Summary of Readings (inc. Lecture 5 Reading)
Summary of Readings (inc. Lecture 5 Reading) 76884
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachel Onefater on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 76884 at George Washington University taught by Dr. George Howe in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see PSYC4201W in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 01/26/16
Summary of Reading up to Lecture 5 mm Key terms that are noted include chronic stress acute stress homeostasis and stressorsanything that knocks your homeostatic balance The article basically compares ur stressors ashcans with the stress of animals such as zebras with more primitive stressors Some notable points that he makes is one that signing a piece of paper can have a similar meaning for a baboon slashing his enemy if that paper means ring an enemy at work etc We are more stressed out by acute stressors that real stressors Homeostasis is about tinkering with this valve that gizmo and allostasis is about brain coordinating bodywide changes often including charges of behavior NOTE allostasis also includes anticipation of stress gt During stress growth tissue repair is curtailed sexual drive decreases in both sexes females are less likely to ovulate or carry pregnancies to term while males begin to have trouble with erections and secrete less testosterone and immunity is also inhibited Becoming Sick because of stress When people enter the 3rd stage of stress which is exhaustion there is a build up of hormones that are secreted during stress are depleted and you have no defenses left to the threatening stressor gt Chronic or repeated stressor can increase your chances of being sick Williams et al Worrying which is a key feature of general Anxiety DisorderGAD is characterized by verbal linguistic processing as opposed to imagerybased processing Participants There were originally 60 participants but after going through a series of test that including criteria for worriers and those with anxietyand after several people dropped out there were 25 people in the verbal group and 25 people in the imagery group Method Each group when through worry training either through verbal means or imagery means depending on their respective groups and then they rated if they had been worrying in the style which they were assigned or in the opposing style ie verbal or imagery gt participants then went through dotprobe task with 8 domains of worrywe discussed this in further detail in class Conclusion Verbal worriers had a selective attention to threat whereas those who worried with imagery did not gt The two groups did not differ in anxiety or depression after the worry phase or the worry reactivation phases of the experiment New Discoveries from this study found that verbal worrying increases subsequent worrying Howe Causes in change of behavior Change and Contiguity Cause is a result of change that follows change and we see cause when the change are contiguous Mediated Contiguity def the idea that a cause that occurs elsewhere can have an impact if its effects are mediated through a series of other intermediate cause that bridge those gaps The whatif situation is also known as Counterfactual In the counterfactual all other things in the situation must have occurred SO in the example give the seagull the plane the sneeze and John s friend driving by had to be present Plausibilitydef observations and careful reasoning as well as theory and particular findings at that particular time Causation l The factualA is associated with B 2 Temporal priorityA happened before B 3 Counterfactual if A had not changed B would not have changed 4 Plausible ceteris paribusall plausible causes have an equal likelihood of occuring Other factors of cause they may have occurred due to characteristics or essence Ex John smiled because he is an extrovert and not necessarily becuase of his surroundings NOTE A person should look at causation as a contrast between or among our various possible conditions as rather than limiting cause just to the factual Experimental Psychologists use betweensubject and withinsubject designsfurther discussed in Lecture 4 Amir et al Social PhobiaSP is assoc with social and occupational impairment and is often accompanied with other psychiatric conditions This study employs research on cognitive biases in anxiety to form a computerized treatmentintervention program for SP Goal Program was focused on repeatedly removing participants attention from a social threat to a neutral stimuli It was predicted that the Attention Modi cation Program would decrease attention toward the threat and decrease social anxiety and other assoc impairments compared to the Attention Control Condition Group Participants Were either assigned to the Attention Modi cation ProgramAMP22 participants or the Attention Control ConditionACC26 participants and the experiment including a selfassessment a pretest and then a posttest Procedures gt AMP group use the dot probe paradigm that has been used to reduce attention bias toward a threatincluded interpreting faces with emotionneutral or neutralneutral with varying positions ie one face on top of the other gt ACC group was the exact same except the two faces were with equal frequency in position to one another Conclusion AMP group was less socially anxious and functionally impaired than the ACC group New Discoveries from this study Computer programs reduce clinical symptoms for anxiety disorder and may help identify further psychiatric symptoms for anxiety as well as new innovative intervention programs
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