Biology 111 Study Guide for Exam 1
Biology 111 Study Guide for Exam 1 Biology 111 Sec 008
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by amber weiss on Monday January 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biology 111 Sec 008 at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville taught by Thomas Buettner in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Topics in Contemporary Biology in Biological Sciences at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville.
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Date Created: 01/25/16
Study Guide for Biology Chapters 13 Chapter 1 Section 1 oz Metabolism is the sum of all chemical reactions oz Homeostasis means quotstayquot quotsamequot gt Example Temperature gt Example Blood Pressure gt Example Heart Rate oz Evolution is the genetic change over a period of time Chapter 2 Section 2 60 Cell Theory gt All living things are cells or gt All living things are made up of cells Chapter 2 Section 3 LThe minimum requirement of cells would be gt DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid gtCell Membrane oz Prokaryotic Cells gt quotProquot means BEFORE gt quotKaryoquot means KERNEL aka Nucleus gt This cell is the most basic of the cells It contains only The DNA And the Cell Membrane oz Eukaryotic Cells gt quotEUquot means True gt quotKaryoquot means kernel gt This cell is a little more complex It contains A DNA Nuclear Membrane Cell Membrane Nucleus Chapter 1 Section 4 LDecomposers Fungi and Bacteria L Plants are producers LSunlight39s is the ultimate source of energy in an ecosystem L Energy or Matter cannot be created or destroyed LSome energy is lost but some is given off as heat Chapter 1 Section 6 oz Bacteria and Archaea Are both Prokaryotes Both are unicellular 0 Archaea can withstand HIGH pressure HIGH temperature and HIGH salt They can live in ANY type of environment Chapter 1 Section 7 60 Evolution is the core theme in biology 60 Natural Selection survival of the ttest and reproduction 00 POPULATIONS evoIve NOT SPECIES Chapter 1 Section 11 oz Antibiotics DO NOT work on viruses Because they develop genes that resist the antibiotic Chapter 1 Section 8 oz Hypothesis explanation of 1 set of observations 60 Prediction the IF THEN statement oz Science cannot prove the truth but FALSE explanations CHAPTER 2 Introduction 60 The cell is lled with water oz Our body is consisted of 7095 water Chapter 2 Section 1 L Matter anything that occupies space and has mass L EIement a substance comprised of only 1 type of an atom LCompound 2 different elements in a xed ratio gt 2 different atoms in a xed ratio gt Example H20 is a compound 21 oz Compound molecule of 2 atoms oz 4 major elements 96 of elements on our periodic table Oxygen Hydrogen Carbon Nitrogen Chapter 2 Section 2 60 Trace elements are important gt They make up the other 4 gt Example Iron Our blood is made up of iron the reason our blood is red is because of oxidized iron An abandoned tractor that is rusty is rusty due to the oxidized iron gt Example Iodine Iodine is used for throid hormones Iodized Salt gt Example Fluoride Reduce tooth decay All are trace elements the other 4 but are all VERY important to our bodies Chapter 2 Section 3 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 Atom smallest unit of matter that cannot be divided Proton is a POSITIVE CHARGE Neutron is a NEUTRAL CHARGE Electron is a NEGATIVE CHARGE Stable atoms same number of protons and electrons Proton is an Element Chapter 2 Section5 6 60 Covalent sharing electrons Chapter 2 Section 6 6 60 6 60 NonPolar Covalent Bonds SHARE but EQUAL gt HH gt CH gt CC gt OO DOUBLE BOND that is why there are 2 dashes and not only 1 Polar Covalent SHARE but UNEQUAL oz The electrons are shared but they spend more time with the larger massed element gt Example WATER Has 1 Oxygen and 2 Hydrogen elements gt Oxygen has 8 protons and 8 electrons gt Hydrogen has 1 proton and 1 electron gt Has 8 electrons but spend more time with oxygen instead of hydrogen Chapter 2 Section 7 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 Ion is a charged atom with an electrical charge result gain or loss of electrons Protons and electrons are and the charge an stable atom 2 ions with opposite charges attract Cation is positive Anions are negative Covalent tend to form organic molecules Ionic form inorganic molecules like salt Example NaCI Na donates electrons to Chlorine Cation Na positive Anion chlorine negative THEY ATTRACT kt Salt any molecule formed by ionic bond where cation is anything other than hydrogen Examples KCI MgCl MgPO4 all are salts which are crystals They are weak because they dissolve in water Chapter 2 Section 8 oz Hydrogen Bond Intermolecular forces between molecules Help give larger molecules their 3D shape Chapter 2 Section 9 oz REACTIONS USE ARROWS 2H202 l 2H20 00 O these two o39s represents the 2 hydrogen being added with the oxygen OO O these 2 0395 also represent the hydrogen This gives you the 2 water39s LEFT SIDE OF THE ARROW HAS TO EQUAL THE RIGHT SIDE THE ARROW ACTS AS A SIGN Chapter 2 Section 10 oz Cohesion tendency molecules of some kind stick together oz Surface tension measures how dif cult it is to break the surface of liquid oz Solution liquid consist of uniform mix 2 substances kt Solvent dissolve H20 oz Solute the dissolving substance NaCl oz H20 and NaCl are polar oz Oil is nonpolar because it doesn39t mix with water kt Polar is when they mixdissolve kt Nonpolar is when they do not mix Chapter 2 Section 14 oz Acid compound release H to solution it is a good H donor oz Base compound accepts H molecule is good H acceptor HCI is hydrochloric acid oz pH scale is 014 0 most acidic 7 neutral 14 basic kt pH ogH Each pH unit 10 units A way to think about it is 0 10quot0 510quot5 710quot7 etc The following is the pH scale Ifllmzquotm3lm4 quotquot 6 60 6 60 6 60 In tro 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 Human uids 7 on test Pee6 on test Stomachgastric juices is higher on test Buffer substance minimize charges in pH Will change Strong Acid Week Acid or Strong Base D Weak Base Chapter 2 Section 15 Fossil fuel dead plant matter dead stuff When giving off C02 Ocean can absorb the C02 which helps minimize the amount in atmosphere Chapter 2 Section 16 30 The cell has water in it and it is surrounded by water CHAPTER 3 The Molecules of Cells Suf x oz Ose carbos 30 Ase enzymes All enzymes are proteins Genes code proteins ON TEST Enzymes are proteins that have genes Chapter 3 Section 1 6 60 Carbon based molecules organic compound 30 Any without carbon are INORGANIC 30 Carbon 4 Hydrogen in all 4 directions North South East and West Chapter 3 Section 2 6 60 6 60 Hydrocarbins form the chain think of them as a skeleton Carboxyl acid group Chapter 3 Section3 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 Carbos Proteins Nucleic acid They all follow the monomerpoymer model mon one and mer part Hydrolysis l hydrowater and lysisspitting Chapter 3 Section 4 6 60 Carbohydrates are small sugar molecules monomers they are the rst to burn oz Monosaccharides log you through in a re 60 Lipids would be the 2nCI and proteins would be 3 but only In an emergency they are way too important oz Isomer equal parts Chapter 3 Section 5 0 v Disaccharidel oz Maltose glucosegucose oz Sucrose glucose fructose 0 v Lactose glucose galactose Chapter 3 Section 6 1 Starch molecules have little to no branching 2 Glycogen is highly branching long term 0 v These are stored in Primary liver favorite Secondary once the liver is full is the skeletal muscles 3 Cellulose is similar to glucose but the linkage is different Fiber and roughage and bulk cellulose 4 Chitin is used in shrimp and lobster Chapter 3 Section 11 0 v Proteins Same bead structure as glucose They are similar but they have 20 different types Chapter 3 Section 12 oz Enzymes make up all chemical reactions kt Enzymes are the most important proteinfunction Chapter 3 Section 13 439 GENES CODE FOR PROTEIN Chapter 3 Section 14 oz Nucleic Acids Chapter 3 Section 15 0 v Carbos mono 0 v Proteins amino acids oz Nucleic scid nucleotides has 3 parts 1 5 sugary carbos called ribos in RNA and DNA 2 Phosphate 3 Nitrogenous v DNA deoxyribonucleic Acid A pairs with T C pairs with G oz RNA ribonucleic Acid A pairs with U C pairs with G Chapter 3 Section 8 oz Lipids hydrophobic fear of water Fats is another word Lipids do not use the BEADSTRING ON MODEL Lipids are energy dense a Carbos 4 b Proteins 4 c Lipids9 because they have twice as much energy in unit weight We do not burn nucleic acids because they are our GENES Simple lipids fats and oils Phospholipids and Steroids MAIN WAY WE TRANSPORT LIPIDS IN BLOOD MAIN WAY WE STORE LIPIDS IN CELLS
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