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Child Psychology Exam 1

by: amber weiss

Child Psychology Exam 1 PSY 335

amber weiss
GPA 3.7

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Hi Guys, I took this class last semester and I did VERY well in the class! I was hoping to share the wealth and give you guys the notes that I took in a condensed form!! There may be some differ...
Child Psychology
Dr. Everett
Study Guide
child psychology
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by amber weiss on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 335 at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville taught by Dr. Everett in Winter 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Child Psychology in Psychlogy at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville.


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Date Created: 01/26/16
Child Psychology Exam 1 I. Development is the change from conception until death - Newborn—birth- 1 month - Infant—1month- 1 year - Toddler—1 year- 2 years - Pre-K—2-6 years - School Age—6-12 years II. Biological Perspective {Nature} - Devlopment according to the biological plan - Subtypes: maturational and ethological theory a. Maturational- Gessel  Specific plan within body 1. Natural unfolding 2. Experience doesn’t matter (IS NOT TRUE) 3. Parents do not interfere This theory was discarded because it was half right… Experience DOES matter b. Ethological- Lorenz - Development from evolutionary perspective - Adapted behavirs are INHERITED (Example: crying, sucking) - Critical Periods- time when SPECIFIC learning can and needs to take place (Example: imprinting) III. Psychodamic Perspective - Development as product of responses to challenges - Subtypes: Freud Psychodynamic Theory and Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory a. Freud Psychodynamic Theory  The importance of early experience (conflict resolution)  3 Personality Componets… 1. Id- “Want” pleasure part, the bad, “Devil” [Sex and Aggresion] 2. Ego- The Median, “the mind”it balances the superego and the id [what society allows] 3. Superego- knows right vs. wrong, the moral person, “angel” [society] This was criticized because freud never formed hypothesis, or studies. He met with the person and took notes but then he formed his idea based on what the person said. b. Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory  Development according to stages, each with a challenge  Psychological and Social Conflicts  Stages related to development a. Basic Trust vs. Mistrust—newborns learn by the response of his/her cries b. Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt—older, do they have a say? Decisions?? If not, they learn shame, low confidence c. Initiative vs. Guilt—what’s next? How they learn to deal with failure. Do they give up or try again? d. Industry vs. Inferiority—ability to work with others, group. If good= industry, if bad= inferior IV. Learning Perspective {Nurture} - Development determined primarily by the environment - Subtypes: classical, operant and social cognitive a. Classical Conditioning Pavlov and the dogs -What’s Next After it happened before (closely together) - See lightning, you cover your ears due to thunder - you know what comes next due to prior experiences (Associations) 1. Uncondtioned Stimulus (U.S) 3. Conditional Stimulus (C.S) 2. Unconditioned Response (U.R) 4. Conditional Respnse (C.R) b. Operant Conditioning BF Skinner - Consequence determine whether the behavior will be repeated - differing consequence: reinforcement or punishment REINFORCEMENT is the consequence that INCREASES the future likelihood of the following behavior Positive Reinforcement—ADDITION of desirable consequence INCREASES behavior Negative Reinforcement—REMOVAL of aversive consequence INCREASES behavior PUNISHMENT is the consequence that DECREASES future likelihood of behavior Positive Punishment—ADDITION of aversive consequence DECREASES behavior Negative Punishment—REMOVAL of desirable consequence DECREASES behavior EXAMPLES: 1) Stick something in the electric socket? Positive Punishment 2) Going to the doctor when you’re sick? Negative Reinforcement 3) Losing phone for having an attitude? Negative Punishment C. Social Cognitive Theory Bandura and Bobo - more complex view of punishment and reinforcement - Learning through observation and imitation -- Social= importance of other’s behavior -- Cognitive= attempt to actively understand V. Cognitive Development Perspective - Things change over time - Piaget Theory—kids thoughts become more complicated with age - Stage theory—higher stages= more complicated VI. Contextual Perspective {Brofenbrenner System Theory} - This theory emphasizes CULTURAL influences on development - Interaction of multiple environmental levels:  Microsystem- IMMEDIATE ENVIRONMENT= family, church, school  Mesosystem- is the interaction between the micro levels= poor grade in school you get introuble at home  Exosystem- SOCIAL SETTINGS= neighbors, media, etc  Macrosystem- OVERARCHING SUBCULTURES AND CULTURES= cultural beliefs, morals, attitudes I. Measurment of Child Behavior o Accurate picture of construct or behavior o Common measurement Approaches -Self-Report -Sampling Behvaior with Tasks -Systematic Observation - Self-Report {talking about one’s self} --Answer to questions of interest --Two types: 1. Questionnaire 2. Interview --Advantages 1. Convenient 2. Allows for direct assessment --Disadvantages 1. Accuracy? Truthful? A third party report is when you answer questions about someone else. - Sampling Behavior with tasks --These are tasks to sample behavior --The experimenter created these tasks --Advantage 1. Convenient --Disadvantages 1. Does task represent the behavior of interest - Systematic Observation {Observation} - The observation consists of 4 parts 1. Variables of Interest 2. Watch/Record 3. Two Distinct forms a. Naturalistic- NATURAL ENVIRONMENT, not being studied, the child is observed in a real-life situation. Ex) Playground b. Structures- is a SET UP situation, created setting to cause behavior Ex) Child in clinic 4. Aggression for example… II. Evaluating Measures o Constructs to consider 1. Is measure reliable? (Are results CONSISTANT) 2. Is measure valid? (Are results CORRECT) 3. Was the representative sample used? (Subgroup sample compared to others? Ex) IQ tests compared to age group) 4. What type of design was used? III. Research Designs o General Designs: 1. Correlation 2. Experimental o Developmental Designs - Correlational Designs --Investigate NATURALLY EXISTING relationships between variables --r=correlation coefficient -Direction of Relationship (Positive or Negative?) If It is positive they move closer together, if they are negative they move opposite -Strength of Relation (From -1 to +1) ABSOLUTE VALUE -Example) Is .9 stronger than -.9? They are the same because absolute value Is .8 stronger than .5? DROP SIGN CORRELATION DOES NOT MEAN CAUSATION: RELATED BUT CANT KNOW CAUSE - Experimental Designs --Systematic manipulation of key factor(s) that may cause behavior --Variables 1. Independent(MANIPULATED) is CONTROLLED/CHANGED (which pill?) 2. Dependents(MEASURED) depends on behavior, (change behavior?) --Environment 1. Clinical (STRUCTURED) 2. Field (NATURALISTIC) --Design 1. Group (Experimental vs. Control 2. Single Case (ALL participants get ALL treatments) EVERY POSSIBLE OUTCOME - Longitudinal or Developmental Designs --Test SAME people at DIFFERENT times --Advantages 1. Addresses change in behavior over time (CAN FOLLOW) --Disadvantages 1. Practice Effects- same test repeated, better/higher scores because they’ve seen it before 2. Attrition- Stop participating 3. Cohort effects- (group) effects the whole group, ENVIRONMENTAL (Ex. Joplin, MO tornado) - Cross-Sectional Designs --Test DIFFERENT age of children at SAME time --Advantages 1. Convenient --Disadvanrages 1. Cohort Effects 2. Not enough information to represent the change in behavior over time - Longitudinal-Sequential Design --Hybrid of both designs --Sequenced samples, studied longitudinal --Advantages 1. Information about continuity 2. Uncover practice and cohort effects --Disadvantage 1. Time Consuming - Examples) 1. Coping Skills with DIFFERENT orphaned children ages 5,10,15? ______CROSS______ 2. Coping skills of orphaned children 5 and 10 for 5years? ____LONG- SEQUEN._______ 3. Cope skills for SAME orphans 5,10,15 for 10 years? ________LONGITUD._____ IV. Research Ethics o 4 Ethical Responsibilities 1. Minimize Task 2. Informed Consent 3. Avoid Deception (Can Lie but must debrief) 4. Anonymity and Confidentiality of results Chapter 2 I. Biology of Heredity a. Chromosomes- tiny structures in nucleus containing genetic material {23 from egg and 23 from sperm} 1. Autosomes- 1 22 pairs 2. Sex Chromosome- 23 pair (Determines the SEX) b. Egg- “X” ALWAYS Sperm- “X” or “Y” XX=Girl XY=Boy c. Each cell contains- chromosomes that carry genes made up of DNA d. Gene- group of nucleotide bases providing biochemical instructions e. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)- carries genetic code of the nucleotides f. Genotype- GENETIC UNSTRUCTION- makes up heredity g. Phenotype- PHYSICAL FEATURES, genetic instruction and environmental influences produce the observable features  Eye color is both observable and genotype II. Single Gene Inheritance a. Alleles- different forms of genes b. They are either: Homozygous or Heterozygous 1. Homozygous- alleles are the same 2. Heterozygous- alleles are different c. These can also be referred as… 1. Dominant- chemical instructions are followed 2. Recessive- chemical instruction ignored III. The children get one alleles a. From Mom- (DOM. Or RECESS.) b. From Dad- (DOM. OR RECESS.) NEED DOMINANT TOO HAVE THE GENE FOR THE SINGLE CELL IV. Behvaior Genetics a. Deals with inheritance of behavioral and psychological traits b. Polygenic Inheritance 1. Phenotypes reflect COMBINED activity of MANY genes 2. Differs from Previous discussion 3. MOST PSYCHOLOGICAL TRAITS ARE POLYGENIC {bell- curve picture} V. Genetic Disorders a. Genetic disruption of development 1. Sickel Cell Disease 2. Cystic Fibrosis 3. Down Syndrome --They are inherited genetic disorders 1. Sickel Cell Disease --Homozygous Recessive (From BOTH PARENTS) --Prevalence- Approx. 1 in 400 African americans --Symptoms- odd shaped red blood cells, stroke, visual problems, pulmonary/cardiac complications and painful episodes 2. Cystic Fibrosis --Homozygous recessive (Recessive alleles from BOTH parents) --Approx. 1 in 25oo whites --Clinical Symptoms- abnormal mucus productivity, clogs… --Causes issues in the respiratory system= lung damage, respitatory infections. -- Digestive System, pancreatic damage, low weight, Difficulty digesting fats and proteins (Release insulin) 3. Down Syndrome --Trisomy 21 -- 47 Chromosomes --Extra 21 chromosome usually provided by the egg --Prevalence increases with mothers age (1 in 1000 late 20s) (1 in 50 in 40s) --Clinical Symptoms… -Common physical features- Almond shaped eyes, protruding tongue -Developmental Delay- intellectual Disability, LOW IQ Does Heredity=Destiny? - Heredity and environment jointly determine development - Reaction Range - Same Genotype may = several phenotypes, in response to development environment - Example) intelligence Chapter 3 I. Prental Development a. process that transforms a fertilized egg into a newborn human b. Average of 38 weeks c. 3 Stages 1. Zygot 2. Embryo 3. Fetus 1. Zygot- first 2 weeks a. fertilized eggs b. from fertilization to implantation c. Rapid cell division (every 12 hours) d. Specialized cells- germ disk; placenta 2. Embryo- 3 week to 8 week th a. zygote embedded in uterine wall b. development of: body structures, internal organs, brain nervous system, sexual differentiation (7 week) c. Umbillical cord- blood vessels joining embryo to placenta  Cephalocaudal Prinicple- GROWTH BEGINS FROM HEAD AND PROGRESSES DOWNWARD  Proxinodistal Principle- INTERNAL ORGANS DEVELOPMENT QUICKER THAN EXTREMITIES  THESE DO THE IMPORTANT PARTS FIRST th 3. Fetus- 9 week-38 weeks a. Final and longest phase b. Increases in size c. Function and finish touches—nervous, respiration, and digestive systems d. AGE OF VIABILITY (22-28 weeks) the closer to 22 weeks the baby has more problems, the closer to 28 weeks the less problems they have. They are more likely they are to survive if later in development. LUNGS II. Prenatal Influences Risk Factor a. Nutrition - Increase caloric intake by 10-20% - Balanced Diet b. Prolonged Chronic Stress - Reduced Oxygen (Fetus) - Weakened immune system (mother) - Poor coping behaviors (mother) c. Mothers age (optimal ages: 20-35) - If younger… FINANCIAL ISSUES (how to pay for good doctors, health care, vitamins) - If older… Down syndrome III. Parental Influences (teratogens) a. agent responsible for abnormal development b. 3 primary classes: 1. Diseases 2. Drugs 3. Environmental hazards 1) Diseases - Affects development in 2 ways - Transmitted via Placenta (Rubella) [ID, <3, eye malformation] - Transmitted during birth thru infected birth canal (Genital Herpes) [Encephalitis (Brain is to large for skull) Anemia (problem blood clotting] 2) Drugs - Several drugs complicate pregnancy including… - Nicotine --Reduces oxygen to fetus --Impaired Growth --Cognitive Impairments - Alcohol --Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (#1 cause of MR or ID) --Attentional and behavioral issues (ADHD X5) 3) Environmental Hazards - Many toxins are harmful including… - Lead --Paint in homes before 1970s --Gasoline sold before early 1970s (banned in 96’ Clean Air contact) --Development Complications --MR or ID --Learning Disabilities --Attentional Problems --Kidney Damage MERCURY IS VERY SIMILAR TO LEAD IV. Labor and Delivery (Birth complications) a. Hypoxia- infant receives inadequate oxygen supply b. Premature- born before 38weeks MAY develop slower, USUALLY catch up {TIME} c. Small-For-Date- smaller than expected, OFTEN develop slower, OFTEN DO NOT catch up, Role of drugs and poor nutrition. {SIZE} V. Newborn Assessment a. APGAR scale (scores 2.1 or 0) b. Accesses vital life processes 1 and 5mins after birth c. Normal= 7-10 - Activity—(Moves Limbs Actively) - Pulse—(100+ BPM) - Grimace (cries intensely) - Appearance (normal color all over) - Respiration (Strong breathing and crying) VI. Newborn States a. Newborn spend days alternating between… -Alert inactivity (Eyes open, calm, attentive) -Waking activity (Eyes open, unfocused, burst motor activity) -Crying (2-3 hours daily; 3 different forms) - Sleeping (16-18 hours daily, occurring during 4 hour cycles) VII. Newborn States (crying) a. first attemot at communication b. 3 forms… - Basic Cry --starts off soft, becomes intense -- Hugnry or tired - Mad Cry --More intense basic cry - Pain cry -- Sudden long burst followed by long pauses and gasping VII. Newborn States (sleeping) a. repeated 4 hour cycles until approx.. 3 or 4months b. sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) -1-3 per 1000 american infants -Common between 2-4 months - Risk factors --Premature or low birth weight --Second hand smoke -- Sleeps faced down --Winter Season RECOMMENDED SLEEPING POSITION BACK, BLANKET ½ CHEST TUCKED UNDER MATRESS BACK-TO-SLEEP CAMPAIGN (POSITIONS NAME)


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