Professional Ethics, Week 3 Notes Part 1
Professional Ethics, Week 3 Notes Part 1 PHI 1120, Professional Ethics
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PHI 1120, Professional Ethics
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Chloe Luyet on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PHI 1120, Professional Ethics at Wayne State University taught by Dr. Ryan Fanselow in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 118 views. For similar materials see Professional Ethics in PHIL-Philosophy at Wayne State University.
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Date Created: 01/26/16
Learning Objectives 1. Gain a better understanding of professional-client relationship 2. Be able to describe and apply the 5 models of the professional- client relationship a. We want models that do three things: i. explains an obscure relationship (illuminating), using relationships that are already familiar to us (i.e. friendships and family) ii. we can use to determine if any given relationship between professional and client is healthy iii. and is plausible (the relationship model should make sense from what we already know about the professional-client relationship) I. MODELS 1. Agency Model professional is an expert acting at the direction of the client client sets the ends and the professional’s job is to find the means (separation of labor) professionals don’t decide what goals to pursue, but do what the clients tell them professionals are the “Mouthpieces” and/or “Hired guns” a. Mouthpiece: speaks on your behalf b. Hired gun: does what is asked, no questions professional doesn’t worry about the “end”/whether it’s moral or not professional looks out for clients needs/wants (the professional is the client’s advocate) PROS keeps the relationship very professional/business-oriented non-confrontational model – every party knows their position in the relationship CONS professional has more knowledge and may know what’s better a. EX/ you want to lose weight, but the doctor doesn’t think that’s a good idea for body-weight statistical reasons/evidence. too narrow of a model…the professional is an expert not only on how to get what the client wants, but also is the expert on whether or not to even do it strong role-differentiated behavior awkward model for accountants (they just read the numbers even if a client doesn’t want to find fraud) 2. Contract Model 2 free and informed persons (professional and client) make an agreement (or contract) both parties aren’t forced and they know the deal professional and client’s job is to carry out the terms of the agreement PROS no surprises – both parties know their responsibilities toward each other in the relationship CONS not a very flexible system b/c one might want to change the contract worry exists about the extent to which “free” and “informed” applies to the client’s side of the relationship a. professional knows much more than the client (informed) b. client has more to lose oftentimes than the professional (free) i. EX/ professional might just lose some money/regular business, but the client’s life could be on the line (emergency room) contract model doesn’t account well for the superiority of the professional (the higher intelligence factor) 3. Friendship Model professional and client are friends, as the name implies they’re involved in a partnership characterized by trust and mutual cooperation they take each other’s interests more seriously than the interests of strangers PROS not a negotiation, like contract model (not adversarial) more flexible (unlike contract model) CONS friends are usually equals, but professional has superior knowledge friendship leads to expectations and professionals should keep clients at some distance personally professionals can be engaged in interests of their clients, but not ALL interests (only interested in the interests of the client that apply to the service provided) professional is getting paid (not a in the relationship as a friend/not for “love”) professionals could go along with something unethical if the relationship was friendship based (look to the “Inner Ring” – belonging to something often makes people act wrongly/unethically) 4. Parent Model professional is like a parent (parent has superior knowledge and experience in relation to a child) thus, professionals take responsibility and authority in decision-making CONS client’s freedom is take away client’s autonomy is jeopardized a. autonomy has two factors: i. we have the capacity to make decisions for ourselves ii. we should respect each person’s autonomy relies solely on trust gives the professional the opportunity to take advantage of the child/client BUT this particular model (keep in mind) assumes that the professional is acting in what he/she thinks is in the best interests of the client what the professional THINKS is best for the client is just his/her opinion a. EX/ say a client is told he/she can live a long life w/ some neuro procedure, but it’ll cost his/her left arm. the only thing this person wants is to be a gr8 golfer; therefore, to the client, it’d be better to live a shorter life playing golf than a long one without playing 5. Fiduciary Model takes the advantages of all of them and puts it together HOW IT WORKS: a. professional figures out what to do and suggests course of action to client b. professional gives the client the necessary information to make an informed decision c. ultimately, it is the client that has the final say (giving consent or refusing) professional decides; client consents division of labor again respects autonomy of client difference b/w fiduciary and client model: clients have a “veto-power” of sorts to the professional’s decisions CONS cases when the client is incapable of making a decision (i.e. mentally incompetent clients require the use of the parent model) guardians are the exception
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