Exam1 Review & terms
Exam1 Review & terms ENV1003
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jiwon Kim on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ENV1003 at Baruch College of the City University of New York taught by Chester Zarnoch in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Intro to Environmental Science in Environmental Science at Baruch College of the City University of New York.
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Date Created: 01/26/16
Definition of ecology (1.11.2) Ecology is a science Scientific study of the relationship between organisms and their environment Scope of ecology and How ecology is important for human endeavors (1.71.8) Subdisciplines of ecology (1.31.4) From physiological ecology, which focuses on the functioning of individual organisms, to perspective Earth’s environment as an integrated system forming the basis of global ecology. Levels of ecological organization (1.3) Individuals Population Community Landscape Biomes Biosphere Biotic vs abiotic (1.2) Biotic(Living) Organism Plants, animals, microbes Abiotic(NonLiving; Physical, Chemical) Component of the forest consists of the Atmosphere, climates, soil, water Climate – global influences? (2.12.2) Solar radiation (2.12.2) o Wavelength, PAR, photons Wavelength PAR Photons Seasonal changes (2.12.2) The Amount of solar radiation intercepted by Earth varies markedly with latitude(위위). Atmospheric Circulation (2.32.4) Climatograph – interpretation Predict the Temp / Precipitation El Nino (2.9) Irregular variation in the trade winds give rise of periods of unusually warm waters off the coast of western South America Upwelling decrease during El Nino (cooler water) Macroclimate vs. Microclimate (2.10) Microclimate The Actual climatic conditions that organisms live in vary considerably within one climate Small scale weather variation, usually measured over shorter time period Macroclimate the general climate of a large area, as of a continent or country. Large scale weather variation Aquatic Ecosystems – Categories/characteristics o Turnover in temperate lakes (3.4) Thermocline(Summer / Winter(?)) The region of the vertical depth profile where the temperature declines most rapidly Turnover (Spring / Fall) As the difference between the epilimnion and hypolimnion continues to decrease, wind stir the water; and mixed. o Freshwater – Rivers/Stream Head water – Tend to be narrow, swift, clear, cold, nutrient poor, and highly oxygenated (Cooler water contains more oxygen) Meanders – Tend to be wide, slow, cloudy, warm, nutrient rich, and less oxygenated o Estuaries (3.10) The place where freshwater mixes with salrwater Temp in estuaries fluctuate considerably both daily ans seadonally. Influences the salinity(위위) of the estuarine environment. o Marine (3.9) Tide Rising and falling tides shape the environment and influence the rhythm of life coastal intertidal zones. Resulted from the gravitational pulls of the Sun and the Moon Hydrologic cycle (3.1) The process by which water travels in a sequence from the air to earth and returns to the atmosphere Terrestrial Ecosystems – Categories/characteristics o Soil characteristics/horizons (4.7) O horizon(Organic Layer) – dominated by organic material, consisting of undecomposed or partially decomposed plant materials such as dead leaves(leaves, needles, twig, mosses) A horizon(Topsoil) – Largely mineral soil developed from parent material; organic matter leached from Ohorizon gives this horizon a distinctive dark color B horizon(Subsoil) – Accumulation of mineral particles, such as clay and salts leached from topsoil, making it more difficult for planet to extend their roots C horizon – unconsolidated material that lies under the subsoil and is generally made of original material from which the soil develop. Darwin (5.05.1) Study mechanism to explain how the diversity of organisms inhabiting out world have acquired the features seemingly designed to enable them to survive and reproduce Adaptation Various population evolved from ancestral form. Some individuals would have a competitive advantage conferred by favorable characteristics Theory of Natural Selection (5.1) Differential success of individuals within the population that results from their interaction with their environment. (simple elimination of “inferior” individuals.) Two conditions 1) Variation occurs among individuals within a population in some “heritable” characteristic 2) This variation results in differences among individuals in their survival and reproduction ad a result of their interaction with the environment. Organisms produce offspring similar to themselves Chance variation between individuals (some are heritable) More offspring are produced each generation than can survive Some individuals, because of physical or behavioral traits, have a higher chance of surviving than others in the same population Mendel & Basics of inheritance (5.25.3) Discovered Characteristics pass from parent to offspring in form of discrete packages called genes. o Dominant, recessive Genotype – pair of alleles Phenotype – expression of genotype (purple/ white …) Dominant – one allele masks the expression of the other (T) Recessive – the other allele that is masked (t) o Homozygous, heterozygous Homozygous – If the two copies of the gene are the same Heterozygous – two alleles are the locus are different o Allele The alternate form of gene o Chromosome Genes are arranged in linear order along microscopic, threadlike bodies called Chromosome o Gene A stretch of DNA coding for a functional product. o Punnett square Dominant = yy Y Y Incomplete dominant Environmental and genetic variations (5.45.5) Genetic Variation Potential for change in genetic structure Adaptation to environment change (conservation/Global warming) Divergence of population (biodiversity) Basic idea of some creatures living specific environment / some creatures do not Related to new species Genetic differentiation – genetic variation among same species Gene pool – the sum of genetic information (alleles) across all individuals in the population HardyWeinberg principle (5.7 & Quantifying Ecology 5.1) No evolutionary change occurs through the process of sexual reproduction itself. Conditions of allele frequencies will not change Random mating No mutations Large population size No immigration Equitable fitness between all genotypes Be able to calculate allelic, genotypic, phenotypic frequencies Directional, Stabilizing, and disruptive selection (5.55.6) Directional selection – value of traits is shifted toward one extreme over another Stabilizing selection – natural selection may favor individuals near the population mean at the expense of the two extremes Disruptive selection – when members of a population are subject to different selection pressures. Allopatric, sympatric Environmental barriers Allopatric(geographic speciation) speciation that occurs when biological populations of the same species become vicariant, or isolated from each other to an extent that prevents or interferes with genetic interchange. result of population dispersal leading to emigration, or by geographical changes such as mountain formation, island formation, or large scale human activities Sympatric speciation the process through which new species evolve from a single ancestral species while inhabiting the same geographic region. Plant performance and temperature (6.11) As the Temp get colder and supplies of essential resources decline, plants respond through a variety of mechanisms that function to both increase access to the limiting resource or enhance the ability of the plants to function under the reduced resource/energy condition. (production of roots/ leaf area/ ability to keep water) Photosynthesis – changing the carbon to useful sources Temperature and Animal/Plant/microbe performance Under extreme Temp Plants Photosynthesis Animal Acclimation: physiological change in response to Temp (Sweat) Balancing heat gain against heat loss (6.8) Shadeadapted plants Lowphotosynthetic, Metabolic, and growth rate. Large and thin leaves Sunadapted plants – High photosunthetic, respiratory. Small, lobed, think leaves Mechanisms of temperature regulation in plants and animals o Poikilothems, ectotherms, endotherms (7.87.10) o Thermal neutral zone (7.10) o Torpor (7.12) Photosynthetic pathways C , C3, 4nd CAM Plants (6.16.3, 610) C3 photosynthesis 위위위위/ 위위 위위위 위위위 위위 release the water C4 Reduce internal Co2 diffusion inward Need fewer stoma open – conserving water CAM Limited to succulent plants in arid and semiarid environment Carbon fixation takes place at night (reduce water loss) Low rates of photosynthesis Extremely high rates of water use efficiency Water potential (6.4) Water potential is the capacity to perform work Pure water Naturally negative Autotrophs – Chemo vs. Photo Nutrient requirements for heterotrophs (7.2) o Herbivore, Detritivore, Carnivore Principal of allocation (10.1, 10.4) Life History Patterns (10.210.8) o Age at maturity, fecundity, parity (semelparity, iteroparity), aging R and K selection (10.13)
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