Biol 207, Chapter 20 Study Guide
Biol 207, Chapter 20 Study Guide Biol 207
Long Beach State
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Breanika Schwenkler on Monday January 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 207 at California State University Long Beach taught by Ms. Robison in Winter 2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Human Physiology in Biology at California State University Long Beach.
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Date Created: 01/25/16
Chapter 20 Reproductive System Study Guide What are gametes Where are they produced 0 Germ cells or gametes sperm and ova form in the gonads via meiosis cuts chromosome number in half What are somatic and sex cells 0 Somatic cells All the cells in body With exception of gametes Homologous pairs chromosomes from each mom and dad 0 Sex cells Only one of each homologous chromosome Where does meiosis occur in males and females 0 Males occurs in seminiferous tubules of testes gonads 0 Females occurs in follicles in ovaries No how oocytes and gametes are formed and the steps 0 The cells that want to be gametes for males are called spermatogonia and they are located in the seminiferous tubules These germ cells can undergo either mitosis to create more spermatogonia or they can undergo meiosis and development Sperm production is controlled by hormones Special testosterone producingLeydig cells in the testes are stimulated by hormones signals sent from the brain and pituitary gland such as LH FSH and GnRH O The process of egg production is called oogenesis Oogenesis occurs in the ovaries Which are the female equivalent of the testes Sperm Egg Small fast mobile Large nutritious Gamete size expendable less mobile Development Continuous Arrest stages Number Infinite Often limited Polar bodies No Yes Know about the male and female reproductive organs Where they are located and What their function is 0 Functions of the Male Reproductive System I Produce sperm Transport sperm to female repro Tract Produce sex hormones 0 Male Primary Sex Organ Testes I Accessory Sex Organs 0 Epididymis Site of maturation Sperm recycling center Sperm storage site I Vas deferens ductus deferens Receives sperm from epididymis Transports sperm to ejaculatory duct 0 Ej aculatory duct Transports sperm from ductus deferens to prostatic urethra I Seminal vesicles Contribute composition to semen volume I Cowper s Glands Contribute composition to semen volume 0 Prostate Gland Contribute composition to semen volume I Cremaster Muscle Aids in temperature regulation 0 Scrotum Houses testes Aids in temperature regulation 0 Functions of Female Reproductive system I Produce oocytes Receive sperm Transport gametes Protect nurture and house zygotefetus Produce sex hormones 0 Female Primary Sex Organ Ovaries I Accessory Sex organs 0 Vagina Receives sperm amp Birth canal I Vulva External female genitalia 0 Fallopian Tubes Site of fertilization Transports gametes and zygote I Uterus Implantation site Site of menses Site of fetal development Know about autosomal and sex chromosomes 0 Autosomal chromosomes I Each chromosome has 2 alleles of each gene I An allele is silenced by epigenetic changes in chromatin structure so that only one set of traits is seen I Genomic imprinting epigenetic change that silences the allele from one parent 0 Sex Chromosomes I Females have two X chromosomes amp always passes on an X chromosome I Males have an X and a Y chromosome amp can pass on either an X or a Y chromosome 0 The sex of a child is determined by the contributing sperm I X and Y look different and have different genes X has 1090 genes while Y has only 80 genes 0 The Y chromosome has many testisspecific genes located in palindrome areas I In females one of the two X chromosomes is inactive This produces a visible Barr Body An easy way to visually determine the sex of a cell What is the SRY gene Where is it located and how does it dictate sexual differentiation 0 SRY gene Located on Y chromosome Determines gonad type Male and female embryos dictated after 40 days after fertilization I On Day 40 0 Activation of SRY gene I testesdetermining factor TDFcascade of events result in development of testes I Sertoli amp Leydig cells produce hormones that cause development of make accessory organs and genitalia 0 During 2nd trimester ovaries develop by default if testes don t develop 0 Know about the formation of male and female sex organs and external genitalia 0 Sex Organs I Between days 25 and 50 both male and female embryos have two systems of ducts I Wolffian ducts can become male tract 0 Mullerian ducts can become female tract I In the growing testes the Sertoli cells secrete Mullerianinhibiting factor MIF which causes regression of Mullerian duct I Testosterone from the Leydig cells stimulates the development of the Wolffian duct epididymis ductus deferens seminal vesicle and ejaculatory duct 0 Without this inhibition and stimulation the Mullerian ducts develop into uterine fallopian tubes and a uterus 0 External genitalia I Identical in males and females for first 6 weeks of life I Testosterone masculinizes these into the scrotum prostate gland spongy urethra and penis 0 Without testosterone these become the labia and clitoris Caluyllght 2 McGuiJmHIIH Educatlan Permlssnnn requlred I39clr re produntlon or display 0 Know about the various sexual disorders in sexual differentiation 0 Hermaphroditism Both ovarian and testicular tissue exist in the body due to a problem in zygotic mitosis not every cell receives full Y chromosome Pseudohermaphroditism The individual has ovaries 0r testes but accessory structures are not complete or are inappropriate for the genetic sex Female pseudohermaphroditism may be due to excessive secretion of adrenal androgens in a female congenital adrenal hyperplasia I Has both Mullerian and Wolffian duct derivatives but male external genitalia Male pseudohermaphroditism may be due to testicular feminization syndrome whereby testes make testosterone but testosterone receptorsndon t work I Female external genitalia form but there is no uterus or fallopian tubes because the Mullerian duct still degnerated I There is no male tract either because the Wolffian duct was not stimulated I May also occur because of inability to make the enzyme 5xreductase which converts testosterone into DHT in target cells 0 Know about endocrine regulation and its role in the reproductive system 0 O O Testes stop making testosterone by the 3rd trimester and ovaries don t make embryonic sex hormone Sex hormone secretion does not occur again in either sex until the gonads are stimulated at puberty At this time the anterior pituitary begins releasing gonadotropic hormones Folliclestimulating hormone FSH and luteinizing hormone LH are produced in the antierior pituitary glands of both males and females with three effects I Stimulation of spermatogenesis or oogenesis I Stimulation of gonadal hormone secretion I Maintenance of the structures of the gonads Regulation of FSH amp LH Release of FSH and LH is controlled by the release of gonadotropinreleasing hormone GnRH from the hypothalamus I Regulated by a negativefeedback loop where rising levels of gonadal hormone I Inhibit GnRH release amp Inhibit pituitary response to GnRH I What changes and hormones are secreted at the onset of puberty O O O Depends on activity levels and amount of body fat Leptin secreted by adipose cells is required for the onset of puberty Exercise may inhibit GnRH secretion 0 At what point in life does sperm and secondary oocytes get produced 0 0 00000 Puberty begins with a release of LH pulsatile Due to declining sensitivity of the hypothalamus to negative feedback effects of gonadal hormones Results in increases in testosterone or estradiol17Beta secretion These hormones produce secondary sex characteristics In girls growth spurt breast development menarche first menstrual ow In boys later groeth spurt body muscle penis and testis growth In both sexes body hair is stimulated by androgens from adrenal gland at puberty 0 Know about the various types of cells related to the testes O Spermatogonia Tissue that gives rise to cells that undergo meiosis to produce sperm 0 Sertoli cells Spermatogenesis support cells FSH causes optimal sperm production Provide nourishment Create bloodtestis barrier Preventing antibodies from attacking sperm 0 Leydig Cells Produce testosterone LH stimulates testosterone production Located in interstitial tissue Know about spermatogenesis and oogenesis O Spermatogenesis I Formation of sperm cells I Meiosis Set of events that leads to sperm production Begins in seminiferous tubules O Oogenesis is the creation of an ovum egg cell It is the male equivalent is spermatogenesis It involves the development of the various stages of the immature ovum Know about the ovarian cycle and the various follicles and structures produced 0 Ovarian Cycle I Follicular Phase 113 out of 28 days Follicular growth Primary follicles I secondary follicles I tertiary follicles High estradiol I production of granulosa cells I Ovulation Day 14 Initiated by FSH LH surge begins 24 hours before ovulation Release of 2 oocyte From vesicular follicle Only lmonth I Luteal phase Day 1528 Remaining cells in ruptured vesicular vesicle turn into corpus luteum Progesterone and estrogen production I decreases GnRH Idecreases LH ampFSH Stabilizes and enlarges uterine lining for 1013 days After day 18 if no implantation occurs corpus luteum regresses Icorpus albicans Menses Uterine lining sheds Know about the uterine cycle 0 Menses I Days 15 I Estrogen amp progesterone decrease I Constriction of blood vessels Iloss of excess endometrial cells menses o Proliferative Phase I Days 614 I Estrogen increases I Endometrial lining thickens preparing the body for implantation o Secretory Phase I Days 1628 I Estrogen amp progesterone increases I Endometrial glands enlarge I Blood vessels elongate I Ready to implant if egg present 0 If no fertilization corpus luteum degenerates progesterone level drops menstrual phase begins I What is oral contraception How does it work 0 Oral Contraception I Contain estrogens and progestin I Negative feedback mechanism I Inhibit ovulation by suppressing FSH and LH I Low levels of FSH and LH I Prevent development of dominant follicles in ovary I Resulting in Low estrogen levels No LH SURGE No ovulation OOOO
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