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COMM 100 - Final Exam Study Guide

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by: Kaitlin Kenyon

COMM 100 - Final Exam Study Guide COMM 1000- 023

Marketplace > University of Scranton > Liberal Arts > COMM 1000- 023 > COMM 100 Final Exam Study Guide
Kaitlin Kenyon
U of S

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The answers for the review sheet that is given out for the Comm 100 Final Exam.
Public Speaking
Study Guide
public speaking, COMM 100
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaitlin Kenyon on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 1000- 023 at University of Scranton taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 179 views. For similar materials see Public Speaking in Liberal Arts at University of Scranton.

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Date Created: 01/26/16
Public Speaking Final Exam • Immediacy: getting involved; getting out from behind the podium; moving around PSA: Public Speaking Anxiety • - Onset of PSA: • Pre-PreparationAnxiety: knowing that you are giving a speech; speaker delays planning for speech • PreparationAnxiety: anxiety that arises when you begin to prepare for the speech; feel overwhelmed, etc. • Pre-PerformanceAnxiety: anxiety as speaker rehearses for speech • PerformanceAnxiety: anxiety just as the speech begins • Strategies to build confidence: - Prepare & practice - Positive attitude - Visualization: summons feelings and actions consistent with effective performance; close your eyes and visualize a series of positive feelings/actions that will occur on day the of the speech - Reduce “fight or flight” response (increased heart rate, rapid breathing, etc.) by meditating or using stress-control breathing - Use movement • Plagiarism: the passing of another person’s information as one’s own - To avoid plagiarism: any sources that require credit in written form should be acknowledged in oral form (direct quotes, paraphrased material) • To cite correctly: state the author, type of source, date of source, and remember to “qualify” the source by saying a little more about it. - Common knowledge facts don’t have to be cited (ex. George Washington is the first president of the United States) • Hearing: passive; the physiological, largely involuntary process of perceiving sound; one doesn’t process the information being said (anything can be said) • Listening: active; paying attention & assessing what you hear • Active Listening: listening that is focused and purposeful; observe, offer constructive criticism, etc. • Analyzing the audience: - Audience psychology: seeking out the audience’s outlook and motivations and letting this information guide you in constructing your speech. - Audience demographics: the statistical characteristics of a given population (age, ethnic/ cultural background, socioeconomic status, religious/political affiliations, gender, group affiliations, disability) • Learning about your audience: - Interview audience members - Survey the audience (closed and open-ended questions) - Consult published sources to learn about different groups, organizations, etc. • Analyzing the speech situation: consider the area you are presenting (how room is set up); formal/informal; visualize how you’re going to present your speech • 3 General Purposes: to inform, to persuade, to mark a special occasion • Specific Purpose: lays out precisely what you want the audience to get from the speech Thesis Statement: the theme of the speech stated as a single declarative sentence that concisely • expresses what the speech will attempt to support from the speaker’s point of view • Specific speech purpose describes in action form what outcome you want to achieve with your speech (preview statement); thesis statement precisely declares, in a single idea, what the speech is about (declarative statement) • Resources: - Library Portal: electronic entry point into library’s holdings - Internet - Interviews, surveys, etc. • Primary Sources: own personal experience; first hand account found in letters, diaries, old newspapers, photographs, etc; surveys you conduct yourself • Secondary Sources: books, newspapers, periodicals, blogs, new sites, government publications, encyclopedias, almanacs, biographical reference works, quote books, poetry collections, atlases • Specialized Search Engine: search only for specific types of web content, letting you conduct narrower but deep searches into a particular field (ex. Google Scholar) • General Search Engine: automatically search Web pages across topics, use software robots to scan billions of documents that contain the keywords and phrases you command them to search (ex. Google, Bing, Yahoo!, Go Duck Go, etc.) • Evaluating Web Resources: - Check most authoritative/official websites first (.gov, .org, .edu) - Evaluate authorship & sponsorship - Check for currency (don’t use really old/out dated resources) - Check that the site credits trustworthy sources • Supporting Material: relevant, motivating & audience-centered; examples, narratives, testimony, facts, & statistics Patterns of Organization: • - Chronological: follows natural, sequential order of main points - Spatial: main points arranged in order of their physical proximity or direction relative to each other; used when describing a physical arrangement of a place, scene, or an object. - Cause-Effect: represent cause-effect relationships - Problem-Solution: organizes main points to demonstrate the nature/significance of a problem and to provide justification for a proposed solution - Topical: used when each of the main points is a subtopic or category of the speech topic; give the greatest freedom to structure main points according to the way you wish to present your topic - Narrative: speech consists of a story or a series of short stories, replete with characters, settings, plot, and vivid imagery ** Sub-points do not need to follow the pattern you choose for your main points • Signposts: “first” “second” “third” etc. (single word transitions) • Transitions: move from topic to topic, linking points together • Introduction should include: - Attention grabber (quote, story, fact, rhetorical question, humor, refer to audience, refer to occasion) - Preview the purpose/topic - Establish speaker credibility - Preview main points • Conclusion should include: - Signal to the audience that the speech is coming to an end - Summarization of key points - Reiteration of thesis/central idea of the speech - Challenge audience to respond (call to action) - Memorable ending (quote, story, rhetorical question, bringing speech in full circle) • Effective extemporaneous delivery: - Extemporaneous delivery: prepare and practice a speech, but you do not memorize it - Natural movement, show enthusiasm, project confidence, eye contact, be direct, animate facial expressions, avoid “talking head” who remains positioned behind a podium, good posture, appropriate dress • Aristotle’s forms of rhetorical proof: - Logos: logic/reasoning - Pathos: emotions - Ethos: speaker character ** Can’have pathos alone; must be paired with wither logos or ethos • Unit of Argument: - Claim: to declare a state of affairs (answer the question, “what are you trying to prove?”) - Evidence: supporting material that provides grounds for belief - Warrant: a line of reasoning that allows audience members to evaluate whether in fact evidence supports the claim (combines claim & evidence) • Claims of Fact: focus on whether something is or isn't true or whether something will/will not happen • Claims of Value: address issues of judgement (try to show that something is right/wrong or good/bad, etc) • Claims of Policy: recommend that a specific course of action be taken/approved • Presentation aids: - Props/models - Pictures - Graphs/charts - Audio/video/multimedia • Designing presentation aids: - Assign each point a separate slide - Word slides in active voice - Avoid clutter (be simple) - Maintain consistency - Select appropriate styles/fonts - Use color carefully • 6 x 6 Rule: no more that 6 lines to a slide and 6 words to a line Using presentation software: • - Don’t hide behind visual aid/focus on slides rather than the audience - Avoid technical glitches • Types of Special Occasion Speeches: - Introduction: a shot speech with 2 goals - to prepare/“warm-up” the audience for the speaker; to motivate audience members to listen to what the main speaker has to say - Acceptance: made in response to receiving an award of some sort; express gratitude for the honor bestowed on the speaker - Presentation: speaker is presenting an award to someone; communicate the meaning of the award/explain why the recipient is receiving it - Roast: a humorous tribute to a person; series of speakers jokingly poke fun at him or her - Toast: a brief tribute to a person or an event being celebrated - Eulogy: celebrates/commemorates the life of someone who has passed, while consoling those who have been left behind - After-Dinner: takes place around the time of a meal; light-hearted and entertaining - Inspiration: seeks to uplift the members of the audience and to help them see things in a positive light


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