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Oceans Midterm study guide

by: AlexandraRita Notetaker

Oceans Midterm study guide GEL 016

Marketplace > University of California - Davis > Geology > GEL 016 > Oceans Midterm study guide
AlexandraRita Notetaker
GPA 4.2

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About this Document

This is the study guide for the first Midterm.
Dr. Hill
Study Guide
Science, Life Science, oceans, marine biology, Biology, Geology
50 ?




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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by AlexandraRita Notetaker on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEL 016 at University of California - Davis taught by Dr. Hill in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 82 views. For similar materials see Oceans in Geology at University of California - Davis.


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Date Created: 01/26/16
Thursday, January 28, y The Oceans­ Ch.1,2,3,4   The last time I was at the ocean I remember the sand being super sharp and thicker than I was  used to. It was very windy an the water was incredibly cold. But there was no sea weed so the  water was very blue and the waves were mild.  Because the beach is connected to a cliff it was most likely a new beach caused by erosion  from the waves hitting the cliff which is why the sand is sharper and thicker than a beach that  has had a lot longer time to erode.  ­Cartographers ­ chart makers, recorded info about location, landmarks and currents ­Latitude­ measures distance from equator; lines are parallel to the equator ­Longitude: distance from “prime meridian” because of the contributions made to  navigation by British explorers. ­Polynesian Colonization: knowledge of oceans and marine science used to colonize a  vast number or islands.  Age of Discovery ­Henry the Navigator­ Explorers under his patronage compiled detailed charts and  explored the west coast of Africa.  ­Christopher Columbus­ Even though he never saw the mainland of North America, his  stories inspired others ­Magellan Exploration­ The first voyage around the world.  ­James cook­ three vogaes exploring the pacific ­HMS Beagle­ CHarles Darwin served as a naturalist, voyaged to South America and  some pacific islands.  ­US exploring expedition­ launched in 1838 was a naval and scientific exploration.  ­HMS challenger expedition of 1872­1876 was the first oceanic expedition dedicated to  scientific research.  ­Both Challenger and Modern oceanography measure the depth of the bay floor, surface temperatures, distribution of marine life, bottom of sampling of sediments.  1 Thursday, January 28, y ­Echo Sounding­ used to determine water depth (High frequency sound is emitted from  a ship and travels through the water, the sound waves are reflected off the seafloor.(This  creates a map) Depth (d)= Velocity (V), Time (T)  The velocity of sound in water is 1460 m/sec.  Time * Velocity = Depth What is water depth in meters if: T=4=5540 T=1=1460 T=6=8760 Question­ In what ways has the oceanography contributed to the development and acceptance  of the theory of plate tectonics? Midterm Review ­Sonar…Echo Sounding ­History of OCE      ­Voyaging      ­Challenger vs Today  Maps The origin of Earth ­The big Bang: the beginning of the universe, probably about 13 billion years ago. ­The stars and planets that form our solar system formed approximately 5 billion years ago.  How did the earth become density stratified? 2 Thursday, January 28, y ­Young earth was probably a homogenous mass ­heat caused the earth to partially melt  ­gravity then pulled the iron present into the center of earth ­lighter minerals migrated to earths surface and formed the crust.  ­more dense material sinks to the core ­lighter material travels up How did water and water vapor form on early Earth? ­the sun stripped away earths first atmosphere ­gases released by the process of outgassing became the first atmosphere ­ water vapor in the atmosphere condensed into clouds ­after millions of years, the clouds cooled enough for the water droplets to form ­hot rain fell and boiled back into clouds ­eventually the surfaced cooled enough for water to collect in basins.   First evidence of life on earth ­Stromatolites (can be found in Shark beach australia) 3 Thursday, January 28, y                    Oceanic crust                                        Continental  crust Supercontinent Pangea ­Alfred Wegener (1912) proposed that the continents drifted across the earth ­ continents fit together ­ similiar fossils found on S america and Africa ­ Gracial erosian in S Africa, INdia, and Australia  Continental Drift ­Earthquakes occur in orderly patterns ­Dating of ocean sediments indicated the oldest sediments (far west pacific) were less than 200  million years old.  ­The presence of mountain ranges that ran through the center of the ocean ­Magnetic readings over the mid atlantic ridge indicating alternating “stripes” of magnetism ­magnetic pole reverses every once in a while  (which records a history of lava being formed at  mid ocean ridges)  Plate Techtonics ­The earths crust is made of several major lithospheric plates floating on the asthenosphere  (earthquakes denote the plate boundaries) ­New ocean crust is created at mid ocean ridges ­ old ocean crust is subjected in to deep trenches, hence the ages >200 million years old ­ This process is driven by the heat in the asthenosphere Review Topics for Midterm ­Theory of Plate tectonics ­layers of earth      ­composition      ­Properties Faults ­Transform Fault: plates slip past each other  ­convergent: plates pushing together Oceanic crust toward continental crust (west coast of south america ­Oceanic crust toward oceanic crust (western pacific) ­Continental crust toward continental crust (himalayas) Oceanic crust is thinner and denser than continental crust  Oceanic crust that is older (denser) will subduct under the newer more buoyant crust. 4 Thursday, January 28, y Trenches are depressions in the ocean floor caused by the subduction of a converging ocean  plate Continental crust is very buoyant and both plates get pushed upward (mountains)  Oceanic Crust                        Continental Crust Basalt                                       Granite More dense                              Less dense Thinner                                     Thicker  Forms ocean basins                 Forms continents Sub ducted at trenches              Preserved at plate convergence 200 million years old                 3.5 billion years old Divergent Plate Boundary: where new sea floor is created and plates are pulling apart Hot spots form where magma is rising in weak spots in the mantle Oceanography contributed to the discovery of plate tectonics by age of sediments, trenches,  magnetic stripes on the sea floor, patterns of earthquakes,  Review Topics for midterm  ­Types of Plate boundaries ­comparing oceaniv vs continental crust ­Hot spots 950km               65 million 95,000,000        65,000,000       =1.46 The wilson cycle ­This cycle of opening and closing ocean basins is theOcean floor ­Continental Margins: submerged outer edge of a continent ­ocean basin: the deep seafloor beyond the continental margin ­Continental shelves: the shallow, submerged edge of the continent ­Shelf break: the abrupt transition from continental shelf to the continental slope ­continental rise: accumulated sediment found at the base of the continental slop Continental slope: the transition between the continental shelf and the deep ocean floor shelf                              Break                                                                                                 rise                             deep ocean                                                                                                                                                          slope          5 Thursday, January 28, y Active vs Passive Margin ­Passive are margins that are not characterized by plate boundaries. No subduction zones  earthquakes etc(atlantic margin) ­Active are measured by tectonics (earthquakes subduction zones etc.) ­Continental margins: submarine canyons are a feature of some continental margins.  ­Turbidity current: avalanche­like movements of sediment ­Abyssal Fans: found at the base of submarine canyons. ­Hydrothermal vents: sites where superheated water containing dissolved minerals and gases  escapes through fissures or vents.  ­Abyssal Plains: flat areas of sediment­covered ocean floor found between the continental  margins and oceanic ridges                                                Shelf                                       Break                                                                                                                                                               Slope                            Abyssal Plain                               MOR    Sediments are the memory of the ocean ­They are deposited at the ocean bottom, but they represent what was happening in the water  column.  What kinds of material do you think you would find on the sea floor?  ­You could find minerals, fossils, organisms,  Sediments ­Sediments can be delivered from land: Terrigenous (Terra Means earth) ­Erosion of mountain ranges and continents create sediment ­Glaciers scour land: this produces a source of terrigenous sediment called: ice rafted debris. ­Volcanic eruptions leave ash deposits on the seafloor ­Sediments can also come from biological processes in the ocean: BIOGENIC (Shells from  living things)  ­Most common sediment shells 1. Calcium Carbonate 6 Thursday, January 28, y 2. Silica ­Hydrogenous: sediments that precipitate chemically.     ­Manganese nodules cover the deep seafloor of the pacific    ­Manganese fluid from a hydrothermal vent ­Cosmogenic: Microtektites from marine sediment that are composed from asteroids and other  space stuff ­The four main types of Sediments are: 1 Terrigenous 3. Biogenic 4. Hydrogenous 5. Cosmogenic Midterm Review  Wilson Cycle Ocean Floor Types of Sediments Sediments of deep ocean Basins: Oozes ­Ooze is classified by the type of life form from which it is derived  ­Calcareous/ Carbonate Ooze: formed by organisms which contain calcium carbonate in their  shells or skeletons ­Siliceous ooze: pelagic sediment that covers large areas of the deep ocean floor. Radiolarian­Foraminifera Ooze Red Clays ­Red Clays are found over much of the ocean floor, where oozes are absent  ­Clays are derived from continental material that has slowly deposited in the deep sea  (terrigenous) Calcium Carbonate dissolves in the deeper parts of the ocean                Lysocline                      Net accumulation     Calcium Carb.               Net dissolution If the CCD becomes shallower sediments will be restricted to depths farther up the flanks of  ocean ridges and sea mounts 7 Thursday, January 28, y Water in the Ocean  ­A water molecule is composed of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. Water is a Polar Molecule, having a positive and negative side. ­Behaves like a magnet ­Considered a “universal solvent”  Important properties of water molecules ­Cohesion: the ability of water molecules to stick to each other, creating surface tension ­Adhesion: the tendency of water molecules to stick to other substances ­Surface Tension­the “elastic” property of the surface of water.  Water and heat ­Heat Capacity­ is a measure of the heat required to raise the temp of 1g of a substance by 1C ­Water has a very high heat capacity, which means it requires a lot of heat to change  temperature.  ­Physical state: only substance on earths surface in all three phases ­Heat capacity: highest of all common solid and liquids Latent heat ­Fusion­ highest of all common liquids ­Vaporization: highest of all common substances ­Boiling point­ unusually high Why does ice float in water? Density = mass per unit volume of a substance Midterm Review  Water Molecule  Types of Sediments (Distribution) Lysocline, CCD Ocean Density Density (mass per unit volume) is determined by Temperature, Salinity, Pressure Salinity  Salinity is the total quantity of dissolved inorganic solids in water (Sodium and chlorine) Salt is a conservative constituent of seawater  Conservative constituents: occur in constant proportions  NonConservative constituents: change with seasonal biological or short geological cycles 8 Thursday, January 28, y                    Temperature/salinity 2000m Sources of salt to the ocean ­Rivers and groundwater  ­Volcanic activity  ­hydrothermal vents ­organisms (shells)  Is the ocean getting saltier? No the ocean is in chemical equilibrium.  Sinks of salt Water interacting with rocks at MOR, sea spray, organisms (shells), storage in sediments Pycnocline Density…..Thermocline: Temperature…..Halocline: Salinity  Salt in the ocean is mostly average except spikes in the 30 degree south and north (super salty) Light in the Ocean Only blue light penetrates deep into the ocean )it is transmitted farther than other wave lengths  of light 300m) Photic Zone ­ The thin later of water at the surface that is lit by sunlight. Can be up to 600m in  tropics. Typically top 100m, All photosynthesis by marine plants is restricted to this region  Two examples of how animals have adapted to the dark below the photic zone  1. Some fish are able to control light in order to be “invisible” 2. Enormous eyes can tell the difference between emitted light 3. Thin bodys sensitive to movement 4. Bio luminescence  Midterm Review Salinity  9 Thursday, January 28, y Temperature Light in the ocean (Photic Zone)  Unique Properties: H2O Density 10


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