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Child Psychology Study Guide exam 2

by: amber weiss

Child Psychology Study Guide exam 2 PSY 335

Marketplace > Southern Illinois University Edwardsville > Psychlogy > PSY 335 > Child Psychology Study Guide exam 2
amber weiss
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Hi Guys, I took this class last semester and I did VERY well in the class! I was hoping to share the wealth and give you guys the notes that I took in a condensed form!! There may be some differ...
Child Psychology
Dr. Everett
Study Guide
child psychology
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by amber weiss on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 335 at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville taught by Dr. Everett in Winter 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Child Psychology in Psychlogy at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville.


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Date Created: 01/26/16
I. Growth and Health  Height and weight are not the whole story - From birth to 20 (avg height and weight increase) - Growth is not steady  Rapid during first year  Steady thru elementary  Rapid during adolescence  Differing rates of body part development - Avg weight profiles vary  Within cultures  Between cultures  Across time (secular growth trends) {taller now then used to be}  Changes in physical development across generations {nutrition and health care is why taller now}  Primary influences on physical growth - Heredity - Sleep (babies sleep all the time because growing) - Nutrition  Sleep - Directly affects development  Essential for normal growth  Pituitary gland secretes growth hormone  ROUTINE IS KEY… - Indirectly affects development  Affects cognitive processes  And school performance  Example… (Cram for a test, stay up all night… you crash after test and feel like failed test)  Sleep and Routine - Consistent bedtime routine  Change diaper  Read a book, sing song  Put blanket on  SAY _______ for bed!!!  LEAVE  This teaches them THEY ARE RESPONSIBLE NOT YOU - Consistent sleep schedule…  Wake up 730am  1hr nap 10am  1hr nap 2pm  Go to bed 8pm  Feed around 5am, back to sleep  Nutrition (fuel for growth) - Caloric needs change over time  Infants (@50 calories per pound)  Pre-school (@40 Cal per pound)  Adults (15-20 per pound)  Balanced diet----- limit fat intake - What about breast feeding? - Advantage:  Better disease protection  Less constipation  Money  Easier transition to solids  Healthier - Disadvantage:  Difficulty beginning  Scheduling  Avoid subsances like alcohol  Malnutrition (Challenges) - Small for age – approx.. 1 in 3 worldwide rd - Not confilled to 3 world countries - Particularly damaging during infancy - Linked with- decrease intelligence, difficulty sustaining attention - Cycle of lethargy- when learn to adapt to eating fewer calories (must not move/exercise)  Obsesity - Based on Body Mass Index (BMI) - Adjusted ratio of height and weight - Influences nature and nurture  Basal metabolic rate  Activity level  Media influences  External eating cues (parents) [example in book… DO NOT ENCOURAGE TO FINISH PLATE!  HYPOTHALAMUS TELLS WHEN FULL OR HUIVE - Related Difficulties  Health related (type 2 diabetes)  Social (lack of friends)  Psychological (depression) - Features of effective treatment  Goals include behavior change  Self-monitor… children monitor individual progress [rewards]  Parent training  Eating disorders - Anorexia nervosa  Persistent refusal to eat  Irrational fear of becoming fat  15% or more underweight  approx. 1% of female adolscents - Sample Behaviors  Food behaviors  Compulsive exercise - Bulimia Nervosa  Alternate between binge eat and purge  Purge due to fear of gain weight  May have normal weight  Approx.. 4% college women - Sample behaviors  May gorge in secret  High caloric foods - Disease  Annually 11million children below 4 die… 1. Pneumonia 2. Diarrhea 3. Measles 4. Malaria  Prevention is key… 1. Vaccinations 2. Necessary care 3. Ex) Malaria get mosquito net - Accidents  MOST COMMON CAUSE OF DEATH FOR KIDS 1YR+ IN US 1. Car accident 2. Drowning 3. Burns 4. Suffocation ALL ARE INADEQUATE PARENT SUPERVISION II. Mature at Birth (born knowing how too do actions)  Smell - Respond accordingly…  Touch - Tactile stimulation - Temperature change - Pain  Taste - Can differentiate between… Salty, Sour, Sweet and Bitter III. Senses: Hearing  Develops over time - Fetus hears at 7-8 months - Infants  4 ½ months recognize names  7 months: used sound to locate objects  Hear sounds with pitch in range of human speech  Auditory threshold is the QUIETEST sound a person can HEAR  Childhood deafness - 2 main forms  Conductive- problem with transmission of sound OUTER to INNER ear  Sensory-neural- problem with auditory nerve or inner year - Causes  Prenatal—genetics, health during pregnancy  Postnatal—prematurity, hypoxia, infection IV. Senses: Vision  Vision develops over time - At birth… Respond to light, follow moving objects  Visual development includes… - Visual acuity - depth perception - Color vision - Facial perception  Visual Acuity- smallest pattern distinguished dependably - Testing involves…  Patterns  Lines of differing width {3 striped Pics in slide} - Results indicate…  Newborns see at 20ft with adults 200-400ft  1year olds=adults visual acuity  Color Vision/Perception - Based on wavelength of light - Needed to see color  Light  Detector  Something to view - Detected via cones… (specialized neurons in retina) - Research indicates…  Newborn perceive few colors  3-4months FULL range  Depth Perception - Are objects near or far? - Depth- related cues  Retinal disparity [hand-eye experiment] --Eyes often see differing version or same scene -- > different with objects are near Right eye= left occipital brain Left eye= right [with this experiment.. hand looks like its moving] - Linear perspective  Space between lines (picture) > distance = closer, < distance = further - Visual Cliff (used to measure depth perception)  Glass platform with pattern appearing either directly under or several feet below glass, put baby on platform  Results indicate… --Shallow side=baby crawl across --Deep Side= babies refuse to crawl (DO HAVE DP)  Facial perception - Differing patterns of eye fixations  Babies are looking @ light and face looks like (1month)  Eyes, features, fixations (3months)  Kids with autism do NOT look into eyes (common)  Motor development - Gross motor skills  Movements involving large muscle groups or whole body movement  Ex) walking (PHYSICAL THERAPISTS) - Fine motor skills  Small muscle movements, hands, finger, lips, tongue  Ex) reaching/grasping (OCCUPATIONAL THERAPISTS)  Walking… - what does it take too walk?  Posture/balance  Stepping  PERCEPTUAL FACTORS—what you learned to walk on, floor vs. bed  Skill coordination --Differentiation- component skill mastery (crawl/stand 1 )st --Integration- proper sequencing of component skills into working whole  Reaching and grasping - Differing degrees of fine motor control - Develops over time  4months- successful reaching, grasp with fingers  5-6 months- coordinated movement of both hands  7-8months- use of thumb to grasp (shaping- close approx.. to what want/hard part) V. ADHD  Attentional Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder - ADHD is a neurobehavioral condition involving developmentally inappropriate problems with HYPERACTIVITY/IMPULSIVITY AND INATTENTION - A disorder involving failure of brain circuitry that monitors response of inhibition and self-control (frontal lobe) - ADHD is not a disorder of selective attention  Prevalence - ADHD affects…  3-5% of school-aged population  Children have 7.5% chance of being diagnosed during school years  Most common childhood psychiatric disorder  Boys=4-9xs more likely to be diagnosed  ADHD behavior and Subtypes - 2 classes of behavior  Hyperactivity and Impulsivity= motor excess, hurried responding and acting before thinking  Inattention= quick moving from 1 task to another - 3 diagnostic subtypes  ADHD Prodominance- HYPERACTIVE-IMPULSIVITY TYPE (more common)  ADHD Predominance- INATTENTIVE type (least common, mainly girls) [ADD if it was a thing…]  ADHD Combined Type… MOST COMMON  DSM 5 sample behaviors - Hyperactivity  Fidgets in seat or leaves seat  Runs around or climbs excessively  Difficulty playing quietly  Talks excessively - Impulsivity  Blurts out answers  Difficulty taking turns  Interrupts others - Inattention  Careless mistakes  Fails to listen when spoken too  Often looses things  Does NOT follow directions  ADHD assessment: diagnosis - According to dsm5 criteria; symptoms must…  Be more severe than children at same development stage (6outof9 (1))  Be present before age of 12 (6outof9 checklist (2))  Occur in multiple settings (home AND school) (12outof18 (3))  Have a negative impact on academic or social life  Be present at least 6months prior to evaluation  Not have a part in other disorder  Procedures: Assessment - A comprehensive assessment includes differing data from multiple scores  Interviews (parents child teacher)  Rating scales (parents child teacher)  Behavior observation (multiple examples/ differing settings)  Treatments: Pharmacological - pharmacological=medicine - Why are stimulants commonly prescribed? (Ritalin, Adderall, concerta) - Also, non stimulant (Stratena) - Titration means find the right pill/doses - Why do we use simulants? To turn on the part of brain that is off/slow - Some stimulant side effects:  Appetite loss Muscle Twitches  Insomnia Nervousness  Stomach ache Irreg. Heart Beat  Headaches Abnormal Liver function  Treatment: Behavioral - Multi-system behavioral treatment  Effective instruction practices Home school notes  Token economy Social-Skills Training  Parent training  MTA study - Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD  National institutes of Mental Health  Almost 600 children ages 7-9 with ADHD  Assigned 1 of 4 treatment modes 1. Medicine alone 2. Psychosocial/behavioral treatment alone 3. Combination 4. Routine community care - MTA results  All 4 groups showed improvement  Combination and medication alone are significantly superior --Long-term improvement (14months)  Combination superior --Oppositionality --Parent-child relations --Social Skills  MTA criticisms --DID NOT 1. Use control groups (non-treatment) 2. Employ double blind medication procedure 3. No placebo 4. Behavioral treatments were discontinued prior to medication VI. Theories of Cognitive Development  According to Piaget - Children test and revise naive theories - Stage theory of development - Higher stages=more sophisticated  Schemes - Psychological structures used to organize experience and understand the world  More complicated as development progresses  Based on actions, function, abstractions  Ex) pic of truck… the bed tells us it’s a truck  Assimilation - Incorporating new experience into existing schemes  Accommodation - Modifying/change schemes based on experience  Equilibration - A complete reorganization of schemes to return to balance - Occurs 3 times; delineate development stages - Ex) pic of truck with a car, they say it’s a truck its assimilation. If someone tells them they’re wrong then it is accommodation  Sensorimotor Stage - Ages 0-2 years old - From simple reflexes to symbolic processing - Development characteristics  Circular reactions: attempt to repeat chanced events caused by own motor activity (try to repeat accident) a. Primary- involve infants own BODY ex)thumb sucking b. Secondary- involves ENVIRONMENT ex) squeeze a duck c. Tertiary- involve repeating old scheme with variation (causes new outcomes) ex)drop ball from different heights  Object permanence: understanding that objects exist independently of personal actions or experience  Use of symbols EQUILIBRATION  Preoperational stage - Ages 2-7 - Symbolic representation of objects and events - Development characteristics  Egocentrism= physical viewpoint a. Diff. seeing world from others viewpoint b. Failure to comprehend other’s ideas, feelings views c. Ex) girl, volcano, doll—if doesn’t have ability sees the volcano and not house  Centration (consecration) a. Concentration on 1 aspect of problem while ignoring other relevant aspects b. “centered thinking” c. Best exemplified through conservation problems  Appearance=reality (chucky cheese example) EQUILIBRATION  Concrete Operational Stage - Ages 7-11 - Use of mental operations to solve problems and reasons - Display…  Math transformations  Understand of conservation (via reversal) EQUILIBRATION  Formal operational stage - Age 11- adulthood - Application of mental operations to abstract problems - Hypothetical and deductive reasoning (if-then)  Theory evaluation - Overall influential, but research suggests… (development is more continuous) - Children express mental abilities earlier (training in differing concepts) - Formal logic is smaller part of cognition (people don’t always use highest level thinking)  We think emotionally - Beyond Piaget… - Vygotsky’s social cultural perspective - Child as apprentice - Zone of proximal development: difference in anility with or without assistance - Scaffolding: teaching that matches amount of needed assistance - Ex) life guard- teach swim; teacher-writing; bike-training wheels VII. Intelligence and Individual Difference in Cognition  Definitional issues - Varied definitions, but most highlight…  Ability to adapt to environment  Ability to learn  Ability to perform abstract thinking - Differing definition = differing issues - Major aspects of intelligence (snow 1989)  Knowledge-based thinking: organized prior knowledge into purposeful thinking… Ex) organize previous knowledge about child cartoons  Apprehension: monitor and reflect on past, present, and future experience and knowledge… Ex) recognition of lack of recent experience with child cartoons  Adaptive purposeful/striving: shift performance strategies to emphasize strengths over weaknesses Ex) not good at article part but good at tv, so focus mainly on tv portion  Fluid analytic reasoning: reasoning enables problems to be abstracted and connected Ex) reading articles to connect with the cartoon  Mental playfulness: tolerance of ambiguity and pursuit of novelty Ex) although relationship isn’t stated, attempts to identify one  Idiosyncratic learning: shifting learning strategy within the same task Ex) although could not connect one particular message, try again  Psychometric Theories - Emphasize…  General factor for performance of mental tasks {Spearman} [Venn Diagram with the G factor]  Multiple factors each with = weight {Thurstone} [f1+f2+f3+f4…=intelligence] - Current views suggest…  Combined G and specific components {Caroll} there is a g factor but there are specific factors for that test  Gardener’s Multiple Intelligence (Harvard professor) - Distinct intelligences that all possess to varying degrees  Most common dvlp each to an adequate level  Unique cognitive profile - Encompasses a wide array of human abilities - Studied through…  Dvlpm progression and “end states”  Isolation by brain damage  Existence of exceptional individuals He adds them up to determine intelligence  Sternburg’s Triarchic theory (environmental related) - Triarchic theory: intelligence as processes not content  Contextual sub theory: relevance of tasks to goals, goals match/ don’t match Ex) intelligent behavior actions at a library vs. baseball game  Exponential Sub theory: familiarity with task, good at it=easier, Ex) quick master of skill= new academic skill  Componential sub theory: strategies used to complete tasks Ex) understand a conversation Better at tasks= more intelligence  Measurement of intelligence - Emphasizes CONVERGENT THINKING  Using info provided to arrive at correct answer - Important test considiations  Reliability Consistency  Validity Measure what supposed to do - Intelligence quotient (IQ)  Then= ratio mental age to chronological age  Now= test performance compared to same aged peers - Nature vs. Nurture  Nature- identical twins more similar that fraternal  Nurture- dramatic increase over last 25 years  Intelligence and Special needs - Giftedness  IQ= 2 or more standard dev. Above mean  Then= based simply on iq  Now= iq and other considerations  Creativity - Emphasizes divergent thinking  Mental Retardation or Intellectual disability - Substantially below average intelligence (iq of 70 or less) - Deficits in adaptive functioning  Effectiveness of coping with common life demands and meet standards of person independence - Must be present before 18 - Degrees of severity  Mild (IQ 50/55-70) Severe (IQ 20/25 – 35/40)  Moderate (IQ 35/40 – 50/55) Profound (iq below 20/25) - Etiology {organic, familial, unknown} - Most common  Learning disabilities - Substantial diff between intelligence and academic achievement (1-2 SDs) - May be diagnosed in: reading, math, written expression - Problems with definition…  No law on required difference, can be difficult other places/states. Different regulations VIII. Cognitive Assessment  Purposes - Screening(short version, bad come back and take full version - Problem Solving(reading prevents good job in school) - Diagnostic(diagnose with disorder/condition) - Counseling and Rehab(ability to handle, prevention from drinking, function off of substance - Progress evaluation( how is the ongoing treatment, better or worse) - Assessment must be MULTIMODAL! (more than 1 task and way and test)  Guidelines - Results are approximations - Tests are sample of behavior (particular time and place)[# range high and low] Ex) take psych test in hallway vs. class lower scores - Assessing strengths and weaknesses  Controversies - Culturally biased? - Stigma of labeling children LABEL BAD - Limited utility in classroom (fail math test, get D in Psych) Overlap  Specific example: …. - WISC-IV Weschler Intelligence Scale of Children 4  4 factors: 1. Verbal comprehension a. Verbal knowledge and understanding b. Formal and informal education c. Application of verbal skills new situations 2. Perceptual reasoning a. Interpret/organize usually perceive material b. Generate/tests problem solutions 3. Working memory a. Immediate memory b. Ability to sustain attention and concentrate 4. Processing speed a. Quick process visual perceived nonverbal b. Rapid hand/eye movement  Interpretations - Data are arranged hierarchy  FSIQ components (index scores)  Subtest schemes Discrepancy comparisons - Interpretation of all levels  Called profile analysis  Strength/weakness  Unique ability pattern INTERindividual comparison means BETWEEN people INTRAindividual comparison means within yourself


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