HSES 269, Exam 3 Review
HSES 269, Exam 3 Review HSES 269
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Areidbrydon on Monday January 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HSES 269 at Kansas taught by Eric Mosier in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 408 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Exercise Science in Physical Education at Kansas.
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Date Created: 01/25/16
HSES 269 Introduction to Exercise Science Exam 3 Review CH 8 Exercise and Sport Nutrition Nutrition the science of food ingestion digestion absorption and metabolism Dietetics the science of applying food and nutrition Exercisesport nutrition integration of principles of nutrition and physical activity as they relate to enhancement of sports performance or prevention of chronic diseases Parent disciplines of sport nutrition 0 Parent disciplines Biology and chemistry I Foundation for understanding almost every aspect of nutrition exercise and health 0 Related disciplines Dietetics food science and pharmacology Know the nutrient that has a strong relationship with the amount of work one can produce Understand the figures from KU GNC project Did protein ingestion increase Akt and rpS6 activity ie muscle anabolism 0 Activity increased with protein AKT supplementation Understand the in uence that a drink with carbohydrates had on tympanic temperature during 60 minutes of peddling Understand the figure from Ryan et al regarding the thermogenic effect of caffeine Did caffeine increase energy expenditure v Understand the figure from Herda et al regarding the effects of creatine supplementation Did creatine increase bench press strength v Understand the table from Herda et al regarding the effects of a supplement that was intended to increase ATP levels Did supplementation with ATP work v Possible areas of study for a sport nutritionist 0 To become a well qualified sport nutritionist 0 Extensive background in nutrition especially related to athletic performance experience with athletes and ability to communicate with coaches and athletes O Undergraduate programs Courses in science nutrition and exercise science 0 Graduate programs Generally in either exercise science or nutrition 3 Research tools calorimetry and body composition 0 Muscle biopsy technique 0 Blood and urine analyses 0 Calorimetry I Bomb calorimeter to measure energy value of food I Calorimeter to measure energy expenditure in humans 0 Metabolic measurements 0 Dietary recall and analysis 0 Body composition and assessment CH9 0 09 O 09 O 0 0 9 O 09 I Underwater weighing to determine body composition characteristics I Using skinfold measurements Biomechanics Biomechanics the study of the human body in motion forces that act on the body and the effects they produce 0 A science that incorporates anatomy motor control physics exercise physiology and engineering Kinesiology a science that investigates human movement the parent discipline of biomechanics Dynamics investigates bodies masses and forces in motion Kinematics is the branch of classical mechanics which describes the motion of points bodies objects and systems of bodies groups of objects without consideration of the causes of motion geometry of motion Kinetics the branch of chemistry or biochemistry concerned with measuring and studying the rates of reactions Know what contact forces and friction forces are which one results in horizontal motion 0 Normal contact force to jump in the air you must be in contact with the ground and push down on it I The reaction force from the ground pushes on you and accelerates you up into the air 0 Friction forces direct positive linear relationship between normal contact forces and friction forces I heavier objects force greater molecule interactions 0 v Who were the first to attempt to examine the human body biomechanically 0 1960 s I The term biomechanics began appearing with more frequency in the literature and biomechanics finally became a graduate specialization 0 v Where was the first biomechanics research laboratory established and who was the director 0 Richard Nelson Biomechanics laboratory at Penn State in 1966 393 Know the different areas of study in biomechanics developmental rehabilitative etc In addition be able to have a general understanding of graphs presented in these sections 0 Developmental biomechanics Evaluates essential movement patterns across the life span Evaluates and quantifies daily living activities I Compares an individual s performance with overall patterns to determine level of ability Ex evaluate therapies for children with developmental disorders 9 Biomechanics of exercise and sports I Focuses on postures and movement patterns to minimize risk of injury and improve performance I Examples 0 Helps to design sport footwear and exercise equipment 0 Develops and test protective devices 0 Golf swing O Rehabilitative biomechanics Studies the movement patterns of injured and disabled people Helps in developing appropriate rehabilitative protocols EX studies the effects of peripheral arterial disease on gait patterns 0 Occupational biomechanics Focuses on providing a safer and more efficient environment for the worker Development of better safety equipment e g helmets shin guards footwear to protect the body from the effects of falling or colliding with other objects is an important area of research 0 Forensic biomechanics Focuses on legal issues Provides forensic investigations technical reports and eXpert testimony in human performance related incidents involving personal injury EX evaluates potential effects of seat belts shoulder harnesses on spinal injuries during a car accident 0 v Research tools of biomechanics ie force platform electrogoniometer electromyography etc 0 Timing devices 0 Motion recording devices 0 Photographs cinematography and videography 0 Magnetic resonance imaging 0 Goniometers monitors position angle changes of joints 0 Pressure insoles O Accelerometers I Mechanomyography monitors vibrations created during muscle actions 0 Electromyography monitors electrical potentials created during muscle actions I Light circles Resistance Trained I Black circles Endurance Trained I Red circles Individual with Polio 0 Modeling 0 Simulations CH 10 Motor Control and Motor Learning 0 v Motor learning study of the acquisition of motor skills how one learns to control muscles and coordinate limbs in order to produce a chosen action 0 v Motor control study of how the nervous system controls movement how one s nervous system produces actions 3 Central nervous svstem CNS 0 The brain and spinal cord 0 Coordinates activities between the various parts of the body 393 Peripheral nervous svstem PNS O Nerves extending from the brain and spinal cord linking the body and the CNS 0 Sensory or afferent division 0 Motor or efferent division 3 Know the difference between Closed and open loop theories 0 Theories to explain how the nervous system controls movement I Multilevel movement control I Opened loop control theory AHF LI FIEEI SIEHhL 39quotPUT hlIIIPLIFIEFI 1 mun PATELTn SIEHAL I Closed loop control theory 0 Assumes a closed loop approach to motor control and focuses on how we acquire slow positioning movements H e a 5 Laurel Sarita m input E39y Et39EI TI output 53 stem EFTD39F Refern2 new Controller Me 315 med uth Lrt Sensur I Dynamic pattern theory v Understand the workings of the motor cortex supplementary motor cortex and basal ganglia v Motor cortex determines which muscles are involved in the action and the particular level of force required for the action v Supplementary motor cortex has been shown to be involved in the movement planning process 393 Basal ganglia initiates action and also control movement amplitude or distance v Understand what muscle spindles are and the stretch re ex for which the muscle spindles are a part of 0 Muscle spindles stretch reflex play a role in maximal force production I Reduce overall firing rates 3 Know the in uences that muscle spindles have on maximal strength and motor unit firing rates 0 v Know the difference between efferent and afferent nerves 0 Sensory or afferent division 0 Motor or efferent division CH 11 Exercise and Sport Psychology 0 v Exercise psychology application of psychology to promoting explaining maintaining and enhancing physical fitness cognitions emotions and behaviors related to the perception of andor objective changes in strength and endurance v Sport psvchologv application of psychological principles to sport v Know the parent disciplines of exercise and sport psychology 0 Psychology study of human behavior 0 Physical education study of exercise physiology motor learning etc I Study of psychology can possibly help improve health and enhance performance v Behavioral primary determinants of an exerciser s behavior come from the environment v Psvchophvsiological examination of the physiological processes of the brain and their in uences on behavior v Cognitivebehavioral behavior that is determined by cognitive mental processes such as self esteem anxiety fear of failure etc v Know the differences between qualitative and quantitative research 0 v Understand the general adaptation syndrome 0 339 Understand overtraining staleness and burnout O Overtraining incorrect dose of frequency intensity duration and mode of training 0 Burnout possesses the central features of loss of interest and motivation I Too much practice and physical training I Physical exhaustion and allover soreness I Boredom from too much repetition I Poor rest or lack of proper sleep In Class Assignments 3 What were the overall findings of Gotshalk et al 2002 Hesse et al 2005 and Fry and Gano Overway 2010 3 Neuromechanics Laboratory Tour 0 What piece of equipment was used to test isolated muscle strength at constant velocities
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