Biol 207, Chapter 19 Study Guide
Biol 207, Chapter 19 Study Guide Biol 207
Long Beach State
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Breanika Schwenkler on Monday January 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 207 at California State University Long Beach taught by Ms. Robison in Winter 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Human Physiology in Biology at California State University Long Beach.
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Date Created: 01/25/16
Chapter 19 Metabolic Regulation Study Guide Know the unit of measure for the energy value in food 0 Energy value in food is measured as kilocalories C I 1 kilocalorie 1 Calorie 1000 calories Understand how we obtain raw material to synthesize ATP for energy 0 Our food we consume contains carbohydrates fats and proteins that we use to synthesize ATP for energy Know the average calorie requirements for the average male and female 0 Depend on physical activity amp can range from 1300 to 5000 kcalday I Average male 2900 kcalday I Average female 2100 kcalday What is positive and negative energy balance 0 Excess calorie intake regardless of source storage of fat positive energy balance 0 Weight is lost when fewer calories are consumed than needed negative energy balance What is metabolism 0 Metabolism A11 chemical reactions in the body that involve energy transformations 0 Total rate of body metabolism is measured by the amount of heat generated or 02 consumed What factors in ue metabolism 0 In uenced by I Activity I Food consumption I Body temperature What is basal metabolic rate 0 Metabolic rate of an awake relaxed person 1214 hrs after eating and at a comfortable temperature What is it in uenced by O In uenced by age gender body surface area thyroid hormone secretion What is anabolism O Anabolism synthesis reaction 0 ATP is required for anabolic reactions What is turnover rate 0 Turnover rate rate at which a particular molecule is broken down and resynthesized I Protein 150gday I Fat 100gday I Carbohydrates 205 gday What is essential nutrients O few amino acids that cannot be produced by the body and therefore must be obtained in the diet The 6 Essential Nutrients Water 0 Carbohydrates 0 Protein 0 Fat 0 Vitamins Minerals 002 Lea ug Zone Exams List the essential amino acids and fatty acids 0 Nine essential amino acids Lysine Isoleucine Phenylalanine Threonine Valine Methionine Leucine Tryptophan Histidine 0 Two essential fatty acids Linoleic acid an omega6 Linolenic acid an omega3 What are vitamins What vitamins can our body make 0 Vitamins Small organic molecules that serve as coenzymes or perform a specific function 0 The human body can make small amounts of D K and B What are the fat soluble vitamins List the examples we discussed in class and their functions 0 Fatsoluble A D E K Can be stored in the body Vitamin E strong antioxidant helps mitigate in ammatory response Vitamin K needed to make clotting factors Vitamin D needed for calcium absorption tissue differentiation and regulate gene expression Vitamin A involved in embryonic development T cell activity dim light vision and epithelial cell developmentfunction What are he water soluble vitmains List the examples we discussed in class and their functions 0 Watersoluble B s C Cannot be stored in the body I Thiamin B1 needed to convert pyruvate to acetyl CoA I Niacin and ribo avin B2 needed to make FAD and NAD coenzymes that acts as H carriers in cell respiration I Pyridoxine B6 needed for amino acid metabolism I Vitamin C antioxidant inactivates free radicals I What type of is scurvy What is rickets O Scurvy Vitamin C deficiency O Rickets Vitamin D deficiency I What are the functions of minerals O Nonorganic molecules used as cofactors and in a Wide range of processes 0 Functions I Osmotic balance I Cofactors I Membrane potential I Second messengers 0 Which ones are needed in small amounts and Which ones are needed in larger amounts 0 Needed in large amounts sodium potassium magnesium phosphorus calcium and chlorine O Needed in small amounts trace elements iron zinc manganese uorine copper molybdenum chromium and selenium I What are circulating substrates 0 used for cellular respiration circulate in blood I What is their source 0 Ingestion and digestion 0 Energy reserves 1st glycogen and fat 2rld protein 0 What hormones are secreted When concentrations of these are high or low 0 Stimulates release of melanocytestimulating hormone O Inhibits release on neuropeptide Y and Agoutirelated protein 0 What areas of the brain and other organs and tissues help to regulate hunger Know the mechanism for how they regulate hunger O Hypothalmus controls hunger I Endorphins and serotonin play a role in suppressing eating I Norepinephrine plays a role in stimulating eating 0 Neurotransmitters from hypothalamus are in uenced by signals from I Stomach I intestines I Adipose tissue I Pancreas I What is diabetes mellitus O Characterized by chronic high blood glucose 0 Results from inadequate secretion or action of insulin 0 Major cause of kidney failure and limb amputation second leading cause of blindness significant contributor to heart disease and stroke Know the different types symptoms and treatments 0 Diabetes Mellitus Type I Also called insulindependent diabetes or juvenile onset diabetes Beta cells are destroyed autoimmune disease and insulin is not made Treatment are insulin injections and restricted diet 0 Diabetes Mellitus Type II Majority of cases 95 Called insulinindependent diabetes or matureonset diabetes Caused by very low target call sensitivity to insulin also called insulin resistance The tendency to develop type 2 diabetes is inherited but the disease is most likely to occur in obese people who have this tendency Incidence in children is rising due to obesity Treatment is low fat low carb diets with exercise and weight loss What is hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia Know the symptoms and if it is a predisposition for any other condition What is the treatment 0 Hypoglycemia Abnormally low blood glucose levels Can occur from an overdose of insulin causing insulinshock may lead to coma Can occur as an exaggerated response to increased insulin secretion after a carbohydraterich meal These people should limit carbohydrate intake and eat frequent small meals Symptoms tremor hunger weakness blurred vision and mental confusion O Hyperglycemia type 1 diabetes more fatty acids than glucose in the body and it cannot be regulated so you need insulin injections Understand how calcium and phosphate levels are regulated in the body 0 Parathyroid hormone
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