BMS 251- Chapter 19
BMS 251- Chapter 19 BMS 251-20
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Claire Neville on Monday January 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BMS 251-20 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Tara Alger in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 98 views. For similar materials see Anatomy & Physiology II in Biomedical Sciences at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 01/25/16
BMS 251 Chapter 19 1 The main components make up the cardio vascular system and main function 2 What term is used to describe the measure of efficiency of blood delivery to body tissues and what is the unit of measure 3 The function of the cardiovascular system arteries veins capillaries heart chambers 4 List the great vessels and which direction the blood flows and which transport oxygenateddeoxygenated blood Label the vessels Copyright McGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Systemic circulation Lung Lung Pulmonary l fi Pulmonary circulation s circulation Basic pattern of blood flow Oxygenated blood Deoxygenated blood Gas exchange D Right side of heart Pulmonary veins Lungs Left side of heart Systemic cells Systemic cells Inferior vena cava Systemic circulation 5 The functions of the two circulation routes of the cardiovascular system 192 6 What cavity of the body is the heart located in What is the space between the lungs where the heart is located is called 7 Which organs and how is it affected by the location of the heart in the chest cavity hint the heart is anterior to this organ What feature of the heart points towards the left lung 8 The three layers of the pericardium and the function 9 What are the features on the surface of the heart Label the features coronary sulcus groove anterior interventricular sulcus posterior interventricular sulcus chambers great vessels auricle Copyright McGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction ori McGraw i Education Permission required for re Descending aorta 10 The three layers of the heart wall Which chambers are thicker contain more cardiac muscle 11 Label the layers of the heart and the tissues they are composed of ill Education Permission required fo H39I Wl M Di I t 3 a 2 2 i i i 3 3 2 Ts 39 3 rs quot 1 3 A 1 u I 11 Mi 39 wl quotWw u N i 7 12 13 List the 2 types heart valves location and function Label the valves in the picture Copyright McGraw Hill Education Permission required for reproduction or display 14 The three features of the heart that work with the AV valves 15 Describe the microscopic features of cardiac muscle Label the features Copyright McGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction or display a Cross section of cardiac muscle cells b lntercellular junctions 16 Describe the metabolism of cardiac muscle 17 The arrangement of fibrous skeleton and direction of wall contractions in the heart 194 18 Describe the coronary circulation for the heart Labels the coronary veins arteries Ii Education Permission required for repro vHill Education Permission required for repi m n a Coronary arteries b Coronary Velns 195 19 The path of a nerve signal through the heart s conduction system Label the conduction system ill Education Permission required for reprodult a Conduction system 20 What part of the brain modifies the hearts rate and contraction force What are the two divisions of the cardiac center What receptors activate change in the cardiac center g 21 What two events that stimulate the heart 22 What is the resting membrane potentials of nodal cells 23 What are the membrane proteins and voltagegated channels of the nodal cells 24 Describe the steps in autorhythmicity spontaneous firing 25 Compare and contrast the action potentials of neurons and nodal cells 26 Describe the electrical events cardiac muscle cells 197 27 Define Electrocardiogram 28 What are the different waves and segments on an EKG and the corresponding parts of the heart Label the waves and segments Copyright MoGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction or display R l a 29 Describe systole and diastole of the cardiac cycle 30 Describe the five events in the cardiac cycle 31 Define cardiac output 32 Describe the two types of chronotropic agents that influence heart rate 33 Describe the three factors that influence stroke volume 1910 34 Describe foramen ovale What is it called if a baby s foramen ovale doesn t close up after birth ANSWERS BMS 251 Chapter 19 35 a The components of the cardiovascular system are the heart arteries veins capillaries valves b The main function is the transport of the blood throughout the body 36 The measure the efficiency of blood delivery to body tissues is perfusions The unit of measure is mLming 37 a arteries most carries oxygenated blood away form the heart b veins most carries deoxygenated blood back to the heart c capillaries the exchange of nutrients between the blood and tissues lungs take pace d left atrium right atrium receives blood from blood vessels and pumps blood into ventricle e left ventricle right ventricle receives blood from atriums and pumps blood out of the heart f valves prevent blood backflow 38 a pulmonary trunk splits into pulmonary arteries transport blood deoxygenated from right ventricle 9 lung b aorta transport blood oxygenated from left ventricle 9 body tissues c superior inferior vena cava body tissues 9 transport blood deoxygenated into right atrium d pulmonary veins lungs 9 transport blood oxygenated into left at Copyright McGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Systemic circulation Pulmona trunk f K Lung 39 Pulmonary circulation I 1 Pulmonary circulation Pulmonary veins Basic pattern of blood ow Oxygenated blood Deoxygenated blood Gas exchange 6 Right side of heart Lungs Left side of heart Inferior vena cava GD Systemic ceus Systemic cells Systemic circulation 39 a Pulmonary Circulation lungs a Right side of heart 9 lungs 9 left side of heart b Carries deoxygenated blood to lungs to exchange carbon dioxide for oxygen b Systemic circulation every where else a Left side of the heart9 systemic cells in the body 9 right side of the heart b Carries oxygenated blood to the rest of the body and exchange oxygen for carbon nutrients and waste amp 40 a The thoracic cavity b The mediastinum 41 a The left lung is affect It only has two lobes instead of three like the right lung b The apex of the heart points toward the left lung 42 Pericardium three layers of fibroserous sac a Fibrous pericardium Outermost i Attaches to diaphragm base of the aorta and pulmonary trunk ii composed of dense irregular connective tissue b Parietal Layer outside Continuous I Attaches to fibrous pericardium layers ii composed of simple squamous epithelium and areolar connective tissue gt separated by c Visceral Layer inside perica rdial i Attaches directly to heart cavity ii composed of simple squamous epithelium and areolar connective tissue 193 10 Copyright McGrawHrquot Education Permissron required for reproduction ordisplay Copyright McGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Ascending aorta Aortic arch Superior vena cava Aortic arch Ligamentum arteriOSum Descending aorta Superior vena cava Left ulmonar arte P Y rY Right pulmonary artery Left pulmonary artery Pulmonary trunk Branches oi right 7 x pulmonary artery Left pulmonary veins Left pulmonary veins Right pulmonary veins Right pulmonary veins Left auricle of left atrium Left coronary artery in coronary sulcus Lequot amum Right auricle Ri ht atrium 9 Circumtlex artery in c0ronary sulcus Coronary sinus in coronary sulcu Right ceronary artery in coronary sulcus Right atrium Anterior interventricular artery Interior vena cava in anterior interventricular sulcus Left ventricle Right coronary artery Right ventricle in coronary sulcus Lott ventricle Right marginal artery Posterior interventricular artery in posterior interventricular sulcus inferior vena cava Right ventricle A Apex of heart Apex of heart Descending aorta 11a Epicardium cushions 1 the outmost layer of the heart 2 simple squamous epithelium areolaradipose connective tissue 3 aka the visceral pericardium b Myocardium contracting 1 middle layer 2 cardiac muscle c Endocardium friction 1 the inner most layer 2 deals with the wear and tear of the blood moving 3 simple squamous epithelium areolar connective tissue d The ventricles are thicker than the atria The left ventricle is thicker then the right because it is responsible for the systemic circulation Copyright McGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Simple squamous Simple squamous epithelium epithelium endothelium Areolar connective tissue and adipose Areolar connective connective tissue tissue Endocardium Myocardium E Epicardium 1 cardiac muscle I visceral layer of 12 b i I serous pericardium 13 Heart valves open allow blood flow closed prevent back flow a Atrioventricular AV valves 1 location between atrium and ventricle 2 function prevent backflow to atria 3 Two types AV valves i Tricuspid valve right AV valve ii Bicuspid mitral valve left AV valve b Semilunar valves 1 location between ventricle and arterial trunk 2 function prevent back flow into ventricles 3 Two types of semilunar valves i Pulmonary semilunar valve right ventricle and pulmonary trunk ii Aortic semilunar valve left ventricle and aorta Copyright McGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Aortic semilunar valve Pulmonary semilunar valve 14 a Trabeculae carneae 1 irregular ridges 2 inside ventricles b Papillary muscles 1 coneshaped projections inside the ventricles c Chordae tendineae tendinous chords 1 thin collagen fibers heart strings 2 attached to the AV valve and the papillary muscle 3 prevents valve from flipping into the atria 15 a 1 2 nuclei b endomysium supported by areolar connective tissue c sarcolemma plasma membrane 1 help with cell connection 2 increases myocardium structural stability d sarcoplasmic reticulum endoplasmic reticulum e myofilaments arranged in sarcomeres f lntercalated discs connected cells 1 desmosomes mechanicallyjoin cells with protein filaments anchor 2 Gap junction electricallyjoin cells allows ion flow functional syncytium Copyright McGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction or display 4 I g quot y 1 gt Openings of I transverse T tubules lntercalated discs lntercalated Desmosomes discs Gap junctions Sarcolemma Endomysium Folded a Cross section of cardiac muscle cells sarcolemma Nucleus b lntercellular lunctlons Mitochondrion 16 a Cardiac muscle mostly relies on aerobic metabolism 1 low oxygengt heart can fail and cell death b High demand for energy extensive blood supply lots of mitochondria c Uses many types of fuel molecules fatty acids glucose lactic acid amino acids ketone bodies 17 a Fibrous skeleton arranged in spiral bundles b Atrial wall contract inward c Ventricle walls contracts like a wringing a mop 194 18 a Coronary circulationdelivers blood to heart walls b Coronary sulcus where the coronary vessels sit in around the heart 1 Coronary arteries oxygenated blood to heart wall 2 Coronary veins deoxygenated blood toward right atrium c Coronary sinus on the posterior surface of the heart large coronary vein in the coronary sulcus Copyright McGrawHili Education Permission required for reproduction or display pyright McGrawHi Education Permission required for reproduction or displa Ascending aorta Z13 Left atrium Left coronary artery Right atrium Circum ex artery Anterior interventricular BranCheS 0f en artery Coronary artery Middle cardiac vein Coronary sinus Right coronary artery 7 Posterior fquot I Branches of right interventricular artery coronary artery Right marginal artery Right ventricle f k N a Coronary arteries b Coronary veins Great cardiac vein Small cardiac vein Left ventricle 195 19 1 Sinoatrial node SA node a pacemaker starts the heartbeat b located high in posterior wall of right atrium 2 Atrioventricular node AV node a can be pacemaker if necessary b bottom of right atrium near AV valve 3 Bundle of His Atrioventricular bundle a extends through interventricular septum b splits left and right 4 Purkinje fibers a spread through the walls of the ventricles Copyright McGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction or display 1 0 Sinoatrial SA node pacemaker I Right atrium Atrioventricular AV node Right and left bundles Atrioventricular AV bundle Purkinje fibers Pu rkinje fibers a Conduction system 20 a Cardiac center Medulla oblongata a barorecptors pressure changes b chemoreceptors chemical changes 1 medulla cardioacceleratory center a controlled by sympathetic innervation b increases heart rate and increases contraction force 2 medulla cardioinhibitory center a controlled by parasympathetic innervation b decreases heart rate g 21 a Conduction system 1 Initiated action potential by the SA node 2 action potential spreads b Cardiac muscle cells 1 action potential 2 contraction atria ventricles 22 a RMP of nodal cells is about 60mV b spontaneous depolarization causes unstable RMP 23 a membrane proteins 1 Na K pumps 2 Ca2 pumps 3 leak channels b voltagegated channels 1 slow voltagegated Na channels 2 fast voltagegated Ca2 channels 3 voltagegated K channels 24 1 Reaching threshold a Naslowly flows in b change in membrane potential 60mV to 40mV 2 Depolarization of action potential a Ca2quickly flows in b change in membrane potential 40mV to just above OmV 3 Repolarization a K flows in b membrane potential goes back to 60mV RMP 25 Nodal cells nodal cells do not Neurons spontaneous 39 Require Stimulation Don t have stable RM P to fire 3930ch pacemaker potential 39 Stable RMP 39 use aCt39On with Na channels Depolarization from POtentlalS open entry of Na Depolarization is from 2 Ca entry 26 1 Depolarization a fast voltagegated Na channels open b 90mV to 30mV 2 Plateau a Slow voltagegated Ca2 channels open voltagegated K channel open b no electrical change 3 Repolarization a Voltagegated Ca2channels closed voltagegated K channel open b 30mV to 90mV g 27 Electrocardiogram ECGEKG a diagnostic tool uses electrodes to detect electrical signals of the heart 28 a P waves 1 atrial depolarization contraction starting in the SA node b QRS complex 1 ventricular depolarization peak contraction 2 atria relaxing simultaneously repolarizing c T waves 1 ventricular repolarization relaxing d PQ segment 1 atrial cells plateau atria are contracting e ST segment 1 ventricular plateau ventricles are contracting Copyright McGrawHili Education Permission required for reproduction or display PQ ST segment segment 0 I I o 3 io 39lt gt39 PR QT interval QRS interval complex a 198 29 a systole contraction depolarization b diastole relaxation repolarization c blood moves down the pressure gradient high to low 30 1 Atrial contraction and ventricle filling a SA node atrial contraction b pumping blood into the ventricles c enddiastolic volume EDV ventricle filled d atria only contract 2 lsovolumetric contraction a purkinje fibers 9 ventricle contraction b pressure rises 9 AV valve closed 9 but semilunar valves still closed 3 Ventricular ejection a Ventricular pressure rises above arterial pressure 9 semilunar valves open b Stroke volume SV amount of blood ejected by ventricle 4 lsovolumetric relaxation a ALL chambers relaxed b ALL valves closed 5 Ventricular relaxation a ventricles relax9 lower pressure b arterial pressure increases 9 AV valve opens w 31 Cardiac Output amount of blood pumped by a single ventricle in one minute a measured liters per minute Lmin b determined by heart rate and stroke volume HR x SV CO C smaller hearts smaller stroke volume faster heart rate d larger hearts bigger stroke volume slower heart rate 32 Chronotropic agents change heart rate based on chemicals a Positive chronotropic agents 1 increase heart rate via sympathetic nerve stimulation 2 hormones i norepinephrine and epinephrine increase firing rate in nodal cells ii thyroid hormone increases Bladrenergic receptors iii caffeine inhibits breakdown of CAMP iv nicotine increase release of norepinephrine v cocaine inhibits reuptake of norepinephrine b Negative chronotropic agents 1 decrease heart rate via parasympathetic nerve stimulation 2 hormones i acetylcholine longer for nodal cells to reach threshold slow heart rate ii betablocker drugs treat blood pressure 33 1 Venous return a volume of blood returning to heart b before the heart beat c FrankStarling law EDV increases greater stretch of heart wall d More stretch more fill time slower heart rate more blood out e less stretch less fill time faster heart rate less blood out 2 lnotropic agents a alter force of contraction Ca2 levels in sarcoplasm i positive agents increase stroke volume increase Ca ii negative agents decrease stroke volume decrease Ca 2 2 3 Afterload a increased resistance increased effort for blood flow b after contraction pressure must be exceeded before blood ejected 34 a Foramen Ovale a a hole in the heart b directs blood from right atrium to left atrium because nonfunctional embryonic lungs b Fossa Ovalis a leftover opening interatrial septum b aka as a heart murmur after child s birth usually the hole will close after birth
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