FINAL EXAM NOTES FOR CHILD PSYCH
FINAL EXAM NOTES FOR CHILD PSYCH PSY 335
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Social Psych 206
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by amber weiss on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 335 at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville taught by Dr. Everett in Winter 2015. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Child Psychology in Psychlogy at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville.
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Date Created: 01/26/16
FINAL EXAM NOTES I. Gender and development Gender Roles and Stereotypes Roles… - Culturally prescribed behaviors considered appropriate for males and females Stereotypes - Beliefs about how males and females differ in personality, interests and behaviors For Example…. Males and instrumental traits - Independent - Aggressive - Dominant - Competitive Females and expressive traits - Creative -Aware of Others’ - Kind -Gentle Gender Differences (Physical) Boys are… - Bigger/Stronger -Better with gross motor skills (practice?) - More active -More likely to take risks Girls are… - Better with fine motor skills - healthier Gender Differences (Cognitive Process) Boys evidence… - Better spatial/mental rotation (biology and experience) - Better math problem solving - Higher achievement on standardized math tests Girls evidence… - Better verbal abilities (biology and experience) - Better math course grades Gender Differences (personality and social behavior) Boys are… - More PHYSICALLY aggressive Girls are… - More RELATIONALLY aggressive - Better at expressing and interpreting emotions - More persuadable Gender Differences….. Keep in Mind… - Differences represent average scores - Differences are small - Boys and girls are more alike than different Gender Identity The perception of oneself…. As either male or female Influences - Parents* - Teachers - Peers* - Media* Parents and Gender Identity Treating children differently… - Encourage gender-related activities - Speak differently to boys vs. girls - Assign different chores Peers and Gender Identity Peers and play behavior… - Prefer playing with same sex peers (2-3yrs) - Critical of cross-gender play (3yrs) Why???? - Boys’----- play style is aversive to girls - Girls’----- play style does not influence boys Enabling: support others and sustain the interaction Constricting: one tries to emerge as victor Media and Gender Identity Media portray genders differently… - Boys Leadership/professional roles Rational, active, strong - Girls Romantic, marital, or family roles Emotional, passive, weak Theories of Gender Identity Social learning theory - Gender is behavior - Behavior is learned through observation/ imitation - History of reinforcement/punishment Kohlberg (elements of gender understanding) - Gender Labeling (2-3yrs) Understanding of and labeling self as boy or girl - Gender Stability ( preschool) Understand that gender is stable (i.e, boys become men and girls become women) - Gender Consistency(4-7yrs) Maleness and femaleness do NOT change based on situations or wishes - All 3 together= GENDER CONSTANCY Gender schema theory - Learn concepts of male and female culture - Adjust behavior based on concepts - Learn more about gender appropriate, avoid others II. Family Relationships Parenting Dimensions Warmth and responsiveness Amount of control Combine to form… Baumrind’s Parenting Styles Parental Control h i High Low H Authoritative Indulgent-Permissive h t r Authoritarian Indifferent- Uninvolved W l t e Authoritarian Parenting a = HIGH CONTROL + LOW WARMTH P Follow rules without discussion - Don’t consider children’s needs/wishes Value - Hard work - Respect - obedience Potential Consequences - Poor social skills, low self-esteem, high depression Indulgent-Permissive Parenting =LOW CONTROL + HIGH WARMTH Accepting of children’s BX Nontraditional and lenient - Value friendship - Allow self-regulation - Infrequent punishment - Avoid confrontation Potential consequences - Behavior and academic problems Indifferent-Uninvolved Parenting = LOW CONTROL + LOW WARMTH Provide little beyond basic needs Avoid - Spending time with kids - Emotional involvement Potential consequences - Poor attachment and social skills - Increased aggression - Increased drug use Authoritative Parenting = HIGH CONTROL + HIGH WARMTH Monitor and teach clear standards of BX - Explain rules - Encourage discussion - Assertive, but not intrusive Supportive discipline Potential consequences - Best social and academic outcomes What about Grandparents? Grand parenting styles - Formal -Dispensing-family-wisdom - Fun-seeking -Surrogate Parents - Distant Siblings and Birth Order First born - Higher compliance - Higher intelligence scores - More likely to attend college Later born - More popular - More innovative Only children? - Not Spoiled Brats Sibling Rivalry?? Improved sibling relationships - Same sex -Fair parental treatment - Younger sibling approaches adolescence -Parents get along Children of Divorced Parents: Evidence decreased: - Academic achievement -Self-Concept - Bx Conduct -Parent-child interactions And, increased: - Teenage pregnancy - Divorce themselves - depression Why?? Loss of: - Role model - Source of help and support Economic difficulties Parental conflict=distress Child Abuse Approximately 1 million children annually: - 60% neglected - 20% physical abuse - 10% sexual abuse - 10% psychological abuse Consequences of Abuse Poor social relationships Cognitive and academic problems - Lower grades - More likely to be retained BX problems Internalizing problems Increased suicide risk More likely to be abusers Some causes of Abuse Cultural factors - Cultural view of physical punishment - Poverty - Social isolation Parental factors - They were abused - Lack of effective parenting practices - Dysfunctional family relationships Childhood factors - Infants and toddlers - Illness - stepchildren III. Parent Training Keys to Behavior Change Consistency Structure Practice Teach Replacement Behaviors Behavioral Function Why do children display behavior problems? Access positive reinforcement - Social attention - Tangible item(s) - Automatic stimulation Access negative reinforcement - Escape aversive stimuli Differential Attention Bad behaviors and good opposites Remove attention for minor misbehaviors Quick consequences for severe misbehaviors Respond frequently to appropriate bx - Especially uninstructed positives! Immediacy consistency Important Instructional Components secure eye contact close proximity instructions as directives be descriptive 5-second wait period PRAISE COMPLIANCE Time Out Basics Time-out… - Is often misunderstood - Is often misused - Can have differing effects on behavior - Can be complicated to implement Time out Types Non-exclusion time out - Removed from access to reinforcement, but remains in same environment to observe others Exclusion time out - Removed from access to reinforcement and prohibited from observing continuing activities Isolation time out - Total removal from reinforcing environment Time Out Variable Explanation Warning Means of implementation - Instructional - physical Location Duration Release procedures Time Out Specifics During time out - Completely ignore verbal protests - Do Not provide preferred items - Do not Talk to child - Use repeated returns After time out - Restate command that led to time out - Praise or TIME OUT AGAIN Appropriate Behavior Should Be… Given time Recognized Praised Reinforcing to the child - Time-in environment IV. Influences Beyond the Family Types of Play Nonsocial Play (before 1year) - Playing alone or watching others play Parallel Play (around 1 year) - Play alone but interested in what others are doing Simple Social Play (15-18months) - Engage in similar activities, talk/smile at and offer toys to others Cooperative Play (around 2 years) - Play organized around themes with child playing a role Other Play Behaviors Imaginary Friend - DOES NOT indicate social problems - Increased sociability and number of friends Solitary Play - Some forms MAY indicate social problems… Wandering aimlessly Hovering Friends Friendship= voluntary relationship Most have “best friend” by 4-5years Important characteristics for adolescents - Loyalty, trust, intimacy - Defend one another - Don’t deceive or abandon Group Influences Clique - Small group of good friends with similar interests Crowd - Large mixed- sex group known by common label Status is important Both have dominance hierarchy - Leader to whom others defer Physical power and relevant traits Peer Rejection Rejected children=disliked by many classmates Potential consequences - Drop out - Juvenile offenses - Psychopathology - Academic problems - Poor self-esteem Parents are important - Model appropriate problem solving - Use consistent discipline Media Influences Consider… - 2/3 of homes have 3 or more TVs - School aged children watch about 15-25hrs of tv per week - If you live to 75, you will spend about 9yrs watching tv TV and children Message vs. medium The message influences - Attitudes and social behavior Aggression and prosocial functioning - Consumer behavior - Cognition Computers and Children In the home… - Schoolwork - Communication - entertainment In the classroom… - Instructional aids - Behavioral incentive What about Daycare? Keys to effective daycare - Low children to caregiver ratio - Well-trained, experienced staff - Low staff turnover - Opportunities for educational and social stimulation - Effective parent- daycare communication What about Part-time jobs? Part-time employment is sometimes harmful… - Effects on school performance 15+ hrs per week - Mental health and behavioral problems Anxiety, depression, low self-esteem Substance abuse - Use of discretionary income What About Schools? Successful schools… - Emphasize academic excellence - Have a safe climate - Have involved parents - Progress monitor What about teachers? Effective teachers… - Believe students will learn - Pay attention to pacing - Emphasize topic mastery - Teach actively - Value tutoring - Allow student to manage own learning - PRACTICE EFFECTIVE CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT V. Teacher Behavior Effective Classroom Management Potential benefits… - Developmental gains - Achievement gains - Longer-term advantages Less involvement with social services Less involvement with the law - Potential remediation of current concerns Basic considerations… - Emphasize prevention* - Broad in nature - Matched to problem severity - Have social validity Why Emphasize Prevention? Environment influences behavior Teacher behavior matters - Teachers as models… Teaching with to do vs. not to do - Teachers as interventionists… Classroom monitoring Consequence delivery Class Wide Interventions Usually pre-problem POTENTIAL BENEFITS - Easier implementation - Same rules for all POTENTIAL WEAKNESS - Does one size fit all? Individual Interventions Usually post-problem POTENTIAL BENEFITS - Target uncommon bxs - Criteria can be altered POTENTIAL WEAKESSES - Resource requirements? - Perception of fairness Externalizing Behaviors Emphasize disruption - Inattention - Noncompliance - aggression Account for most office referrals - Most common interventions= verbal reprimand/removal Increasingly resistant to change Proactive Interventions: Active Rule Teaching Positively stated rules Frequent rule reminders - Before activity not after infraction Catch rule followers Unobtrusive feedback While teaching, signal redirection Proactive Interventions: Behavioral Momentum Momentum for compliance established through… - Series of high- probability requests - Hierarchies of likely-to-be followed instruction Issue those likely to be followed, praised compliance Issue the target request, praise compliance - Related vs. unrelated to target task What about Negative Procedures? Guidelines for implementation - Stay calm - Respect students - Hierarchy of consequences - Plan ahead - Consistency - Brief interactions - REINFORCE SUCCESS
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