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PSYCH 110 Ch. 1 Notes/Study Guide

by: Kaitlin Kenyon

PSYCH 110 Ch. 1 Notes/Study Guide PSYC 1010

Marketplace > University of Scranton > Psychlogy > PSYC 1010 > PSYCH 110 Ch 1 Notes Study Guide
Kaitlin Kenyon
U of S

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About this Document

Notes for the whole chapter; covers what is on exams. Materials from Professor Buchanan's class, but helpful to all Intro to Psych students.
Introductory Psychology
Study Guide
Psychology, Intro to Psychology, Intro to psych, psych 110
50 ?




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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaitlin Kenyon on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1010 at University of Scranton taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Scranton.


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Date Created: 01/26/16
Chapter 1 Review - The Science of Psychology The Field of Psychology • Psychology - the scientific study of mental processes and behavior • The field of psychology is a scientific discipline because of methodology (carefully controlled) - behavioral science. It’s a profession because people apply knowledge to real life situations. • Four goals of psychology: 1. Describe behavior and mental processes 2. Explain - base explanations on theoretical idea/hypothesis 3. Predict outcome 4. Control behavior for positive reasons Nominal fallacy - the idea that if you name something, you’ve explained why it occurs (just • naming something doesn’t actually explain it) • Idiographic prediction - predicting individuals; Nomothetic prediction - predicting groups - Psychologists best at predicting actions of groups, so most psychology research is based on group predictions - Individuals have a lot of factors • Agood theory must be able to: 1. Explain 2. Predict • Basic psychological research - research to find out what happens • Applied psychological research - take findings from basic science to achieve a goal • The most common psychological specialty: Clinical History and Schools of Psychology • Wilhelm Wundt - “World’s first psychologist” - Structuralism - sought to identify the components of the conscious mind: feelings and sensations • William James - explained perception and learning in terms of functionalism: - Relationship of consciousness and behavior - How learning, memory and perception were adaptive - Suggested the idea of a stream of consciousness - Came up with cognitive concepts used today • Sigmund Freud - Psychoanalysis - theory that all human behavior is determined by hidden/ unconscious motives and desires that are sexual in nature - Focused on unconscious mental processes - Humans are in constant conflict between the animalistic nature of drives of sex and aggression and having to function in social systems • Behaviorism - observable behavior rather than hidden psychological processes - J.B. Watson - believed that mental activities cannot be studied since they are private; suggested that psychologists should observe and respond to behavior • Gestalt Psychology - Gestalt view of how the mind works: mind actively integrates elements into whole perceptions • • context impacts perception • problem solving requires insight to rearrange elements into new whole to solve a problem Modern Perspective • Neuroscience Perspective - attempts to understand behavior and mental processes by examining the nervous system • Evolutionary Perspective - belief that behavior is at least partly influenced by the effects of evolution (based of writings of Charles Darwin - competition, variation, natural selection, etc.) • Cognitive Perspective - attempts to understand behavior by studying how the mind organizes perceptions, processes info, and interprets experiences • Humanistic-Existential Perspective focuses on: - Need for self actualization - Conscious self-awareness - Choice in decision making - Phenomenological approach - you know the most about yourself • Psychodynamic Perspective - Identification: children identify with their parents (moral values/gender roles, etc.) - Cognitive distortions: self-defense mechanisms - “Neo-Freudians” made modifications to Freud’s theory (Freud says sex & aggression drive everything; Neo-freudians focus more on social conflicts as driving force) • Behaviorist Perspective - Skinner - focused on effects of experience, past learning histories, and role of environment in shaping behavior. - Bandura - learning by observing/copying other behaviors Socio-cultural Perspective - focuses on the effects of gender, ethnicity, culture, and socio- • economic status on behavior/mental processes - How does one’s culture impact how they function? Research Methods - Descriptive/Non Explanatory Methods Descriptive methods don’t allow for explanations because: • - they are “post hoc” - after the fact - they have no control over extraneous variables Descriptive procedures don’t allow for explaining, only describing • Naturalistic Observation - a method that investigates behavior in its natural environment - Must be done unobtrusively because you don’t want the person to know you’re observing them (so that they act naturally) - Has ecological validity - what you see can be observed again in the real world because you’re observing natural behavior • Correlational Research - assesses the nature of the relationship between two or more variables that are not controlled by the researcher - Positive Correlation - direct; as one increases, the other increases, and vice-versa - Negative Correlation - inverse; as one increases, the other decreases - The range of correlations: -1.0 to +1.0 - Strength of a correlation is indicated by how close it is to a straight line on a scatterplot - Can’t infer causation from correlations (even though two things are correlated, doesn’t mean they cause one another), but you can use them to make predictions (allows psychologists to predict a change in one variable by knowing the value of another variable) • Clinical Interview - sit down and ask a person questions about themselves - LinguisticAbility can be an issue because if a person does not speak clearly, it could hinder the interview process. - An interviewer can bias responses by hinting at what they believe the correct answer to be, thus influencing the response of the person being interviewed, who is seeking the approval of the interviewer • Case Study - intensely looks at an individual; provides an extensive description of the person’s background/condition, treatments, and outcomes. - Generalization is an issue because a psychologist must be careful to not use one single case to generalize/make an assumption about an entire population. • Survey - a structured set of questions or statements given to a group of people to measure their attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavioral tendencies - Must use a random sample that is an accurate representation of an entire population, therefore, everyone in population has an equal chance of being chosen. • Psychological Tests • Brain Imaging - uses computers to generate images of the brain without invading it - CAT and MRI scans are used to detect brain abnormalities - Pet and fMRI scans are used to measure blood flow in the brain (tells you which parts are being activated for cognitive activity) Experimental - Explanatory Method • Experiments can be used to establish causal relationships because: - Predictions are made a priori (before the fact) - aka a hypothesis - Random assignment allows for control over extraneous variables • Independent Variable - the variable that is manipulated • Dependent Variable - the variable that is constant; depends on changes to the independent variable • Experiment is performed on the experimental group; control groups are used as a baseline/ reference - not manipulated in any way • Operational Definition - how you manipulate the independent variable • Concern over ecological validity: issue with taking someone into the lab to observe them, rather than a natural environment, is they may act differently in a lab where they know they’re being observed/it’s not familiar • Confounding Variables - variables that are manipulated at the same time as the independent variable (must avoid this - make sure only independent variable is manipulated to avoid confusion on what is causing change to independent variable) - Need random assignment - other variables would be randomly distributed - Subject expectations: Demand characteristics - something about the study suggests how people should act • • Single Blind - don’t want subject to know hypothesis/which treatment group they’re in. • Placebo Control - give one group a fake drug; helps determine whether the drug actually works, or if people just expect it to work - Experimenter expectations: • E-bias - experimenters subconsciously bias their experiment/results; solution = double blind - person who’s collecting data doesn’t know the treatment level of the subject (so they can’t have an expectation on how they should be acting, and can give raw and honest observations)


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