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by: Jessica Cox
Jessica Cox

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About this Document

This is a document that I made throughout the semester. It covers just what was going to be on the test, quizzes or what we would review prior to going on to the next lecture.
Neural Control of Human Movement
Dr. Adam Knight
Study Guide
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"So much better than office hours. Needed something I could understand, and I got it. Will be turning back to StudySoup in the future"
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessica Cox on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EP 4703 at Mississippi State University taught by Dr. Adam Knight in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 123 views. For similar materials see Neural Control of Human Movement in Physiology at Mississippi State University.


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Date Created: 01/26/16
review of lecture 1 & 2 (neural) 08/25/2015 ▯ Reductionism-take something and breaking it down ▯ -learn the small detail to understand the whole system better ▯ -but problems with it is we can miss the big picture because we focus to much on the little details ▯ Complex systems approach- understand the elements to get the big picture ▯ -how do the parts of the system work so that we can move ▯ ▯ diffusion- high to low concentration ▯ convection- high to low but involves pressure ▯ osomosis- low to high solute concentration and deals with water ( solvent ) ▯ electrical potential- due to difference in changes ▯ ▯ ▯ resting membrane potential- -70 , measuring the inside of the cell ▯ -sodium and potassium the two BIG ions that help set up this potential  sodium potassium pump maintains this concentration ▯ action potential- SIGNAL, electrical that travels up and down the axon ▯ ( allows for the rapid transmission of information), regeneration, keeps going to a certain distance with the same strength ▯ 2 factors that influence the speed of the action potential  1. Myelination: faster  2.diameter (size) of the axon  -our fastest neuron what are some of the characteristics it might possess: myelinated and big diameter o biggest and fastest neurons: sensory neurons  1B ( muscle spindle) & 1A ( GTO’s)  alpha motor neurons o smallest: nocioceptors (pain) ▯ ▯ what keeps the action potentials going in the same direction?  Refractory period: the sodium channels are inactivated  Prevents action potentials from backfiring ▯ -Muscle Spindles: detect changes in muscle length and velocity/ speed of lengthening  any time a change in joint angle a muscle group is lengthening ▯ Primary sensory endings( 1A)- length and velocity  Biggest and Fastest ▯ Secondary sensory endings (II)- JUST LENGTH  Slower ½ the speed, longer lasting changes in muscle length ▯ ▯ Dynamic Bag Fibers: Ia ▯ Static Bag Fibers:Ia,II ▯ Chain Fibers:Ia,II ▯ ▯ Gamma Motor Neurons- ▯ Increase the sensitivity of the entrafusal fibers ▯ ▯ Golgi Tendon Organ ▯ Not as complex ▯ Detect muscle force/ tension ▯ What type of sensory ending: Ib sensory ending ▯ No gamma motorneurons ▯ Doesn’t respond to the rate, just the total amount ▯ ▯ - chapters 1-7( ½ of it though ) ▯ - 50 multiple choice ▯ - look over quiz ▯ - look over review questions ▯ ▯ ▯ Starts at the end of lecture 7 ▯ ▯ -Presynaptic Inhibition:  more specific type  doesn’t shut down everything ▯ -goes to the axon terminal rather than the cell body ▯ -reduces the amount of NT released by the 2 nd neuron  just reduce what neurotransmitter from the pre to the post  acts selectively on certain synapses o there is a excitation that acts on the presynaptic membrane o decrease in the amount of NT o excitatory instead of inhibitory o kept right below threshold ▯ -what makes presynaptic inhibition possible?  Causes a reduction in the amount of NT release, less=less effect on post synaptic membrane ▯ ▯ -afferent fibers= ALWAYS excitatory  selectively limit one type of signal  controlling sensory  both pre and post could happen @ same time?? ▯ ▯ Chapter 8- Monosynaptic Reflexes ▯ Reflex- involuntary response to a stimulus  Comes from the brain/spinal cord ▯ Monosynaptic:  One central synapse (in spinal cord)  Phasic ▯ OligosynapticL  A few central synapses 2-3 ▯ Polysynaptic:  Many central synapses (not really sure the #) ▯ ▯ Tonic and Phasic:  Tonic: slow, steady state, maintained  Phasic: fast (knee tap reflex is a type) Reflex Arc Consists of :  Sensory: Receptor  Afferent: Sensory Nerve  Central Processing Unit: Muscle ▯ ▯ Reflex Latency ▯ Components:  Afferent conduction delay  Central Processing delay  Efferent conduction delay ▯ -once receptor is activatedhappens before contraction ▯ -gets to spinal cord ▯ -goes from sensory to motor ▯ -takes about 35 mil sec: monosynaptic ▯ ▯ Monosynaptic Reflexes ▯ -one central synapse ▯ -originate from Ia spindle afferent (biggest, fastest) ▯ -cause a response on the same muscle or in the same muscle area ▯ -muscle spindles: strength/ lengthening  contracts to stop lengthening ▯ H- Reflex ▯ -only happens when a EMG is used ▯ -stimulate Ia afferent ▯ -usually the tibial nerve… in response to the soleus ▯ ▯ -Afferent fibers are the first to react to a slowly increased electrical stimulus ▯ -they cause a muscle contraction (H-reflex) ▯ -later Efferent fibers become excited and cause a more direct muscle contraction ( M- response )  M- response: directly activation MOTOR neurons AP Collision  When a afferent fiber delivers a pre synaptic AP to a alpha motor neuron who just acted on a antidromic efferent AP… unable to create another AP due to the refractory period o ▯ ▯ Merton’s Servo Hypothesis-starts with activation of gamma motor neurons ▯ -why was his hypothesis not true: because it starts with gamma and alpha ▯ ▯  Central commands view-voluntary commands control movement, reflexes are minor o Unloading reaction disproved this ▯  Equilibrium Point Hypothesis- balanced combination of voluntary commands and reflexes o Invariant characteristic (IC) o Lecture 11 Triphasic EMG pattern-  Agonist burst, antagonist burst(reflexive), second agonist burst  At high velocity o Faster agonist burst is going to be bigger o Shorter delay for the antagonist, greater activity  Don’t worry about the load ▯ ▯ Duel Strategy Hypothesis  Two ways to interpret EMG  Interpret EMG signals as voluntary activation-FALSE  EMG reflects voluntary activations and reflexes(equilibrium point hypothesis) ▯ ▯ Pre Programmed Reaction  Similar to a reflex, semi automatic  Higher brain control  Happens between the reflex and the voluntary(50-100ms)  How do they help: voluntary has a better gain but it takes to long o PPR bridges gap between reflex and voluntary correction o Feed Forward- goalie in soccer 12. mixed all together, separate in the periphery 13.feed forward faster more likely to make a mistake, feed back is the opposite takes to long but we can control the gain 14.comparitor- not a actual brain structure, what we want to happen to vs whats going to actually happen  How does it work with feedforward and feedback: ▯ 15.merton- activation of gamma, increase sensitivie of ms- in response to lengthening  problems: o co activation of alpha and gamma o infinite gain- straight lines on the graph ▯ -unloading reflex ▯ length ▯ force ▯ EMG activity ▯ ▯ Single joint movements- more control easier to understand ▯ Parameter and variable  Parameter: what you tell them to do, how heavy etc  Variable: how fast did they move ▯ Triphasic: velocity ▯ Dual strategy about EMG- just said it was voluntary but its both ▯ ▯ Instruction- can make it stronger/ weaker  Any stimuli can trigger ▯ Swing phase- flexor ▯ Stance phase-extensor ▯ ▯ **read question and answer, don’t add more than whats actually there** ▯ ▯ REVIEW CHAPTER 13 ▯ ▯ CEREBRAL CORTEX- ▯ Functions:  executive decision  Interpreting and receiving sensory information  Active during voluntary movement  Planning and initiating movements ▯ ▯ Two types of cells  Stellate & pyramidal cells  Ascending information: Sensory o Cerebellum, spinal cord, basal gangliathalamus cerebrum  Area 4: Primary motor area: active during execution of voluntary movement  Area 6:Premotor area: planning and initiation of movements, more complex o Supplementary motor area: internal motor memory(any movement you’ve done before) o Pre motor cortex: responding to stimuli, visual cues  Descending information: same 3 as ascending, red nucleus, and reticular formation ▯ ▯ Convergence: stimulate different cortical cells, activate similar motor units and produce similar motions ▯ Divergence: stimulate one cortical cell, activate different motor units and produce different motions ▯ ▯


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