NSC 170 Exam 2 Study Guide
NSC 170 Exam 2 Study Guide NSC170
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by AmysNotes on Monday January 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NSC170 at University of Arizona taught by Jennifer Ricketts in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Nutrition and You in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 01/25/16
1 2 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE Unit 5 Explain the origin of dietary carbohydrates A Carbohydrate production i photosynthesis ii Sun s energy iii Carbon carbon dioxide iv Oxygen carbon dioxide V Hydrogen water Categorize the different carbohydrates as either mono di or polysaccharides A Monosaccharides i Glucose gt Blood sugar gt Fuel source 0 Muscle cells 0 Red blood cells 0 Nervous system cells gt Sources 0 Fruits and vegetables 0 Grapes berries corn carrots ii Galactose gt Uncommon in foods gt Constituent of lactose milk sugar iii Fructose gt Fruit sugar levulose gt Naturally occurring fruit honey some vegetables gt Converted to glucose gt Structural differences B Disaccharides i Made up of two monosaccharides ii Lactose gt Milk sugar gt Comprises galactose and glucose gt Milk and some products made from milk iii Maltose gt Malt sugar gt Comprises two glucose molecules gt Maltose syrup used in brewing beer and avoring iv Sucrose gt Table sugar gt Comprises glucose and fructose molecules gt Naturally occurring honey maple syrup carrots pineapples gt Refined from sugarcane and sugar beets C Polvsaccharides i Energy storage ii Plants structures iii m gt Storage form in plants gt Digestion gt Seeds roots and tubers 0 Wheat rice barley oats o Breads and cereals 0 Vegetables corn squash beans peas O Tubers potatoes yams taro cassava jicama iv Glycogen gt Storage form in animals gt Muscles and liver 3 Identify carbohydrate storage both in plants and animals A carbohydrate storage in plants i Starch ii sucrose iii maltose B carbohydrate storage in animals i Glycogen ii lactose 4 Explain the dietary differences between whole and enriched grains A Whole grains i made from the entire grain kernel ii fiber rich B enriched grains i milled to strip the grain of its bran and germ ii removes dietary fiber iron and many B vitamins iii has some of these nutrients added back in by the manufacturer 5 Describe lactose intolerance A B C F Lactase Bacteria in large intestine Symptoms i Intestinal cramps ii Bloating iii Gas iv Diarrhea Milk allergy Food processing Alternatives i Soy milk ii Pretreated products iii Lactase solutionspills 6 Describe carbohydrate digestion where chemical digestion begins and is completed A B C D E F Mouth i starch broken down to maltose by salivary amylase Stomach i activity of salivary amylase stops in acidic stomach environment Small Intestine i primary site of carbohydrate digestion and absorption ii Pancreas releases pancreatic amylase in to small intestine to continue to breakdown of starches iii Microvilli releases enzymes that digest maltose and other disaccharides iv maltase digests maltose into glucose v sucrase digests sucrose into glucose and fructose vi lactase breaks down lactose into glucose and galactose Liver i glucose fructose and galactose are transported to liver ii liver converts fructose to galactose to glucose Large Intestine i some soluble fiber fermented by bacteria in large intestine ii process results in intestinal gas production Rectum i very little dietary carbohydrate excreted in feces ii intestinal gas expelled via anus 7 Identify the two hormones that control blood glucose and describe their function and origin A Insulin i function gt Released to tell the body to put the excess blood sugar into the tissues gt Tells the body to store39 the excess sugar in the storage form of glycogen gt tells the liver cells that make glucose to stop making it ii Secreted by the pancreas B Glucagon i Function gt When the blood sugar level is low it Will tell the body storage areas to start releasing glucose into the blood stream gt tells the body to put more sugar into the blood stream by telling the liver to stop listening to insulin and take orders from glucagon39 gt The result of this is that the storage of glucose stops fat production stops and glucose sugar is released into the blood stream ii Secreted by the pancreas 8 Explain the consequences of not getting enough carbohydrates in the diet A Fat metabolism becomes inef cient B Ketone bodies i Muscle and brain cells ii Ketosis C Daily recommendation 130 gday D Amino acids as a source of glucose 9 Explain the difference between natural and added sugar A natural sugar i found in fruit as fructose and in dairy products such as milk and cheese as lactose ii important role in the diet of cancer patients and anyone trying to prevent cancer because they provide essential nutrients that keep the body healthy and help prevent disease B added sugar i It is typically found as sucrose ii comes from sugar cane or sugar beets gt processed to extract the sugar 10 Identify the aliases of sugar on food labels A Sorbitol xylitol erythritol mannitol B Saccharin aspartame acesulfameK sucralose neotame Monk fruit extract Stevia leaf extracts 11 Explain where most of the sugar in the diets of Americans comes from A Club soda B fruit drinks punches blends cocktails or ades C presweetened coffees and teas 12 Differentiate between the sugar substitutes A Alternative sweeteners i Reduced or no calories ii Sugar alcohols gt Sorbitol xylitol erythritol mannitol gt Do not promote dental decay iii Sugarfree chewing gums breath mints diabetic candies iv Absorption 2 kcal g V Digestive issues B Nonnutritive arti cial sweetners i Manufactured ii Saccharin aspartame acesulfameK sucralose neotame Monk fruit extract Stevia leaf extracts iii More sweet than naturally occurring sugars iv 0 kcals g V Energy intake and body weight control vi Excess calorie consumption polyols sugar alcohols saccharin oldest sugar substitute aspartame derived from amino acids AcesulfameK contains potassium sucralose made from sucrose F9755 rebaudioside A from stevia plant 13 Name the types of ber and explain the benefits of each A Insoluble i bene ts increases fecal bulk speeds fecal passage through large intestine may easy bowel movements VVVV can help reduce risk of constipation diverticulosis lower high blood cholesterol certain cancers heart disease obesity B Soluble i bene ts delays stomach emptying slows glucose absorption can lower blood cholesterol VVVV can help reduce risk of constipation heart disease diabetes mellitus obesity 14 Identify foods that are likely to be good sources of ber Plants Wheat rye brown rice vegetables Whole grains Wheat bran Apples bananas citrus fruits FPOF 15 Compare and contrast type I and type II diabetes A Type I diabetes i Autoimmune disease gt Genetic susceptibility gt Environmental factors gt Viral intestinal infections ii Insulin injections or insulin pump iii Poorly controlled type 1 diabetes gt Increased appetite with weight loss gt breath that smells like fruit gt fatigue gt confusion B Type II diabetes i Most common form ii Insulin resistance iii Managing type 2 diabetes gt Regular exercise gt Weight loss gt Special diets gt Medication 16 De ne gestational diabetes hypoglycemia and prediabetes A gestational diabetes i Develops during pregnancy ii Affects fetus and babies iii Pregnancy risks iv Postpregnancy diabetes V Risk of developing type 2 diabetes B hypoglycemia i Low blood glucose less than 70 mgdl ii Epinephrine adrenalin iii Symptoms iv Reactive hypoglycemia C prediabetes i blood sugar level is higher than normal but not yet high enough to be classified as type 2 diabetes ii Without intervention prediabetes is likely to become type 2 diabetes in 10 years or less 1 7 List the consequences of diabetes A Untreated or poorly controlled diabetes i Nerve damage gt lower limb amputations gt blindness ii Damage to organs gt heart disease gt kidney failure iii Damage to blood vessels gt blindness gt lower limb amputations 18 List and explain the risk factors of diabetes Physically inactive Overweight or obese Genetically predisposed Ethnically predisposed P95 19 Explain what is meant by insulin resistance A condition in which i the body produces insulin but does not use it effectively ii glucose builds up in the blood instead of being absorbed by the cells iii leads to type 2 diabetes or prediabetes 20 Explain what types of dietary and lifestyle changes may help to prevent and treat diabetes A Achieve and maintain normal blood glucose levels i Meal planning ii Losing excess weight iii Exercising regularly iv Dietary modification V Blood monitoringtesting vi Hemoglobin Alc vii Estimated glucose average eGA viii Individualized treatment plans Unit 6 21 De ne and describe the different types of lipids A Fats Oils Cholesterol B Dietary Lipids i Triglycerides gt 95 of lipids in body 0 Saturated i All carbons have single bonds ii animal fats iii coconut palm oils 0 Monounsaturated i one double bond between carbons ii avocados iii olive peanut oil 0 Polyunsaturated i Essential fatty acids ii more than one double bond between carbons iii grape seed sun ower oils ii Phospholipids iii Sterols gt Cholesterol gt Plant Sterols 22 List the three types of fatty acids A Essential Fatty Acids i Omega3 Alphalinolenic acid 0 Docosahexaenoic acid DHA o Eicosapentaenoic acid EPA ii Omega6 Linoleic acid 3 Arachidonic acid AA 23 Describe lipid digestion including where chemical digestion occurs A Digestion in the small intestine i very little digestion occurs for fat until enters small intestine B Liver gallbladder i Secretes bile into small gt emulsifies fat C Pancreas i Secretes pancreatic lipase gt hydrolyzes triglyceride bonds 24 List the functions of fat in the body and in food A Energy Cell membrane maintenance Hormones B C D Insulation E Blood pressure and in ammation F Protection G Absorption of vitamins and phytochemicals 25 De ne and describe essential fatty acids A Must be consumed in diet B Omega3 Alphalinolenic acid 0 Docosahexaenoic acid DHA 0 Eicosapentaenoic acid EPA C Omega6 Linoleic acid i Arachidonic acid AA 26 List food sources of the essential fatty acids A corn oil seeds nuts B flaxseeds soybeans walnuts C fatty fish 27 Calculate fat and saturated fat needs based on total caloric intake A Fat i 2035 total calories 400 calories B Saturated Fat i less than 10 200 calories 28 Compare and contrast the typical American diet with the Mediterranean diet A American diet i little emphasis on fresh fruits vegetables and Whole grains ii tends to rely heavily on processed foods re ned carbohydrates fried or fast foods red meats sugars and highfat dairy products iii lead to deficiencies in fiber vitamins minerals and other nutrients essential to good health B Mediterranean diet i high consumption of fruits vegetables Whole grains beans nuts seeds and spices ii main type of fat in the Mediterranean diet is olive oil monounsaturated iii Poultry and dairy products like cheese and yogurt are consumed in moderate amounts almost daily iv fish and seafood are eaten about twice a week V Small amounts of red meat are occasionally eaten 29 Explain the advantages and disadvantages of trans fats A advantages i naturally occurring B disadvantages i processed ii hydrogenation iii preservatives iv cardiovascular disease 30 Describe the trans fat labeling requirement A FDA has required that saturated fat and dietary cholesterol be listed on the food label since 1993 B By adding trans fat on the Nutrition Facts panel required by January 1 2006 consumers now know for the first time how much of all three saturated fat trans fat and cholesterol are in the foods they choose C ldentifying saturated fat trans fat and cholesterol on the food label gives consumers information to make hearthealthy food choices that help them reduce their risk of CHD 31 Explain how fat substitutes and fat free products differ from their regular counterparts A fewer calories 32 De ne heart disease and atherosclerosis A heart disease i begins with buildup in coronary arteries that lead to plaque formation B atherosclerosis i so much plaque buildup that leads to very low ood flow 33 List risk factors for heart disease A High blood pressure High blood cholesterol Diabetes and prediabetes Smoking Being overweight or obese Being physically inactive Having a family history of early heart disease Having a history of preeclampsia during pregnancy Unhealthy diet rppwepnpv J Age 55 or older for women 34 Explain the relationship between diet hypertension and heart disease A Poor diet causes high blood sugar hypertension B Hypertension is a major risk factor for heart disease 35 List the different lipoproteins and describe their origin and their functions A Transportation of i phospholipids cholesterol building blocks for cells ii Triglycerides energy storage for body iii Where do they come from What is their job gt Chylomicrons made in small intestines deliver TG to cells gt Very lowdensity lipoproteins VLDL made in liver deliver TG to cells gt Lowdensity lipoprotein LDL VLDL turns into LDL when most of TG has gone to cells gt Highdensity lipoprotein HDL made in liver to remove lipid from cells and circulation reverse cholesterol transport 36 List and describe dietary methods of improving your cholesterol profile A Dietary fats 1 Trans fats should be eliminated from diet ii Association between high saturated fat intake and rate of heart disease iii Replace saturated fats with monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats in diet iv Fish nuts and vegetable oils v Mediterranean diet Unit 7 3 7 De ne protein amino acid and essential amino acid A protein i predominant structural and functional materials in every cell in the body B amino acid i building blocks of proteins ii link together to form unique sequences with a speci c purpose iii Contain carbon hydrogen oxygen and nitrogen C essential amino acid i cannot be produced by bodies 38 Know the number of essential amino acids and nonessential amino acids A There are 20 amino acids B 9 essential amino acids C 11 non essential 39 Explain the process of protein synthesis A Each DNA strand holds speci c info i DNA can t leave nucleus so copy of code RNA made RNA takes info and brings to proteinassembly site code is translated different RNA collects amino acids needed Each one brings back to assembly site chain builds in proper sequence 05 process continues until all acids added and protein is complete 40 Describe protein digestion including where chemical digestion occurs A Begins in stomach i stomach acids denatures it and pepsin breaks stands into smaller polypeptides B Small intestine i polypeptides broken into tripeptides and dipeptides ii then broken into single amino acids C liver i aa s enter from blood ii uses aa s to body s needs 41 Explain what is meant by denaturation and explain the consequences A denaturation is the alteration of a protein39s shape not AA sequence due to exposure to heat acids or salt B alters function sometimes permanently 42 List and describe the various functions of protein in the body Make maintain and repair cells Build structures Produce enzymes lubricants clotting compounds Transport substances Make antibodies Make certain hormones QFFPQF Maintain proper uid and acidbase balance Provide energy 43 De ne complete protein and complemented protein A protein i provide all nine of the essential amino acids along with some of the 11 nonessential amino acids B complemented protein i incomplete proteins coupled with animal proteins soy or other plant proteins rich in the limiting amino acids 44 Explain what is meant by a high quality protein A digestible B complete amino acid profile 45 List food sources of protein A legumes grains veggies nuts seeds fruits milk meat beans 46 Explain the consequences of eating too little or too much protein A too little i loss of bone mass ii proteinenergy malnutrition iii Kwashiorkor iV marasmus B too much i heart disease kidney stones osteoporosis cancer 4 7 List the types of vegetarian diets A Semi Vegetarian i exible approach to eating meat B Lacto0V0 i eggs and dairy C Lacto i dairy no eggs D Ovo i eggs E Vegans i no food with animal origin 48 List reasons one may choose vegetarian diet health concerns environmental concerns compassion for animals religion H595 financial constraints 49 List the benefits of a vegetarian diet A reduce risk of i heart disease ii high blood pressure iii type II diabetes iV certain types of cancer V obesity 50 List and describe the concerns of a vegetarian diet A not consuming enough nutrients like iron zinc calcium protein 51 Describe the bene ts of soy in a vegetarian diet high quality protein low in saturated fat provides iron contains iso avones H599 may reduce risk of breast cancer and heart disease
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