Study Guide for Exam 1
Study Guide for Exam 1 POSC 326
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Laura Pratt on Monday January 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POSC 326 at California State University Long Beach taught by Dr. Kaskla in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 102 views. For similar materials see California Comparative Government in Political Science at California State University Long Beach.
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Date Created: 01/25/16
POSC EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE Many references have been made to the imagined West What is it What makes it imagined and to what extent can even the imagined West also be real How have these images of the West become so ingrained American culture and society Similarly what is imagined or mythical about California and what role have these myths played in the actual development of the state Wild West rebirth and renewal religion It is imagined because it doesn t really exist it is a myth we strive for and which drives society Image becomes more real than the reality itself Shining city on the hill Reagan originally John Winthrop referring to Manifest Destiny then JFK mythology that colonizes America Reinforces Individualism and lndustriousness We conceal the flaws inherent in the structure economicpolitical inequalities perpetuate as ruling class get richer more economic amp political inequality 0 we are more reliant on govt than it is recognized Patricia Limerick Dream and Western Mythology 0 USA is the world savior but most who are victimized by US military are citizens 0 We act bc we feel we have to to do the right thingWestern Mythology Examples 0 Abbott Kinney developer of Venice imagined to recreate Venice Italy in CA 0 Jean Baudrillard we live in an artificial world and it s seen most in USA in CA 0 Gidgei the film Imagery of what CAYouth is amp others should fit into the mold movie of 19503 suburban eden Imagery of California and beach lifestyle beach blanket transformation Goldwater girls Dress code had to be in modest uniforms eg Hilary Clinton What makes democracy democratic Hint elections Is there anything else that should be considered important in democracies Hint the voice of the people We are democratic because we have elections and we have elections to be democratic Our country is an indirect democracy we should move towards a direct democracy 0 Direct Democracy people participate in the system 0 Indirect Democracy Representative DemocracyDemocratic Republic Ruling class stays in power POSC EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE Federalist 10 Madison 0 Power must be in elite not all ordinary citizens There will always be inequalities education income skill sets 0 Can t get rid of class divisionsdifferences but you can mitigate the outcomes Real democracy is one where people participate in the decision making process DemocracyEquality 0 equal opportunity one personone vote equality before the law WE DO NOT HAVE A FUNCTIONING DEMOCRACY Describe the common characteristics that run through most of California history ie what trends are relatively constant through all of the state s history and indeed even appear prior to statehood hint growth elite politics an underclass ofcheaplabo The elite have always maintained political power even implicitly stated in Federalist papers Madison Federalist 10 can t give ordinary people too much power Hamilton Federalist 36 we set up a system that appears to give power We have an underclass of cheap labor to derive GROWTH Paiutes which limits their participation in the government It is always about growth which also perpetuates inequalities and competition between elites themselves Machine Politics 0 Informal arrangements among elites to design political development What is Progressivism When was the Progressive era How has Progressivism impacted California politics well after the actual Progressive era ended Progressivism is the notion that the government should serve the greatest good for the greatest number The progressive era was originally from 18905 19105 Began with attempt to clean out corruption trusts Progressivism has continued to have a lasting impact on California politics Most prominent Progressive was Hiram Johnson anticorporate reformminded but also firm in POSC EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE believing that change should be enacted by those in positions of power rather than allowing democratic choices to be made by the public For example progressivism can be found in a politics of the middle where antagonism between the two dominant parties has been muted and where the grand principle of bipartisanship has led to governors who have served more as managers of CA than as strong executives Distinguish briefly between indirect and direct democracy Which of these two describes the system in California and the entire US and how does it relate to class divisions in society Indirect democracy is democracy where we elect our representative and let them make decisions for us this is the democracy that defines America at large Direct democracy is one where the people are involved in the decision making process In California we have for the most part an indirect democracy where we elect representatives but we have some characteristics of a direct democracy which consists of the initiative referendum and recall 0 Initiative gather signatures and can writecreate laws if the legislature is not doing its job you can petition against it and put on the ballot for the next election 0 Referendums Compulsory the legislature has approved a constitutional amendment Petition something has been passed and gone into law but it can be recalled in past legislation and vote on it again 0 Recall if someone is in office and isn t doing their job citizens of CA can gather signatures and vote himher out This relates to class divisions because again the power elite have power to move forward their interests and can have clipboard petition companies to get signatures for campaigns perpetuates inequalities Who or what is the power elite How is its power maintained What is meant by class cohesion how is it maintained and why is this important According to lectures is there more class cohesion among the upper class in society or among The power elite are those with political power who reinforce support and expand the power of the economic elite whom their continued political life depends Power elite bourgeoisie class cohesion elites know their status and they POSC EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE the lower or working class Why is this the case Be able to describe class divisions in California ie what has been happening to the gap between the rich and poor or the haves and the havenots Have socioeconomic differences been narrowing or widening and why What has been happening to population growth in the state ls California growing What kinds of changes are occurring to the ethnic composition uphold it ex World Econ Forum Country Clubs the Cal Club etc More class cohesion for the upper class more gap bw the rich and poor and more socioeconomic differences more places for the rich to hang out like the Bohemian Grove Class cohesion is exemplified by communities like the Bohemian Grove where the rich congregate to have their big talks There is more class cohesion in the upper class which is what makes them even more powerful because they have the resources and time to congregate and decide on how they will maintain their power eg making money over the working classes back The class divisions in California are perpetuating in opposite directions the haves are obtaining more which is causing them to become more powerful and the have nots are staying about the same and even declining Socioeconomic difference have been widening because the wealthy continue to amass the wealth which only makes them more powerful and so on Population growth in the state is becoming more diverse there are now more Latino than white and all other racesethnicities 7 What are remittances As discussed in lectures what is their significance in terms of ethnicity in terms of socioeconomic class and in terms of the mythology of America and California Remittances is money that is earned in one country and transferred to another country In first few months of 2015 January to March remittances only from the US to Mexico was 65 billion and 16 came from California There is still a narrative in America by politicians that people who come to America come to become rich Kaskla argues that it is a survival strategy they have little other option they really don t want to leave their home country and leave their family and that is never talked about in politics Define and describe growth machines What is meant by the logic of growth What structures or institutions support these growth machines Describe briefly what they do Growth machines are essentially the elite who believe growth is good institutions that must constantly churn out growth that groups of people decide how land is to be utilized and how the land between centers is to be made productive POSC EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE 5 citiesbureaucraciescorporations logic of growth 3 assumptions 1 growth is good and necessary ex land must always be put to use 2 the monopolistic control over land via land owners the value of land ex rent is derived from its use 3 it is the government s responsibility to support and organize the logic of growth 0 Hubs support the growth machines 0 The logic of growth is that 1 growth is good and that growth must be continued regardless of what the consequences may be for some communities or for the environment 2 Land must be under use because the value of land rent is derived directly from its use there is no substitute for it and owners of any land inherently assume a monopolistic control over it 3 Responsibility of the government to support and organize growth 0 Cities logic of growth supported by city gov t they approve development make zoning changes allow for variances etc Bureaucracies includes decisions being made in city gov t and other kinds of county regional state and federal departments and agencies involved in developmental decisions Corporations usually support any development that will bring any additional business labor and consumers to urban areas 0 Each part of growth machine is supported by a social network of elites 9 What are growth coalitions Growth coalitions are pushing their development What are SLAPPs and what are plans because they think growth is necessary and they used for Are they legal in good California 0 Growth coalitions institutions that build up around hubs to increase business POSC EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE 6 SLAPPS the Strategic lawsuits against Public participation threats of lawsuits by corporations against the public to restrain the public from speaking out against the corporations SLAPPs Strategic Lawsuits Against Public Participation are a reaction from firms when local communities resist development too much 0 Although SLAPPs are illegal in California they are still used to punish local community leaders who attempt to organize resistance to development 10 What are hubs of growth Be able to provide examples of such hubs of growth the center of Growth Components hUbS ex series of museums by UC Mercedgrowth corporations around UC Merced Hubs of growth are projects that would serve as the hub for other development around that project 0 Some hubs include the UCLA project of Westwood UCI Irvine Ranch properties UC Merced followed pattern 0 Another example of hubs of growth are shopping malls Now also create upgraded facilities for sports team to say competitive against other teams in terms of performance and venue 11 What are edge cities How do 0 Edge cities surround major urban areas edge cities allow for the planning of o The Los Angeles area has led to development further expansion of urban growth boom stretching across to the Inland Empire that is how does the concept of an causing people to commute to these larger cities Edge city allow planning of CBD is the Central Business District deVetOPment beyond the quotCtaSStCquot Edge cities allow for the planning of further mOdet 0t SUbUtbS surrounding 3 expansion of urban growth in that the distances CBD To that Grid What iS a CBD from a CBD have increased but since low interest rates have created housing demands housing is created in areas seemingly too far from the traditional CBD Central Place Theory Walter Christaller o The idea that in any kind of environment people need certain goods There movements represent what is needed POSC EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE lower order goods second order goods and high order goods Also you could go to the Edge Cities for low order and only to the CBD for high order this increases productivity and value for Edge Cities such as Santa Monica Buena Park and Sherman Oaks Also you could go to the Edge Cities for low order and only to the CBD for high order this increases productivity and value for Edge Cities such as Santa Monica Buena Park and Sherman Oaks 12 What is a plurality or firstpast thepost or winnertakeall electoral system and what impact has it had on the party system state and national levels The reason we have a two party system is because of the way the system is set up You don t need to win the majority of votes just who gets the most votes out of all of the candidates Pluralitywinnertakeall system if one seat then party with the most number of votes via either majority or mostly plurality gets the seat while the other parties get nothing the effect less third party representation both state and national levels The impact it has had is that it creates the two party system which dominates What would make America more democratic would be to change the way we vote other option is proportional representation percentage of seats is relatively proportional to the number of votes that the party receives which would change single seat districts to multiseat districts 13 According to the author does party affiliation really matter If not why not This question relates to 2 and 5 above in part it is also related to 4 What has been happening to party affiliationidentification in the state that is what has been happening to the number of registered Democrats Republicans etc ls California considered to be a Red state or Blue state In general what two areas of California have the highest concentration of No party affiliation does not really matter Because both parties generally want the same things as economic go they both vote and advocate for the economic interests of the wealthy The number of registered Democrats and Republicans has declined increasing the number of registered voters who decline to state what party they affiliate with California is considered to be a blue state but the number of registered Republicans has increased recen y The two areas of California that have the highest concentration of Democratic voters are the bay area and Los Angeles while the inland areas and POSC EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE Democratic voters suburbs have more Republican voters 14 California recently changed its primary system to a quottoptwo open primaryquot What does that mean and as discussed in lectures how does it affect party politics in the state 0 A toptwo open primary means that two candidates with the same party affiliation can go head to head 0 top two open primary everyone votes in the primaries and the top two voted candidates get further into the elections 0 this means more emphasis on the candidates rather than the political parties less party affiliation It is not that a candidate from each party will be elected to run against the opposing party but rather the two candidates with the most votes will run against each other in general elections Affects party politics because it gives less power to the twoparty system and more voters are likely to vote for an independent candidate if they know they have a chance to win the primary and compete in general elections 15 What is electronic or evoting and what problems does it present In the 2000 presidential elections discrepancies and outandout manipulation with the results in Florida helped push through reforms that would bring in evoting electronic voting to replace the punch card systems typically used in California elections 0 These new systems also called Direct Recording Electronic DRE devices use some kind of touchscreen voting with computer linkage to the registrar or optical scan methods 0 Because of problems with these machines in 2004 some were decertified in 2004 0 Some of these DREs were again recertified in 2006 but critics have pointed out that these machines can easily be hacked and results changed E voting voting electronically on machines instead of the card Problems election results can be suspected to fraud because machines can be hacked and easily changed 0 Ex 2000 Election in Florida where Bush won POSC EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE because thousands of votes were not counted tossed out and possibly changed due to manipulation of the machines 16 Define the meaning of citizen politicians Are these really ordinary citizens Why not Explain Citizen politicians are people who are part of the economic elite who decide to get into politics They jump the ladder to becoming pretty influential politicians because of their wealth they use this to bypass the steps usually required These are not ordinary citizens because they can essentially by their way in although this does not work 100 of the time Citizen Politicians people who try to finance their own way into political office by spending enormous amounts of personal wealth instead of the tradition route have so much money can buy elections without general support of othersother organizations often people who are famouspopular already in other aspects typically from media Ex Trump Schwarzenegger Not Ordinary This is because they are already popular people who have support just because of name recognition and with name recognition comes popularity connections and money 17 How have corporate mass media been consolidated over the past 25 years or so and what impact has concentrated media control had on coverage and reporting on state politics What affect has it had and continues to have on campaigning Need media exposure which is really expensive in California don t have daily newspaper anymore Very few reporters who present information on how legislature affects California and politics on the local level We are distracted by infotainment it LOOKS like there is value to the information you encounter but it has no substance to it but it has only entertainment value 0 CNN commercializing the democratic POSC EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE 10 debate 0 Money is the thread that runs through this entire process Corporate media movies tv radio newspapers in the US dominated by 6 multinational corporate conglomerates Viacom CBS NBCGE DisneyABC NewsCorpFox and TimeWarner due to these companies using their wealth to buy out the small competing companies Impact when media is in the hands of the few it is their overall interests that become the interests of those who run them so biased news on state politicsbecause the average person doesn t care about state politics greatly it isn t reported on in detail on common media outlets so general public has to search out the information themselves but many don t so the public is ill informed on campaigns tvradio are best ways for candidates to campaign but can cost 100000 for 303ec commercial is busy urban areas this cost being so high eliminates possibility for those without money to run effectively 18 Distinguish between soft and hard money campaign contributions Why were soft contributions created What are PACs What are 527s What are 501 c4s What other means are used to get around contribution limits What additional limits are in use in California and how successful have they been in limiting the influence of money in elections How might the recent US Supreme Court ruling in Citizens United v PEG 2010 affect campaign contributions What are Regulations were put to limit campaign contributions eg hard money Problem with this was that they developed soft money to get around these regulations soft money donations to the DNC or the RNC via PACS etc no limits on number of PACS and money in PACS Political Action Committees that give money to political parties WHY SOFT CONTRIBUTIONS They started to use soft money to avoid the regulations imposed on hard money contributions hard money the money put in by the candidate and hisher campaign directly POSC EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE 11 Super PACs Will it make it easier or more difficult to influence elections with money Explain Hint this all relates to the rise of socalled quotdark moneyquot 5273 nonprofits orgs named after the federal tax code and that say that advertisers cannot endorse a party or candidate but can only provide information 501 4s they must provide for the social welfare and are allowed to make independent expenditures as long as that s not their main goal 19 How did the US Supreme Court decision in McCutcheon v PEG 2104 define corruption in American politics and as argued in lectures what does this decision mean in terms of addressing the impact of money in politics Decision overturned the limit on the total amount that one wealthy donor is permitted to contribute to all federal candidates parties and political action committees PACs combined Defined there has to be a direct connection between donations to a political figure to show corruption so basically corruption is now just straight bribery Impact of money this will shift the balance of power even further toward wealthy donors and away from ordinary citizens O reinforces the idea that money is free speech 20 Briefly describe the three mechanisms of direct democracy used in the state and be able to describe the ways that these mechanisms have been coopted including the role of clipboard petition companies lnitiative Californians can directly take the initiative write laws change laws and amend the state constitution by gathering enough petition signatures to qualify that measure for the ballot The legislature may later amend the initiative but this is also subject to voter approval unless designated otherwise The initiative is pure direct democracy for it allows voters to make law when elected officials are unwilling or unable to take action 0 Coopted taken over by big interest orgs who hire clipboard petition companies which then hire people to gather signatures by pestering people to sign these petitions used to push a variety of issues for the ballot and then those orgs will pay for advertising to further convince voters to approve the proposition Referendum two types compulsory and petition O compulsory placed on the ballot when the legislature approves constitutional amendments and when most bonds are to POSC EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE 12 be issued must be passed by twothirds majorities of both houses of the legislature but must be approved by a majority of voters to go into effect 0 petition can be thought of as a recall of a law already passed by the legislature after a statute has been passed voters usually have 90 days to gather signatures and request that voters approve it before it goes into effect the second asks who should replace the elected official elected by plurality vote Ex insurance industry has allowed stricter regulation to be passed by the legislature and then has used petition referenda with support of huge advertising campaigns naturally to defeat these measures Recall an elected official can be recalled by gathering petition signatures and putting the candidate back on the ballot with a twopart ballot o The first question asks whether the person should be recalled decided by simple majority 21 What is reapportionment Why is the process so critical in single seatplurality systems How has reapportionment been politicized Hint what are safe seats and what did voters of California do in order to partly depoliticize it Reapportionment occurs about every 10 years when there needs to be redistrictinggerry mandering Cracking taking an area where there are minorities namely African Americans and dilutes the district so that a white candidate can win in elections Reapportionment is so critical in single seatplurality systems because their objective is to create as many safe seats as possible safe seats are seats that guarantee a candidate will get reelected no matter what this leaves out independent parties as it takes the democracy out of politics Safe seats are extremely prevalent in house of POSC EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE 13 representatives only 65435 seats were competitive or open seats this shows how important redistricting is for politics 0 Voters in California put term limits in order to partly depoliticize it but this did not work because it took legislatures out of office more often and created professional lobbyists which does not aid the political process it actually hurts it 22What is meant by the Professionalization of the legislature was trying to professionalization of the keep lobbyists from doing things like wine and dine legislature When and why did to influence legislature California do this Do all states 0 In 1966 CA made Senate and Assembly positions have professional legislatures full time What are term limits and to what 0 Most famous lobbyist in California history was Artie extent do these limits Samish deprofessionalize the legislature Jesse Unruh led campaign in the 1960s to What has happened in Galifomia professionalize the legislature What is meant by being quottermed o the premise was to get rid of special outquot and what usually happens to interest groups People Who are termed out 0 California has one of the most professional legislators but this is not the case for every state 0 Term limits were introduced to professionalize the legislature but actually helped lobbyists because they have more experience and try to use this to influence the legislatures so term limits actually diminished the power of legislators and gave power to lobbyists 0 Senate 2 terms of 4 years each 0 Assembly 3 terms of two years 0 Now the limit is 12 years which can be distributed to either or termed out means that the legislator has served the maximum amount of time in government 23 Comparing California to other 0 33 states have fulltime time legislators states are parttime legislators There are states that still have parttime elsewhere less influenced by special legislatures in terms of limiting session length interests lobbyists and the like or including Kentucky Texas and Nevada paying is their situation pretty comparable minimal salary including New Mexico which pays to California no salary but does cover expenses and limiting staff size 23 states have limits in the West it includes neighboring states like Oregon and Arizona but most legislatures in the US today are 0 far more professional than they were prior to the 1960s POSC EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE 14 California is one of the more professional legislators so other states are more likely to be worse off than California in terms of being influenced by special interests and lobbyists 24 Be able to describe how interest groups go about trying to influence decisionmaking campaign contributions lobbying etc Are all interest groups necessarily bad Explain Campaign contributions 0 lobbyists will contribute to campaigns 0 in 2014 the total money contributed to candidates and political action committees was roughly 5 million which does not include dark money 0 Super PACs are complete independent expenditure so they don t have to reports their contributions Lobbying 0 Big corporations have staff for themselves 0 Instead of paying lobbyists separately they utilize contracts 0 they also work with other lobbyists and build rapport 25 As discussed in class voters in California reestablished racial covenants Proposition 14 1964 only to have them ruled unconstitutional by the California and US Supreme Courts What does this example say about direct democracy Rumford Fair Housing Act 1963 promise you aren t going to sell your property to a minority maintained areas so it was primarily white Proposition 14 1964 restored racial covenants 1966 found racial covenants unconstitutional Direct democracy doesn t necessarily work because the courts have the ultimate say on what is unconstitutional people wanted racial covenants but the state and the federal government stopped from doing so through the courts 26 What are contract lobbying firms How popular are they Hint very Contract Lobby Firms a business that has lobbyists at the ready to be essentially rented out by differ politicians political parties or organizations that they then lobby what they are being paid to lobby for these firms also write bills that are then given to POSC EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE 15 politician for them to introduce Ex ALEC American Legislative Exchange Council nonprofit organization of conservative state legislators and private sector representatives that drafts and shares model statelevel legislation for distribution among state governments in the United States 27 What is meant by astroturf lobbyingastroturf groups In what way might this technique be decep ve Astroturf Lobbying a PR tactic used in politics and advertising in which actors are paid to display overt and apparently spontaneous grassroots support for a particular product policy or event Deceptive because the rich can pay off people to act like they care about an issue in support of the company paying which then creates a false sense of general support and a false sense that the community is full of concerned citizens these groups are fronts for the interests of other things Ex California for Quality Schools was a front for the construction industry 28 To what extent has representation been diluted historically in California Hint growing population but what happens to the size of the Capitol Representation has become increasingly diluted meaning that the population of California is growing but the number of seats in the state assembly and senate have remained unchanged 29 Be able to give a brief description of the process by which bills become law What role does Assembly legal counsel 1St reading committee 2nOI reading bill hijack take bill that was passed POSC EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE 16 leadership play What is party discipline and how is that enforced into second reading and change the text Why is diSCiPIine in Galifomia completely to fit what you want third relatively weak see 4 What are readingdebateVote the most powerful positions in the Assembly and the Senate How have those positions also been 0 Senate 1St reading committee 2nol reading 3rOI weakened in recent years Be able readingdebatevote conference committee to list the differences between the Signature legislative process in California compared to Congress Is the 0 Leadership role both houses help determine the legiSIature a lanakinQ bOdY legislative agenda help steer specific pieces of Hint Kill Bill legislation through the process determine committee assignments and chair positions 0 with the majority party getting an advantage by putting its most important stars onto the most powerful committees and into chairperson status 0 leaders also have some influence over whether a particular bill will be treated favorably by the party or not 0 Party disciplinemaintained by the leaders who suggest how the rank and file members of the assembly should vote on a given bill if the leaders wishes are not respected other committee assignments as well as endorsement for future public office may be jeopardized aka whips both majority and minority Term limits Prop 140 3 2 yr periods for assembly and 2 four year periods for the Senatehelps to bring in new faces but didn t fix lobbying and int group roles in legislature As for California being a lawmaking body The Assembly and the Senate start out with an idea that turns into a bill but POSC EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE 17 after revisions in both chambers it is hard to distinguish sometimes what the original idea even was so in that sense the gov tries to pass laws that they want not because of their constituents also the bill can be hijacked in any chamber and be turned into something completely different ex lifeguard bill to bill for mining companies California legislature vs US Congress Legislature California has a weaker party system than the US Federal Government California has an author system so the author of the bill has the responsibility to make sure the bill is progressing through the legislative process there are three nonpartisan offices that guide the legislators 1 Legislative Counsel that does the wording for the bills 2 LAO Legislative Analyst s Office that offers advice on budget and fiscal matters and 3 the State Auditor who conducts oversight and investigations and reports on government efficiency fourth the flow of bill in the Chambers are different the bill goes concurrently in the Houses in Congress and one House after another in the Cal government and finally people have direct democracy in California legislature via referendum or initiative which they can t really do at the federal level also as a side note no pocket veto for California governor Most powerful positions 0 Assembly Speaker of the House POSC EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE 18 0 Senate President Pro tem presides over the Rules Committee and is supported by the whips 30 What is meant by pay to play What is Iogrolling What is pork To what extent do these practices reinforce the notion of paying to play Is any of this really democratic Be aware that these topics will have been mentioned at several points along the way so this may appear somewhat out of sequence here Logrolling is like I ll vote for your bill if you vote for mine Pork is including something in a bill to repay a contributordonor which may or may not add anything to the bill These practices reinforce the notion of paying to play because you have to give into other people s political agenda to advance your own No none of this is really democratic it also reinforces inequalities within politics rather than equality Pay to play means that you have put in a certain amount of money to be considered a person of interest example more campaigning equals more publicity ad more votes it can also be applied to elite organization like how the economic elite become the political elite by spending enormous amounts of their money on campaigning
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