcer sore erosion or a break in the stomach lining caused by drugs alcohol or more often a bacterium o Gallbladder I Gallstones individuals have abnormally thick bile which forms crystals then sludge and nally gallstones o Intestines I Constipation the condition of having dif cult passing stools caused by slow movement of undigested residue in the colon I Diarrhea the condition of having frequent loose andor watery stools I Irritable Bowel Syndrome IBS a bowel function disorder in which the large intestine is overly sensitive to stimulis Chapter 7 Explain the origin of dietary carbohydrates 0 Essential nutrients that make up the foundation of diets around the world 0 Supply fuel mainly in the form of glucose the primary sugar in highcarbohydrate foods to your cells Categorize the different carbohydrates as either mono di or polysaccharides o Mono simple carbohydrates I Fructose I Glucose I Galactose 0 Di combinations of simple carbohydrates I Sucrose glucose and fructose I Maltose glucose and glucose I Lactose glucose and galactose o Poly complex carbohydrates I Starch I Fiber I Glycogen Identify carbohydrate storage both in plants and animals 0 Plants make carbohydrates to store energy and to build their root and stem structures I Photosynthesis 0 Animals including humans store energy as carbohydrates but in limited amounts I These stored carbohydrates in animals break down when the animal dies so eating meat and poultry does not supply carbohydrates to your diet Explain the dietary differences between whole and enriched grains 0 Whole grains I Contain all three parts of the kernel I Potential disease fighting allies I Research has shown that as little as one serving of whole grains a day may help lower risk of dying from heart disease or cancer and reduce the risk of stroke and diabetes 0 Enriched grains I An attempt to restore some of the nutrition lost in the refinement process by adding folic acid thiamin niacin ribo avin and iron to them I Improves the nutritional quality but the fiber and phytochemicals are still lost Describe lactose intolerance o A significant deficiency in the enzyme lactase resulting in symptoms such as nausea cramps bloating atulence and diarrhea following the consumption of foods containing lactose Describe carbohydrate digestion where chemical digestion begins and is completed 0 79 Identify the two hormones that control blood glucose and describe their function and origin 0 Insulin produced and released in the pancreas directs glucose from the blood into the body39s cells 0 Glucagon released when the body needs to direct the release of glucose from the stored glycogen in your liver to help raise your blood glucose level Explain the consequences of not getting enough carbohydrates in the diet 0 712713 Chapter 8 Explain the difference between natural and added sugar 0 Natural sugars such as fructose and lactose that are found naturally in founds o Added sugars that are added to processed foods and sweets Identify the aliases of sugar on food labels 0 Corn sweetener 0 Corn syrup 0 Dextrose Sucrose Brown sugar Fructose Lactose Honey Syrup High fructose corn syrup Fruit juice concentrate Invert sugar Raw sugar Malt syrup Maltose o Molasses OOOOOOOOOOOO Explain where most of the sugar in the diets of Americans comes from 0 Soft drinks 0 88 Differentiate between the sugar substitutes 0 Sugar substitutes alternatives to table sugar that sweeten foods while using fewer calories 0 810 Name the types of fiber and explain the benefits of each 0 Insoluble Fiber Cellulose Hemicellulose Lignins reduces chance of constipation diverticulosis certain cancers heart disease obesity 0 Soluble Viscous Fibers pectin betaglucan gums psyllium reduces chance of constipation heart disease diabetes obesity Identify foods that are likely to be good sources of fiber 0 814 Chapter 9 Compare and contrast type I and type II diabetes 0 Type 1 I More rare I Usually begins in childhood or early adult years I Only accounts for 510 of diabetes cases in US I Immune system destroys the insulin producing cells in the pancreas Symptoms thirst frequent urination constant blurred vision hunger weight loss and fatigue Glucose unable to get into the cells of the body Develop ketoacidosis and may become comatose if the person does not receive insulin I People must inject insulin into themselves daily Insulin pens jet injectors and pumps small amounts throughout the day 0 Type 2 I 9095 of cases in US I Produce insulin but their cells have become resistant to its effects I Pancreas produces more insulin As a result of overproduction the insulinproducing cells become exhausted and their insulin production then decreases to the point where the person must take medication or insulin to manage blood glucose level I Develop it because Overweight and obesity Heredity I Condition can go undiagnosed for a long time I Can silently damage organs without awareness I A level of 126 milligramsdeciliter or higher suggests diagetes De ne gestational diabetes hypoglycemia and prediabetes O O O Prediabetes the condition in which a person39s blood glucose levels suggest an increased risk of developing diabetes but are not high enough to con rm yet Gestational diabetes the form of diabetes that diabetes in women during pregnancy I Can lead to baby being abnormally large birth defects or dif culty breathing I Increased with pregnant women who are overweight Hypoglycemia a condition in which the blood glucose level drops to lower than 70 mgdl I Hunger shakiness dizziness perspiration irritability and lightheadedness are symptoms List the consequences of diabetes O 0000 Nerve damage Poor wound healing and decreased ability to ght infection Impaired vision Dental problems Kidney problems Heart disease and stroke List and explain the risk factors of diabetes 000000 0 Never damage Poor wound healing and decreased ability to ght infections Impaired vision Dental problems Kidney problems Heart disease and stroke 97 Explain what is meant by insulin resistance 0 Inability of the body39s cells to respond to the hormone insulin Explain what types of dietary and lifestyle changes may help to prevent and treat diabetes 0 Glycemic index and Glycemic load can be used to classify the effects of carbohydratecontaining foods on blood glucose Adopt a healthy and well balanced diet I 99 Participate in regular physical activity I Helps lower blood pressure bad cholesterol level stress and keep your heart healthy and your bones strong Nutrition and exercise can help prevent type 2 diabetes I Losing weight I Exercising 25 hours a week I Eating a plantbased hearthealthy diet I Meeting with a healthy professional for ongoing support and education Chapter 18 Water Explain why water is considered the most important nutrient 0 Average healthy adult is 60 water Muscle tissue is approximately 65 water Fat tissues is only 1040 water Essential for maintaining the uid balance inside your body Electrolytes minerals important to bodily uid balance that conduct an electrical current in a solvent such as water I Sodium potassium and chloride are examples I Act as a magnet pulling water into cells when the balance of electrolytes vs water is uneven List and describe the functions of water 0 Universal solvent I Molecules come in contact with each other and allow chemical reactions to take place 0 Transport medium I Help transport substances throughout the body I 45 of blood is red blood cells the rest is mostly water I Helps transport oxygen nutrients and other important substances to cells and transport waste products away I Lymph uid is almost entirely water Transports proteins back to bloodstream and helps absorb fats o Lubricant and protective cushion I Acts as a lubricant for joins helping promote easy friction free moving I Water in tears lubricates eyes I Part of saliva that moistens mouth and foods and the mucus that lubricates your intestinal tract I Main part of uid that surrounds organs such as brain so it acts as a cushion to protect them from injury during a fall or trauma Same with amniotic uid sac List the components of uid balance and describe how they are affected 0 Take water in through beverages and uids 0 Lose water through kidneys urine large intestine stool lungs exhale and skin sweat Describe the consequences of drinking too little or too much uid 0 Losing too much causes dehydration I Dehydration is signaled by the thirst mechanism 0 Consuming too much water can cause hyponatremia I Too low level of sodium in the blood 0 Healthy women should drink 12 cups of water daily and men should drink 16 cups Compare and contrast bottles vs tap water 0 1810 1811 0000 Chapter 26 Supplements De ne supplements and functional foods 0 Dietary supplements products containing nutrients botanicals amino acids or enzymes intended to supplement the diet but not intended as a substitute for conventional food or as a stand alone item in a meal or the diet 0 Functional foods a food that has a positive effect on healthy beyond providing basic nutrients Explain who might bene t from a supplement 0 O 0 Women of childbearing age who may become pregnant since they need to consume adequate amounts of folic acid to prevent certain birth defects Pregnant and lactating women who cant meet their increased nutrient needs with foods Older people who need adequate amounts of synthetic vitamin B12 andor calcium People who don t drink enough milk andor don39t have adequate sun exposure to meet their vitamin D needs People on low calorie diets that limit the amount of vitamin and minerals they can consume through food Strict vegetarians who have limited dietary options for vitamins B 12 and D and other nutrients People with food allergies or a lactose intolerance that limits their food choices People who abuse alcohol who have medical conditions such as intestinal disorders or who take medications that increase their need for certain vitamins Explain the regulations or lack thereof in the supplement market 0 FDA cannot remove a supplement from the market place unless it has been proven to be unsafe or harmful to consumers 0 quotBuyer bewarequot 0 Supplement manufacturers have responsibility to assess the quality effectiveness and safety of supplements o 264 265 Describe the steps a consumer can take to be properly educated on supplements o Read label carefully o 265 List common ergogenic aids and explain their purported benefits and their dangers O O Creatine a substance involved in energy production that your body produces naturally and stores in skeletal muscle and other tissues I Shown benefits in performance in high intensity short duration activities I No dangers on blood pressure or kidney or liver function among healthy people Anabolic steroids I Anabolic stimulate growth I Substances designed to mimic the bodybuilding traits of testosterone I Most build up muscle and some athletes use it to build muscle to a level that s not naturally possible I Androgenic taking in testosterone causes the body to decrease its own production of the hormone leading to a hormone imbalance This causes shrinkage in men as well as decreased sperm production impotence and painful urination severe acne and changes in hair growth Women may develop a lower voice increased aggressiveness increased sex drive and their menstrual periods may become irregular or stop 0 Severe acne increased facial and body hair and loss of hair on head as well 0 Growth hormone I Originally created for children with growth hormone deficiency to enable them to grow to their full height I Increases protein synthesis by increasing amino acid transport across cell membranes Causes an increase in muscle mass but not strength I Decreases glycogen synthesis and use of glucose for energy causing an increase in fat breakdown and the use of fatty acids for energy I Abuse of growth hormone cause have serious health effects including development of diabetes atherosclerosis hypertension and acromegaly List and explain the bene ts of functional foods including how they can be used in a healthy diet 0 269 2612 2613
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