BMS 208: Study guide for Exam 1
BMS 208: Study guide for Exam 1 BMS 208
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aldina Softic on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BMS 208 at Grand Valley State University taught by Jolanta Lanier in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 143 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy in Biomedical Sciences at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 01/26/16
BMS 208: Exam 1 Study Guide Terms: Anatomy: the study of structure Anterior: front Posterior: back Superior: above Inferior: below Lateral: side Medial: middle Proximal: closer to trunk Distal: farther away from trunk Superficial: on surface Deep: below surface Histology: scientific study of tissue Simple Cell: one layer Stratified Cell: more than one layer Avascular: no vessels in between tissue cells Transverse Plane: horizontal (Superior & Inferior) Sagittal Plane: median (Left & Right) Frontal Plane: Coronal (Anterior & Posterior) The 2 main body cavities = Dorsal (posterior) & Ventral (anterior) Dorsal contains cranial cavity and vertebral cavity Ventral contains thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity Divisions of abdominopelvic cavity: Left & right superior Left & right inferior Umbilical region (around naval) Epigastric Hypogastric Left & right hypochondriac Left & right iliac region Left & right lumbar region Fetus Development: Week 1-2: cleavage (division) Week 2-4: gastrulation Week 4-9: embryo Week 9-9 months: fetus During gastrulation 3 layers form: Ectoderm: nervous system, skin… Mesoderm: muscle, connective tissue… Endoderm: digestive system, lungs… 4 tissue types: Epithelial Connective Muscular Nervous Epithelial Tissue: Protect and cover Absorb Secrete Squamos Cells: flat Cubiodal Cells: cube Columnar Cell: tall Types of epithelial tissue and their location: Simple squamous: lungs Simple cuboidal: kidney tubules Simple columnar: digestive system Stratified squamous: epidermis Pseudostratified ciliated columnar: nasal cavity Transitional: urinary bladder Glandular epithelial tissue: Exocrine glands: release secretion through ducts (sweat glands) o Duct region: can be simple (no branching) or compound (branching) o Secretory region: can be tubular (long) or acinar (rounded) Endocrine glands: release secretion directly into blood stream (hormone glands) Connective tissue: Supporting tissue: hard o Hyaline cartilage: ends of bones o Fibrocartilage: can withstand pressure o Elastic cartilage: change shape o Bone tissue Proper tissue: stretchy o Loose o Dense Regular (fibers are parallel) Irregular (fibers are random) o Elastic o Adipose (fat) Fluid tissue: fluid Bone tissue functions: Rigid support Protection Aid in movement Blood cell formation in the red marrow Storage for chemicals Osteocytes: maintainers in the bone cell Osteoblasts: make new bone Osteoclasts: get rid of damaged bone - The make-up of the bone matrix is 1/3 organic material and 2/3 inorganic material. - Organic: fibers, makes bones bendable and flexible - Inorganic: minerals and salts, makes bones harder & more breakable Types of bone tissue: - Compact: parallel and tight - Spongy: spaces in between the cells Muscle Tissue: - Skeletal muscle: connected to bone, striated, voluntary control - Cardiac muscle: found only in heart, striated, involuntary control - Smooth muscle: walls of organs and blood vessels, non-striated, involuntary control In cardiac muscle there are intercalated discs which are pathways for ions. Nervous Tissue: Locations: central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and peripheral system (peripheral nerves) Neuron: structural and functional unit of nervous system o Conducts impulses o Parts of neuron are cell body, axon and dendrites Glial cells: “nerve glue” o support the neuron The Integumentary System: Skin: epidermis, dermis, hypodermis Accessory structures: hair, nails, glands Functions of skins: Protection Excretion Thermal regulation Storage of nutrients Synthesis of vitamin d Perception of environment Layers of epidermis (bottom to top) Stratum Basale Stratum Spinosum Stratum Granulosum Stratum Lucidum (only in thick skin such as palms and soles of feet) Stratum Corneum (top dead cells) Desquamation: shedding of superficial layer Melanocytes: produce melanin (pigment) Layers of dermis Papillary: loose connective tissue Reticular: dense connective tissue Accessory Structures: Hair Glands Nails Glands: In dermis Exocrine glands (sweat) Sebaceous glands (oil in hair follicles) Merocrine glands: (highest concentration of glands in the body) Apocrine glands: (armpits, groin) Hair: In epidermis Access to blood vessels and nerve tissue
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