Child Psychology Study Guide exam 3
Child Psychology Study Guide exam 3 PSY 335
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Social Psych 206
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by amber weiss on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 335 at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville taught by Dr. Everett in Winter 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Child Psychology in Psychlogy at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville.
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Date Created: 01/26/16
I. Language and communication Basic Elements of Language Language - System relates sounds and gestures to meaning Elements of spoken language - Phonology- sound - Semantics- word meaning - Grammar- rules of language structure - Pragmatics- use of language to communicate Typical Language Progression Birth- 5 months - Pleasure and displeasure sounds (good vs. bad) COOING 6-11 months - Attempts at repetition - Babbles with intonation (change tone in voice) 8 months 12-17 months - 2-3 words to label person/object - Imitate simple words 18-23 months - Few hundred word VOCABULARY (24months) - Begins combining words From WORDS to sentences Word level of development includes… - Words as symbols (wave hand hi or bye) - Attach meanings to words Naming explosion- rapid learning of new object words Fast Mapping- without considering all possible meanings + Ex) cup, they know it is a cup They work TOGETHER - Development style Referential (noun) + most words for objects, person + “milky” for milk Expressive (verb) + most words for social interactions and questions + Leave - Encouragement - Joint attention- parents, tell them words, pay attention - Word name constraint Rules for learning word names + unfamiliar words apply to unfamiliar objects +names refer to entire object + names refer to object of same type +new name for old object indicates a subcategory (car and mustang) + a word used consistently with 1 category member is PROPER name (lightning McQueen red) - Sentence cues- context clues, cognitive thinking about sentence SPOKEN - Cognitive factors- intellect correlated with ability to learn language, VOCABULARY - Naming errors (huge increase in vocab) Although sometimes correct, commonly wrong + underextension- Too Narrow (ex…. Cars only means dads car) +overextension- Too broad (ex… car= bus, truck, tractor etc) Encouraging Language Development Ways to encourage word learning - Speak frequently - Ask Questions - Name objects - Watch Some TV - Use differing speech (tone) -READING From words to SENTENCES Combining words involves… (18 months) - Syntax- rules for combining words into sentences - Telegraphic speech- words relevant to meaning Some Two Word rules - Agent-Action- short phases (Daddy run) Noun Verb - Possessor- Possession- (My Ball) - Action-Object- (Bouncing Ball) - Attribute-Entity- (Tall Tree) Grammar from rules, not additional words 3 word + sentences (24 months) - Grammatical morphemes (-ing, -ed, -s) - Over regularization ( I runned around) Use of “wh” words (36-42 months) - To gather more information - Who what when where why how How?????????? Behavioral theory - Imitating others speech - Appropriate = reinforced - Inappropriate= punishment Cognitive theory - Cognitive skills detect environmental regularities - Regulation patterns are stored in memory (more=stronger memory) Linguistic theory (better theory) - Function of brain development - Related findings + brain regions and language process + ONLY HUMANS + Critical Period Social Interaction theory - Combination of previous theories (interaction) - Context of social interactions (interaction) + taking-turns (social) + questioning (social) Broca’s Area= speech and language production (front) - Left side of brain= language Wernicke’s Area= speech comprehension (far left) Effective Communication Important for effective communication - Turn taking + aided through- scaffolding- amount of help - relate understandable comments to topic + consider listener and setting (joint attention) - practice effective listening II. emotional development Basic Emotions (comes first) experienced worldwide 3 common elements - Subjective (internal) feeling - Physiological change (heart rate, breathing, etc) - Overt behavior Types - Joy -Fear - Sadness - Surprise - Anger -distress Joy (2months) - Social smiles -Cooing Sadness (2months) - Loss of reinforcement (bottle empty) Anger (4-6 months) - Loss of reinforcement (inability to reach goal) Fear—stranger anxiety (6-9months) - Overt behaviors Look away reach for familiar person Crying Clinging - Ways to minimize Don’t pressure familiar environment Time to warm up Introduce new people gradually Complex Emotions (comes second) Self-conscious emotions - Feelings of success or failure 18-24 months - Understanding of elf Types - Pride - Shame - Guilt -Jealousy - Embarrassment Recognizing and Regulating Emotions Emotional recognition (4-6months) - Distinguish others facial expressions - Emotional imitation - Social Referencing (1year): research for cues from others to help interpret new situation + ex) kid and stove example Emotional regulation (4-6months) - Self-regulation (manage own emotions) Temperament Individual behavioral styles of emotional expression - Relatively stable- older you get (more so after 3 years) - Heredity and environment (nature vs nurture) PREVIOUS emphasis on PATTERNS CURRENT emphasis on DIMENSION Temperament Patterns (thomes and chess) Easy - Regular biological routines (bed, eat, potty train) - New situations – positive approach (accepts frustration with little fuss) Difficult - Irregular biological routines (bed time, ear, etc) - New situations- negative approach (cry, tantrum with frustrations) Slow to warm up - Fairly regular biological routines - New situation- mildly negative response (warm up with repeated exposure) PROBLEM WITH THIS APPROACH IS THE WORD DIFFICULT LABELS=BAD TEMPERAMENT DIMENSION Current emphasis on dimensions - Due to negative effects of labeling Activity level- active, move around, or no Positive affect Negative affect Inhibition- shyness, introvert Persistence- stick with something, give up and try again THESE ARE ADDED TOGETHER AND RATED ATTACHMENT Enduring social-emotional relationships with another - Mom= more direct childcare, reading/talking (emotional) - Dad= more play time (especially physical) - There was a study in 1950s by Harlow based on monkeys. 2 fake monkeys with real babies. One warm and one with a bottle, released the monkeys and they went to the emotional side (FUR WARM) How studied? Strange Situation Procedure Quality of attachment Study of Attachment Strange Situation - Senses of coming and goings of caregiver and stranger - Infant reaction to separation and reunion (6 or 7xs mom leaves and comes back) Quality of Attachment Secure - Leaves may cry - Return calms down - Wants to be with mom, easily forgives Avoidant - Leaves= not upset - Returns= may ignore Resistant - Leaves= upset - Returns= remains upset - Difficult to console, not forgiving, they think moms not coming back Disorganized - Most concerning, (new, least common) - Leaves= confused - Returns= doesn’t seem to understand what happened - Why bad? Disorder, issues at home, it indicates a problem (fundamentally) Secure attachment is most likely when parents are: - Sensitive to needs - Responsive- acts on needs Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) disorganized type DSM 5 criteria - Disturbed development inappropriate social relatedness - Present before AGE 5, why? Attachment is done before 5 Inhibited Type - Failure to initiate and respond to social interactions (disorganized) nobody Disinhibited Type - Indiscriminate social-ability or lack of selectivity in choice attachment figure (everyone) SAMMY Unknown cause, but likely linked with… - Early relationship disruptions - Physical/emotional abuse - Inadequate institutional care - Out-of-home placement - Traumatic loss III. Understanding self and others Self-Concept Attitudes, behaviors and values… … that a person believes … makes him/her unique Provides answers to, “who am I” When? Where? When asked and where—age and/or environment Evidence of origins in Self-Recognition - Self-recognition in mirror - Photos of self vs others - Use of name and personal pronouns - If baby looks into mirror with a sticker on forehead, if doesn’t take it off their own head and reaches for mirror, do NOT have it. Emerges between 18-24 months - THIS IS NECESSARY FOR COMPLEX EMOTIONS… (SELF- RECOGNITION) Pre-School Self-Concept Self-descriptions emphasize… (concrete things) - Physical traits- how look - Preferences- like to do - Possessions- toys, mine - competencies- good at School- Aged Self- Concept Self-descriptions emphasize… (MORE abstract) (different from others) - Emotion -Social Groups - Comparisons with peers Adolescent Self-Concept Self-descriptions emphasize… (ABSTRACT) - Attitudes -Future Orientation - Personality -Particular setting- who they are with (peers) - More peer influences than parents… (religion and political views are parents) Self- ESTEEM A person’s judgement and feelings about his or her WORTH Multiple self-esteems related to different aspects of life… - I am very god at _________ - I am happy with the way that I _________ Measurement of Self-ESTEEM Emphasize agreement/disagreement with specific choices - 4-7years: picture of puppets - 8years: self-perception profile of children (SPPC) Questions about… Scholastic competence Social acceptance (popularity) Athletic competence Behavioral conduct- follow rules Physical Appearance Changes in Self- ESTEEM Associated with development changes - Pre-K increases -Elementary Ends- stabilizes (little drop) - Elementary- Drops - Middle school drops Why? Comparisons with others… someone is usually better and it dawns on you, may not be able to handle it so it drops; can drop more drastic… Pre-K to worthier, used to worthen switch to grigsby, unfamiliar switch again to high school, switch again to SIUE Influences on Self-ESTEEM Parents - Affection - Discipline- too much cannot make own decisions LOW, too little used to easy way out… LOW Peer comparisons - School competencies - Graph example Attributions - Locus of control… External- not in your control, not fault, luck, wrong place wrong time or right place at right time Internal- I have a say, I am responsible for my actions, they affect me, increase self- esteem Culture - Individualistic- helps esteem (pat on back) - Collectivistic- groups achieve - How culture defines doing well Describing others Initial description (7yrs) - Concrete features (appearance, preferences, bx) - Sally has black hair. Transition to (10yrs) - Abstract traits (personality, psychological traits) - Sally is nice to me. Then (teenagers) - Integration of multiple traits - Sally is a nice person who doesn’t like to upset others. Prejudice A NEGATIVE VIEW of others … based on membership …in a specific group Children must first recognize their own group membership… group of boys playing and group of girls playing Development of prejudice (ex.. GENDER) Initially - Recognize own group membership Pre-K (HIGHEST) - Usually HIGHEST due to enhanced view of ones own groups School-Aged (LEAST) - Declines due to heterogeneous view of other groups - Best time to educate about importance of other groups Adolescence… - Increases due to internalization of views and own group preference Discrimination To treat differently based on ______ - Age - Gender - Disability - Racial -religion Emphasizes OVERT BEHAVIOR IV. Moral Understanding and Behavior Self-CONTROL The ability to… … rise above immediate pressure … and not to give into impulse Initial phase of moral behavior Ex) paycheck spend or save? If save- delay gratification Development of Self-CONTROL Age 1: aware of others’ demands (DON’T HIT) Age 2: Internalize control in parents ABSENCE (I remember mom said not, don’t hit) (memory) Age 3: self- regulation (instead of hitting I will do something else… like play with this ball) Influences on Self-CONTROL Increased self-control is associated with…… (NEGATIVE CORRELATION) - Decreased parental strictness (b/c ability to make own decisions) - Decreased emotional temperament (good temper) Teaching Self-CONTROL Teach and provide attention- “praise” info on how to handle Use appropriate rewards- skittles, M&ms, stickers Reduce attraction of tempting stimulus- back of church Concrete way to resist temptation- outside, bathroom - Take a break Long term vs. short term goals- 5min, 8min, 13min -------> Piaget and Moral Reasoning No well-defined ideas (2-4yrs) Moral realism (5-7yrs) - Adults create rules that must be followed - Imminent justice- rule, breaking = punishment “cheat on game with child” Moral relativism (8yrs+) - People create rules to help get along - Rules can be changed Kohlberg and Moral Reasoning Pre-conventional Morality S1: Obedience Orientation - Steal to avoid punishment - Avoid punishment from mother S2: Instrumental Orientation - get moral behavior back - dad will be alive to take care of boy Children(most), Adolescents (many), adults (some) Egocentrism/personal interests (selfish idea) Conventional S3: Interpersonal Norms - Act according to others expectations - What would others think if he’d let the dad die S4: social system morality - Uphold social rules - Children obliged to help parents Adolescents (most), Adults(most) Care for others/uphold rules Post-Conventional [Highest Level of Morality] S5: Social Contact Orientation - Adhere to valid social contracts - Property rights are not benefiting dads welfare S6: Universal ethical principles - Moral principles more important than laws - Saving dads take precedence over all else Adults(some) Moral principles and judgement transcends formal laws Critism of Kohlberg Not everyone reaches post-conventional level Universal application of standards - Collectivist/interdependent societies Emphasis on justice more applicable to men? - Gilligan’s Ethic of Caring (Self-Others, both) Relation to moral action - Does thinking=doing? - Unrealistic dilemmas? Eisenberg and Prosocial Reasoning Choice between self-interest and help others - Hedonistic pursuit of OWN pleasure - Needs-oriented CONCERNED with other’s NEEDS, want to help - Stereotyped, approval/focused doing with society EXPECTS “what would a good person do?” - Emphatic CONSIDER OTHER’S PERSPECTIVE and how OWN ACTIONS WILL MAKE THEM FEEL Prosocial Behavior and Altruism Prosocial behavior - Actions benefit OTHERS - Ex) share money to buy ice cream Altruism (subtype of prosocial) - Prosocial behavior with NO BENEFIT to individual/helper - Ex) give your ice cream away Prosocial Behavior Necessary skills - Perspective taking take another’s view - Empathy feel another’s emotions - Moral reasoning act according to principle Increased prosocial behavior linked with… - Feelings of responsibility for person in need - Feel competent about helping - Good mood - Decreased cost or sacrifice Example… - Mom at a mall, drops all her bags, you’re caring a lot of bags… do you help? You do if you are in a good mood, it was your fault, and decreased sacrifice (your bags) - An accident. Do you stop if it wasn’t your fault? In a bad mood? Etc… follow list Sharing Teaching sharing - Encourage sharing of multiples - Allow SOME control - Keep special items separate - Use PRAISe!!!! - Model appropriate sharing - Ex) Let the child pick toys others can play with, hide his/her favorites, tell him good job or that you’re proud for sharing, etc….
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