HSES 269, Exam 2 Review
HSES 269, Exam 2 Review HSES 269
Popular in Introduction to Exercise Science
Popular in Physical Education
verified elite notetaker
This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Areidbrydon on Monday January 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HSES 269 at Kansas taught by Eric Mosier in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 89 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Exercise Science in Physical Education at Kansas.
Reviews for HSES 269, Exam 2 Review
Yes please! Looking forward to the next set!
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 01/25/16
HSES 269 Introduction to Exercise Science Review Individuals William Harvey What did he discover CH 4 Anatomy in Exercise Science 393 Anatomy the study of the parts of the body and their relationship to each other 0 More than just the names of body parts I Location of structures I Relationship to other structures I Growth I Basic function 393 Gross Angtomv systemic or regional anatomy 0 Systemic I Each system of the body is studied independently before moving on to the next I Typically the skeletal system is studied first then muscular system nervous system etc I Beginning courses in anatomy 0 Regional I Everything about a specific region of the body is studied together I All the bones muscles nerves and vessels of the upper limbs are learned at the same time before moving on I Advanced courses such as in medical school 393 Histology the microscopic study of the anatomy of tissues and their cellular basis 393 Comparative anatomy the comparison of anatomical structures of different animals both the similarities and differences 393 Embryology the study of anatomical structures in tissues from conception to birth 393 Developmental anatomy the study of embryology as well as the anatomical changes that occur from birth to death 0 Pathological anatomy the study of anatomical changes that occur in tissues as a result of disease 393 Know the contributions of Egypt and Alexandria and the Roman Empire prescientific period to anatomy 0 Knowledge of the human body as early as 2000 BCE or earlier 0 Greeks laid the foundations for the study of science medicine and anatomy 0 Egypt I First to mention the brain and explored the tissues of the brain 0 China I Determined that the all blood was under control of the heart 0 Greece I Alcmaeon Empedocles Hippocrates Aristotle etc I Often their ideas were wrong or misguided tendons were described as nerves 0 Alexandria and the Roman Empire I Alexandria founded by Alexander the Great became the center of intellectual pursuits for several centuries 0 First public dissections 0 Dissections were starting to be very common I Many written works stored in the great libraries were destroyed by Christians or stolen and lost by invading Arabian forces I Claudius Galen I Is considered to be the greatest of early physicians 0 Catholic church did not allow Galen s anatomical concepts to be criticized 393 Middle Ages 0 Decline in advance of anatomy and other scholarly pursuits O Decline in experimentation and observation 0 Rise in power of a powerful church that forbade dissection I Church forbade study the human body and dissection 0 Arabian armies actually preserved the written works 0 Renaissance Periods O Started with the rise of the universities 0 Major advancements in literature art and science I Invention of the printing press New emphasis on dissection 0 Leonardo da Vinci Produced many detailed anatomical drawings and made 0 anatomical discoveries 0 XRay electromagnetic wave of high energy able to pass through many materials opaque to light SpiralCT scan threedimensional views of internal organs Positron emission tomoggmhv detect metabolic activity chemical activity 393 Digital subtraction angiography monitor blood ow through organs like the brain CH 5 Exercise Physiology 0 Response to exercise an acute or shortterm change in the body that is associated With exerc1se 393 Adaptation to exercise a longterm change in the body due to exercise training 0 Heart rate v Parent disciplines of exercise physiology 0 Physiology study of the body s function I Involves anatomy biochemistry and cellular biology I To physiologists exercise can serve as a stressor 0 Physical education study of physiology can help improve health and enhance performance during physical activity Cardiovascular system 0 Primary components I Heart arteries veins 0 Responsible for blood transport 0 Exercise physiologist focuses on the acute and chronic adaptations to the O 09 cardiovascular system I Effects of exercise on blood vessels I Decrease in resting blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels 0 Effects of exercise on the neurological control of the heart 39239 Pulmonarv svstem 0 Important for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air and the blood 0 Primary component I Lungs 0 Exercise places a great deal of stress on the pulmonary system I Oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production are increased during exercise increasing pulmonary ventilation rate 0 Minute ventilation V6 Breathing rate x Tidal volume I Tidal volume volume inspired or expired per breath 00 Nervous svstem 0 Voluntary I Control of movement by way of the skeletal muscles Firing rate versus motor unit recruitment to increase force 0 Exercise physiologies are interested in neuromuscular fatigue and neurological O adaptations to strength training 0 Involved in the involuntary control of body functions I Autonomic nervous system eyes lungs heart liver stomach pancreas large amp small intestine bladder reproductive organs 0 Sympathetic nervous system 0 Active during situations of increased stress such as during exercise 0 Parasympathetic nervous system 0 Active during resting conditions 0 During exercise I Increase in sympathetic activity and a decrease in parasympathetic activity 0 Involved in the redistribution of blood ow away from inactive tissues such as the gastrointestinal tract and toward the active tissues 393 Have a general understanding on which exercises would be best for increasing the size of a muscle 0 Different types of exercise training affect skeletal muscle differently I Endurance exercise I Increases concentrations of enzymes in skeletal muscle that are involved in the aerobic production of energy I Strength training I Increases in the size of the muscle due to increased synthesis of contractile proteins with little change in anaerobic enzyme content 393 Know the functions of bioenergetics and metabolism and skeletal system 0 Bioenergetics and metabolism I The study how the body generates energy for muscular work I The energy for exercise in the form of adenosine triphosphate ATP is derived from the break down of food 0 Protein fat and carbohydrate I Specific metabolic pathway used and the associated food broken down for energy is affected by the type of exercise that a person is performing O Skeletal system I Serves as a structural framework and provides the lever system by which muscle contraction can lead to movement I Acts as a depot of important minerals such as calcium I Research primarily focuses on the effects of exercise on bone mass 0 Relationships between bone density and risk of fracture I Decrease in bone mass with time in elderly 0 Decrease in estrogen following menopause is implicated in the development of osteoporosis 393 Understand the effects of exercise on the immune system graph on powerpoint slide 0 Immune system fights off pathogens and infections I Relationship between exercise and the immune system is under intense study I Intense or exhaustive exercise may result in shortterm immunosuppression 0 Marathon running has been associated with increased incidence of upper respiratory track infection I Submaximal exercise may result in increases in immune system parameters 393 Understand the effects of microgravity and space ight 0 Microgravity and space ight I Causes a variety of changes in humans 0 Decreases in muscle 0 Decreases in bone mass 0 Decrements in motor function I There is a focus on trying to design effective exercise programs to combat these changes 0 Gerontology 0 Exercise has great potential to enhance the quality of life of individuals who are elderly and possible to extend life 0 Consequences of the aging process are a decrease in resting metabolic rate loss of muscle mass an increase in body fat percentage and a decline in aerobic capacity 0 Exciting area of research is strength training for elderly I Capable of significantly increasing both muscle size and strength I Increased muscle strength makes the performance of the activities of daily living easier 393 Which method of losing weight would be optimal for health graph on powerpoint slide diet only exercise only or exercise diet 0 Body composition and weight control I Obesity is defined as an excess amount of body fat I Exercise can facilitate fat loss in a comprehensive weightmanagement program 0 Aerobic exercise has traditionally been used to burn fat 0 Resistance exercises help maintain lean body weight during weightloss diets I Critical periods in childhood and adolescence when excessive weight gain will likely in uence adult obesity 393 Ergogenic aids 0 Refers to any substance device or treatment that can or is believed to improve athletic performance I Carbohydrate loading I Steroids I Knee wraps 0 Applied exercise physiologists need to be up to date regarding efficacy safety and ethical issues CH 6 Exercise Epidemiology 393 Epidemiology the study of factors associated with participation in a specific behavior that is physical activity and how this behavior relates to the probability of disease or injury 0 Study of physical activity levels in certain populations 0 Study of the relationship between exercise and the risk for various diseases 0 Cardiovascular disease accounts for approximately 20 percent of all deaths each year worldwide 0 1 Killer since 1900 0 Estimated economic cost of 2982 billion 0 Expending about 1000 kcal per week with physical activity resulted in a 20 to 30 percent reduction in mortality risk 0 Cerebrovgscular disease cerebrovascular disease is any disease resulting from the obstructive effects of atherosclerosis in the arteries that supply blood to the brain 0 Stroke is the loss or impairment of bodily function resulting from injury or death of brain cells after insufficient blood supply 0 A number of studies have reported that disease risk was inversely related to the amount of regular physical activity performed by the study participants 0 Hypertension persistently high arterial blood pressure I Essential no known cause I Secondary associated with other primary diseases 0 Total peripheral resistance is the resistance to blood ow in the cardiovascular system 0 Studies have reported that exercise at intensities between 40 to 70 percent of aerobic capacity demonstrated fewer incidences of hypertension 393 Diabetes chronic disease caused by a deficiency in the production of insulin or in the use of insulin to transport glucose from the blood into other tissues thereby resulting in excess glucose in the blood 0 Type I typically develops during childhood and adolescence and is caused by failure of the pancreas to produce insulin 0 Type II Pancreas produces insulin but the cells do not respond normally to it I Type I diabetics can certainly benefit from regular physical activity but type II diabetes is preventable by diet weight loss and physical activity 393 Osteoporosis a disease characterized by abnormally low bone mass and deterioration of bone tissue that leads to an increased risk of factures 0 Primary agerelated and postmenopausal bone loss 0 Secondary bone loss caused by another disease that is independent of age or menopause 0 Physical activity is particularly important for increasing peak bone mass during adolescence and young adulthood 393 Research methodologies 0 Incidence rates the frequency or number of events that occur over a defined time period divided by the average size of the population at risk 0 Crosssectional survevs measure risk factors and the presence or absence of a disease at the same time 0 Casecontrol studies use subjects who are selected based on the presence of the disease being investigated and then are matched with controls 0 Prospective cohort a study in which the subjects are randomly selected from a defined population and baseline information is collected regarding potential risk factors for the disease of interest 0 Randomized controlled trial considered the gold standard for testing a research hypothesis because it gives the research more control than any of the other research designs CH 7 Athletic Training 0 Athletic training healthcare professionals who collaborate with physicians to optimize activity and participation of patients and clients 0 O 0 Practice of athletic training a wide array of knowledge and skills encompassing the prevention examination prognosis treatment and rehabilitation of acute and chronic neuromuscular conditions 0 Know what a BOC certified athletic trainer s score of practice covers Practice domains I Injuryillness prevention and wellness protection I Clinical evaluation and prognosis I Immediate and emergency care I Treatment and rehabilitation I Organizational and professional health and wellbeing v What did early athletic trainers in Ancient Greece provide for their athletes youth provided massages and nutritional advice 339 thsicign extender 0 00000000 0 Documenting patient histories Applying casts Ordering and applying braces Determining body composition Providing nutritional counseling Doing gait analysis Giving exercise instruction for home programs Conducting injury rehabilitation Fabricating foot orthotics Assisting with minor inoffice surgery 393 How many continuing education units must be earned in a threeyear period in order for an individual to retain his or her NATABOC certification 0 0 Certified athletic trainers must complete at least 75 continuing education units every three years I Seminars conferences symposia home study courses I Postgraduate education I Formal training in CPR EMT or first aid I Individualized options Certification exam to show a minimal competency level for entrylevel trainers I Designed to test mastery of essential skills 0 Cognitive skills I Clinical proficiencies I Psychomotor skills I Written component I Consists of 150 multiplechoice questions I Practical component 0 Administered by two certified athletic trainers I Written simulation 0 Designed to evaluate candidate s reallife decisionmaking skills 393 Know what techniques that athletic trainers are trained to use Technology and Research Tools section 0 O Isokinetic and isotonic exercise machines I Assess and record patient progress Electrotherapeutic devices I Use electrical energy ultrasound microwaves etc in the treatment of disease or injury pg 159 393 Where do the majority of athletic trainers work 0 Major areas of employment for entrylevel athletic trainers I Collegesuniversities I Clinical settings I Secondary schools 393 Know the subject matter areas for an athletic training education program OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO Acute care of injuryillness Assessment of injuryillness Exercise physiology General medical conditions and disabilities Human anatomy and physiology Kinesiology biomechanics Medical ethics and legal issues Pathology of injuryillness Weight management and body composition Nutritional aspects of injuryillness Pharmacology Professional development and responsibilities Risk management Injuryillness prevention Statistics and research design Strength training and conditioning Therapeutic exercise and rehab techniques Therapeutic modalities
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'