Org Behavior Exam 1 Study Guide
Org Behavior Exam 1 Study Guide MGT 3813
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Whitney Smith on Monday January 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MGT 3813 at Mississippi State University taught by Emily Marett in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see Organizational Behavior in Business at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 01/25/16
0 Chapter 4 Attitudes MGT 3813 STUDY GUIDE EXAM 1 1 Why should you care about attitudes a Attitudes provide warnings of potential problems Attitudes in uence behavior 2 Cognitive dissonance how do we eliminate it a Alter behavior i Actually change the behavior b Alter attitudes i Example I don t believe in the hype Grandma smoked 10 packs a day and lived until 90 c Rationalize discrepancy i Example I don t have time to join the gym this semester I have too much on my plate already 3 Job satisfaction what creates it Four categories of behavior when ee s are unsatisfied a A positive feeling about a job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics bWHAT CREATES IT i ii iii iv vi vii viii Job Characteristics 1 Is the job enjoyable 2 Is the job challenging amp stimulating 3 Does the job have autonomy 4 In the job do you use a variety of skills 5 In the job are you performing significant work Salary 1 Only matters up until 40000 a year Relationship at work Stress and WorkLife Balance Personality 1 Positive affective disposition a Sees glass 12 full 2 Personenvironment fit a Abilities match DEMANDS b Company values match our values Psychological contract 1 Promise that the company has made to you Organizational Justice High selfesteem leads to higher job satisfaction 1 Higher self esteem pursues more challenging amp stimulating jobs that gives job satisfaction 4 Herzberg s twofactor theory a Traditional View 1 ii iii Satisfaction I Dissatisfaction Removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job doesn t make it satisfying The factors that lead to job satisfaction are separate and different from those that lead to job dissatisfaction b Motivators Positive i Satisfaction I No satisfaction ii iii iv V vi Promotion opportunities Opportunities for personal growth Recognition Responsibility Achievement c Hygiene Factors Negative 1 ii iii iv V vi vii Dissatisfaction I No dissatisfaction Quality of supervision Pay Company policies Physical working conditions Job security Relationships with others 5 Job involvement a The degree to which people identify psychologically with their job and consider their performance level important to their selfworth b How you describe yourself Identify c High job involvement leads to 1 ii iii iv 6 Empowerment High organizational citizenship Low absenteeism Low turnover High job performance a The belief in the degree to which you in uence your work environment their competence the meaningfulness of their job and the perceived autonomy of their work Ability to make decisions c High empowerment leads to i ii iii iv High organizational citizenship Low Absenteeism Low Turnover High Job performance 7 Org commitment three types which is strongest a The extent to which the employee identifies with the organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization b Three types of org commitment i ii iii Affective 1 EMOTIONAL ATTACHMENT to the organization and belief in its values Strongest Continuance 1 Commitment BASED ON PERCEIVED ECONOMIC VALUE of remaining with the organization Normative 1 Commitment BASED ON AN OBLIGATION to remain with the organization for moral or ethical reasons c High organizational commitment leads to i ii Low absenteeism Low turnover iii High job performance 8 Perceived Org support a The degree to which the employee believes that the organization values their contribution and cares about their wellbeing b High perceived org support leads to i ii High organizational citizenship High job performance 9 Employee engagement a An individual s involvement with satisfaction with and enthusiasm for their work b TENSION ARE YOU PAYING ATTENTION ON THE JOB Are you present c High engagement leads to 1 ii iii iv Personality amp Values High customer satisfaction High job performance Low turnover Low accidents 1 Why should you care about personality a Whereas attitudes can change personality traits generally don t you need to catch this stuff in the interview process to avoid making a bad hire 2 How should you use personality tests in the workplace a Never use them to make hiresto fire someone 3 MyersBriggs Type Indicator be able to comparecontrast each pairing how does each pairing create con ict in the workplace pros and cons how would you use this personality assessment a Extraversion 1 Outgoing ii Publicly iii Expressive iv Interacting v Speaks then thinks vi Gregarious b Sensing i Practical ii Specific iii Feet on the ground iv Details v Concrete c Thinking i Analytical ii Clarity iii Head iv Justice v Rules d Judging i Structured ii Timeoriented iii Decisive iv Makes listsuses them V Organized Introversion i Quiet ii Reserved iii Concentrating iv Thinks then speaks V Re ective Intuitive i General ii Abstract iii Head in the clouds iv Possibilities v Theoretical Feeling i Subjective ii Harmony iii Heart iv Mercy v Circumstance Perceiving i Flexible ii Open ended iii Exploring iv Makes listsloses them v Spontaneous 4 Big Five Personality Model what are the five personality dimensions it assesses Definitions of each how does each dimension impact the workplace a b Extraversion i The person is gregarious assertive sociable not reserved timid Agreeableness i The person is cooperative warm and agreeable not cold antagonistic Conscientiousness i The person is hardworking organized and dependable not lazy unreliable Emotional Stability i The person is calm selfconfident and cool not insecure anxious depressed Openness to Experience i The person is creative curious and fascinated with novelty 5 Locus of control pros and cons of internalextemal a b c Your belief about the extent to which internal factors control what you experience vs the extent to which external factors control what you experience Free will vs Fate Pros i Engage in activities that will improve their situation Cons i May leave others feeling trampled on in your pursuit of goalsachievement 6 Proactive personality a People who identify opportunities show initiative and then take action b More likely to be seen as leaders c More likely to achieve career success d More likely to leave the organization to start their own business i Turnover is higher is business 7 Why should you care about values a Basic convictions about human conduct and our modes of existence b Specific belief system rather than behavioral tendencies 8 Rokeach Value Survey terminal vs instrumental a Terminal Values i Who do you want to achieve by the end of your life ii Think terminal as in end of life iii Desirable endstates of existence iv Goals you d like to achieve in your lifetime b Instrumental Values i Preferred modes of behavior for achieving terminal goals ii Instruments you will use to achieve your terminal values 9 Hofstede s cultural values a Individualism vs Collectivism b Power Distance Low vs High i The extent to which people expect and accept that power is unequally distributed within a country or organization ii How well do you handle authority Being told what to do by someone more powerful than you c Masculinity vs Femininity i High in masculinity Defined gender roles ii High in femininity Blurred gender roles d Uncertainty Avoidance Low vs High i How comfortable people are facing risk and uncertainty ii High uncertainty avoidance l Cultures that avoid risk iii Low uncertainty avoidance l Cultures that embrace risk e Long Term vs Short Term Orientation i What kind of time frame do you consider when making decisions ii What s more important my happiness today or my descendants happiness 100 years from now Power and Politics 1 Power vs authority a Power i The ability to in uence another person b Authority i Formal power coming from your positiontitle ii You can have power without authority iii You can have authority but no Power 1 Mutiny 2 Lame duck president 2 The role of dependency factors that create dependency a Importance b Scarcity c Nonsubstitutability 3 Forms of power reward coercive legitimate referent expert information a Reward Power i Power based on an agent s ability to control rewards that a target wants b Coercive Power i Power that is based on an agent s ability to cause an unpleasant experience for the target c Legitimate Power i Power that is based on organizational role or position ii Others comply because they accept the legitimacy of the position iii Example 1 Anarchists do NOT recognize legitimate power d Referent Power i An elusive power that is based on interpersonal attraction and charisma e Expert Power i The power that exists when an agent has specialized knowledge or skills that the target wants ii Special knowledge f Information Power i Access to and control over important information ii Example 1 Administrative Assistant a They know the dirty secrets and schedules before anyone else 4 What do the Milgram and Zimbardo prison experiment tell us about how people are in uenced by power Be able to explain the details of each experiment a Milgram Experiment i Normal people participated 1 One person participated as the control over the shock box a Participant with control over the shock box was the one actually being experimented on b Participant with control over the shock box was told that the experiment being done was to see if people would retain information better with physical shocking c Experiment was to see if you would shock someone to the death d Many participants blindly obeyed authority especially if they didn t have to take the blame i I was just following instructions 2 One person participated as the person being shocked a Participants weren t actually being shocked b They were informed to scream at different levels with the higher the shock b Zimbardo Prison Experiment i Set up normal college males in a fake prison 1 Including an actual arrest from homes 2 Part of the participants were treated as prison mates a These participants were dehumanized b Gave them numbers instead of names 3 Other parts of participants were given authority as police a Began to feel the authority b Brought their own police sunglasses to re ect the authority c Faked sodomy ii POWER WITHOUT OVERSIGHT LEADS TO ABUSE iii Was supposed to last 2 weeks Only lasted 6 days because it got out of hand Symbols of power a Ability to intercede for someone in trouble b Ability to get placements for favored employees c Exceeding budget limitations d Procuring above average raises for employees e Getting items on the agenda at meetings f Access to early information g Having top managers seem out their opinion Politics definitions a The use of power and in uence in organizations b Political behavior i Actions not officially sanctioned by an organization that are taken to in uence other s ii Is political behavior always bad 1 No but it depends on what you are fighting for In uence tactics ingratiation pressure legitimation exchange coalition rational persuasion inspirational appeals consultation and personal appeals a Ingratiation i The person seeks to get you in a good mood or to think favorably of himher before asking you to do something ii Sucking Up iii Example Only you can do this job right b Pressure i The person uses demands threats or intimidation to convince you to comply with a request or support a proposal ii Most negative iii Threats iv Example If you don t do this you re fired c Legitimation i The person seeks to persuade you that the request is approved by higher management or appeals to higher management for assistance in gaining your compliance ii Using legitimate power iii Example The boss said you had to do this iv Similar to grade school tattling d Exchange i The person makes an explicit or implicit promise that you will receive a reward or tangible benefit if you comply with a request or reminds you of a previous favor to be reciprocated 1quot Fquot i ii iii Favors Example You owe me a favor Coalition i ii iii The person seeks the aid of others to persuade you to do something or uses the support of others as an argument for you to agree also Peer Pressure Example All the other supervisors agree with me Rational Persuasion 1 ii iii The person uses logical arguments and factual evidence to persuade you that a proposal or request is viable and likely to result in the attainment of task objectives Using facts Example This new procedure will save us 150000 in overhead Inspirational Appeals 1 ii iii The person makes an emotional request or proposal that arouses enthusiasm by appealing to your values and ideals or by increasing you confidence that you can do it Most power Getting people to truly want to do it Consultation 1 ii iii The person seeks your participation in making a decision or planning how to implement a proposed policy strategy or change Making them a part of the project Making them the star iv Example This new attendance plan is controversial How can we make it more acceptable Personal Appeals i ii iii Asking for compliance based on friendship or loyalty Playing the friend card Example Do this because you re my friend 8 Which tactics are most effective highest commitment and lowest resistance Inspirational Appeals a i ii iii Most effective 90 Commitment 0 Resistance 9 Causes of political behavior individual factors amp organizational factors Organizational factors a b i ii iii iv v vi vii Reallocation of resources Promotion opportunities Low trust Role ambiguity Unclear performance evaluation system Zerosum reward practices Democratic decisionmaking Individual factors i ii iii High selfmonitors Internal locus of control Organizational investment iv Expectations of success V High Mach personality 10 Machiavellianism a Rarely persuaded by loyalty friendships past promises or other39s opinions b Emotionally detached c Will use unethical means to get what they want d Highly charismatic 11 How to navigate politics in the workplace a Step 1 i Recognize that politics is a necessary activity ii You will not be successful if you fail to engage in political activity b Step 2 i Identify your political style 1 The Purist a You believe in getting ahead through hard work You decline to participate in politics preferring to follow the sanctioned rules to get things done 2 The Team Player a You believe that you get ahead by working well with others and participating in politics that advance the goals of the group You decline to put personal career needs ahead of the group s needs 3 The Street Fighter a You are an individual who believes that the best way to get ahead is through the use of rough tactics You are not inhibited in the use of politics You watch your back and are slow to trust others 4 The Maneuverer a You are an individualist who believes in getting ahead by playing political games in a skillful unobtrusive manner You prefer to advance your goals in deniable ways More of a smooth operator than the street fighter ii Assess the scene 1 Answer the following questions a Who are the key players b What is their powerin uence in the organization c Step 3 i Assess how the power players feel about your ideaprojectinitiative 1 To what extent are they applying their in uence for or against the issue 2 How easily can their applied in uence be changed 3 What significant relationships exist among the players d Step 4 i Ongoing assessment of activity 1 Make sure to be able to read between the lines a Many signals are extremely subtle i Who are invited to meetings ii Who is excluded iii How do other people treat each other iv Who is publicly recognized V Who is tiptoed around Whispered about 8 short answers 1 essay with 2 different prompts job satisfactions 14 matching The rest multiple choice
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